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Advanced text formatting

这篇翻译不完整。请帮忙从英语翻译这篇文章

在HTML中有许多其他元素用于格式化文本,这是我们在HTML文本基本面文章中得不到的。在这篇文章中所描述的元素是不知名的,但仍然有用的了解(这是不以任何手段。一个完整的清单)在这里你将了解标记引文,描述列表,计算机代码和其他相关文本,下标和上标,联系信息,和更多。

预备知识: 熟悉基础的HTML, 包括 Getting started with HTML. HTML文本格式, 覆盖 HTML text fundamentals.
目标: 学习如何使用不太知名的HTML元素来标记高级语义特征。

描述列表(Description lists)

在 HTML 基础部分, 我们讨论了如何在 HTML 中标记基本的列表,但是我们没有提到你偶尔会遇到的第三种类型的列表— 描述列表。 这些列表的目的是标记一组项目及其相关描述,例如术语和定义, 问题和答案等。让我们看一组术语和定义的示例:

soliloquy
In drama, where a character speaks to themselves, representing their inner thoughts or feelings and in the process relaying them to the audience (but not to other characters.)
monologue
In drama, where a character speaks their thoughts out loud to share them with the audience and any other characters present.
aside
In drama, where a character shares a comment only with the audience for humorous or dramatic effect. This is usually a feeling, thought or piece of additional background information

描述列表使用与其他列表类型不同的闭合标签— <dl>; 此外,每一项都用  <dt> (description term)  元素闭合。每个描述都用 <dd> (description description) 元素闭合。让我们来完成下面的标记例子:

<dl>
  <dt>soliloquy</dt>
  <dd>In drama, where a character speaks to themselves, representing their inner thoughts or feelings and in the process relaying them to the audience (but not to other characters.)</dd>
  <dt>monologue</dt>
  <dd>In drama, where a character speaks their thoughts out loud to share them with the audience and any other characters present.</dd>
  <dt>aside</dt>
  <dd>In drama, where a character shares a comment only with the audience for humorous or dramatic effect. This is usually a feeling, thought or piece of additional background information.</dd>
</dl>

 浏览器的默认样式会将描述列表的描述部分(description description)渲染成和描述术语(description terms)之间有一些缩进。MDN也将非常严格地遵循这一惯例,同时也鼓励关于术语的其他更多的定义(but also embolden the terms for extra definition)。

soliloquy
In drama, where a character speaks to themselves, representing their inner thoughts or feelings and in the process relaying them to the audience (but not to other characters.)
monologue
In drama, where a character speaks their thoughts out loud to share them with the audience and any other characters present.
aside
In drama, where a character shares a comment only with the audience for humorous or dramatic effect. This is usually a feeling, thought or piece of addtional background information.

请注意:单个术语(single term )可以同时有多个描述(multiple descriptions),比如说:

aside
In drama, where a character shares a comment only with the audience for humorous or dramatic effect. This is usually a feeling, thought or piece of additional background information.
In writing, a section of content that is related to the current topic, but doesn't fit directly into the main flow of content so is presented nearby (often in a box off to the side.)

主动学习: 标记一组定义(definitions)

现在是时候尝试一下描述列表了; 在输入区域的原始文本里添加相应的元素,使得它在输出区域是以描述列表的形式出现。如果你喜欢,你也可以使用你自己的术语(description terms)和描述(description description)。

如果在这其中犯了错误,你可以使用复位(Reset button)按钮恢复,如果你实在不知道怎么做,你可以按下显示解决方案按钮(Show solution button)看答案。

引用(Quotations)

HTML也有用于标记引用的特性;,至于使用哪个元素标记,取决于你引用的是一块还是一行。

Blockquotes

If a section of block level content (be it a paragraph, multiple paragraphs, a list, etc.) is quoted from somewhere else, you should wrap it inside a <blockquote> element to signify this, and include a URL pointing to the source of the quote inside a cite attribute. For example, the following markup is taken from the MDN <blockquote> element page:

