Promise.all(iterable) 方法返回一个 Promise 实例,此实例在 iterable 参数内所有的 promise 都“完成(resolved)”或参数中不包含 promise 时回调完成(resolve);如果参数中