<p>The <strong>HTML <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;</code> Element</strong> (or <em>HTML Block
Quotation Element</em>) indicates that the enclosed text is an extended quotation.</p>

To turn this into a block quote, we would just do this:

<blockquote cite="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/blockquote">
  <p>The <strong>HTML <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;</code> Element</strong> (or <em>HTML Block
  Quotation Element</em>) indicates that the enclosed text is an extended quotation.</p>
</blockquote>

Browser default styling will render this as an indented paragraph, as an indicator that it is a quote; MDN does this, but also adds some extra styling:

The HTML <blockquote> Element (or HTML Block Quotation Element) indicates that the enclosed text is an extended quotation.

Inline quotations

Inline quotations work in exactly the same way, except that they use the <q> element. For example, the below bit of markup contains a quotation from the MDN <q> page:

<p>The quote element — <code>&lt;q&gt;</code> — is <q cite="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/q">intended
for short quotations that don't require paragraph breaks.</q></p>

Browser default styling will render this as normal text put in quotes to indicate a quotation, like so:

The quote element — <q> — is intended for short quotations that don't require paragraph breaks.

Citations

The content of the cite attribute sounds useful, but unfortunately browsers, screenreaders, etc. don't really do much with it. There is no way to get the browser to display the contents of cite, without writing your own solution using JavaScript or CSS. If you want to make the source of the quotation available on the page, a better way to mark it up is put the <cite> element next to the quote element. This is really meant to contain the name of the quote source — i.e. the name of the book, or name of the person that said the quote — but there is no reason why you couldn't link the text inside <cite> to the quote source in some way:

<p>According to the <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/blockquote">
<cite>MDN blockquote page</cite></a>:
</p>

<blockquote cite="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/blockquote">
  <p>The <strong>HTML <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;</code> Element</strong> (or <em>HTML Block
  Quotation Element</em>) indicates that the enclosed text is an extended quotation.</p>
</blockquote>

<p>The quote element — <code>&lt;q&gt;</code> — is <q cite="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/q">intended
for short quotations that don't require paragraph breaks.</q> -- <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element/q">
<cite>MDN q page</cite></a>.</p>

Citations are styled in italic font by default. You can see this code at work in our quotations.html example.

Active learning: Who said that?

Time for another active learning example! In this example we'd like you to:

  1. Turn the middle paragraph into a blockquote, which includes a cite attribute.
  2. Turn part of the third paragraph into an inline quote, which includes a cite attribute.
  3. Include a <cite> element for each quote

Search online to find appropriate quote sources.

If you make a mistake, you can always reset it using the Reset button. If you get really stuck, press the Show solution button to see the answer.

Abbreviations

Another fairly common element you'll meet when looking around the Web is <abbr> — this is used to wrap around an abbreviation or acronym, and provide a full expansion of the term (included inside a title attribute.) Let's look at a couple of examples:

<p>We use <abbr title="Hypertext Markup Language">HTML</abbr> to structure our web documents.</p>

<p>I think <abbr title="Reverend">Rev.</abbr> Green did it in the kitchen with the chainsaw.</p>

These will come out looking something like this (the expansion will appear in a tooltip when the term is hovered over):

We use HTML to structure our web documents.

I think Rev. Green did it in the kitchen with the chainsaw.

Note: There is another element, <acronym>, which basically does the same thing as <abbr>, and was intended specifically for acronyms rather than abbreviations. This however has fallen into disuse — it wasn't supported as well in browsers as well as <abbr>, and has such as similar function that it was felt pointless to have both. Just use <abbr> instead.

Active learning: marking up an abbreviation

For this simple active learning assignment, we'd like you to simply mark up an abbreviation. You can use our sample below, or replace it with one of your own. 

Marking up contact details

HTML has an element for marking up contact details — <address>. This simply wraps around your contact details, for example:

<address>
  <p>Chris Mills, Manchester, The Grim North, UK</p>
</address>

One thing to remember however is that the <address> element is meant for marking up the contact details of the person who wrote the HTML document, not any address. So the above would only be ok if Chris had written the document the markup appears on. Note that something like this would also be ok:

<address>
  <p>Page written by <a href="../authors/chris-mills/">Chris Mills</a>.</p>
</address>

Superscript and subscript

You will occasionally need to use superscript and subscript when marking up items like dates, chemical formulae, and mathematical equations so they have the correct meaning. The <sup> and <sub> elements handle this job. For example:

<p>My birthday is on the 25<sup>th</sup> of May 2001.</p>
<p>Caffeine's chemical formula is C<sub>8</sub>H<sub>10</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>2</sub>.</p>
<p>If x<sup>2</sup> is 9, x must equal 3 or -3.</p>

The output of this code looks like so:

My birthday is on the 25th of May 2001.

Caffeine's chemical formula is C8H10N4O2.

If x2 is 9, x must equal 3 or -3.

Representing computer code

There are a number of elements available for marking up computer code using HTML:

  • <code>: For marking up generic pieces of computer code.
  • <pre>: For marking up blocks of fixed width text, in which the whitespace is retained (generally code blocks.)
  • <var>: For specifically marking up variable names.
  • <kbd>: For marking up keyboard (and other types of) input entered into the computer.
  • <samp>: For marking up the output of a computer program.

Let's look at a few examples. You should try having a play with these (try grabbing a copy of our other-semantics.html sample file):

<pre><code>var para = document.querySelector('p');

para.onclick = function() {
  alert('Owww, stop poking me!');
}</code></pre>

<p>You shouldn't use presentational elements like <code>&lt;font&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;center&gt;</code>.</p>

<p>In the above JavaScript example, <var>para</var> represents a paragraph element.</p>


<p>Select all the text with <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>/<kbd>Cmd</kbd> + <kbd>A</kbd>.</p>

<pre>$ <kbd>ping mozilla.org</kbd>
<samp>PING mozilla.org (63.245.215.20): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 63.245.215.20: icmp_seq=0 ttl=40 time=158.233 ms</samp></pre>

The above code will look like so:

Marking up times and dates

HTML also provides the <time> element for marking up times and dates in a machine-readable format. For example:

<time datetime="2016-01-20">20 January 2016</time>

Why is this useful? Well, there are many different ways that humans write down dates. The above date could be written as:

  • 20 January 2016
  • 20th January 2016
  • Jan 20 2016
  • 20/06/16
  • 06/20/16
  • The 20th of next month
  • 20e Janvier 2016
  • 2016年1月20日
  • And so on

But these different forms cannot be easily recognised by the computers — what if you wanted to automatically grab the dates of all events in a page and insert them into a calendar? The <time> element allows you to attach a unambiguous, machine-readable time/date for this purpose.

The basic example above just provides a simple machine readable date, but there are many other options that are possible, for example:

<!-- Standard simple date -->
<time datetime="2016-01-20">20 January 2016</time>
<!-- Just year and month -->
<time datetime="2016-01">January 2016</time>
<!-- Just month and day -->
<time datetime="01-20">20 January</time>
<!-- Just time, hours and minutes -->
<time datetime="19:30">19:30</time>
<!-- You can do seconds and milliseconds too! -->
<time datetime="19:30:01.856">19:30:01.856</time>
<!-- Date and time -->
<time datetime="2016-01-20T19:30">7.30pm, 20 January 2016</time>
<!-- Date and time with timezone offset-->
<time datetime="2016-01-20T19:30+01:00">7.30pm, 20 January 2016 is 8.30pm in France</time>
<!-- Calling out a specific week number-->
<time datetime="2016-W04">The fourth week of 2016</time>

Summary

That marks the end of our study of HTML text semantics. Bear in mind that what you have seen during this course is not an exhaustive list of HTML text elements — we wanted to try to cover the essentials, and some of the more common ones you will see in the wild, or at least might find interesting. To find way more HTML elements, you can take a look at our HTML element reference (the Inline text semantics section would be a great place to start.) In the next article we will look at the HTML elements you'd use to structure the different parts of an HTML document.

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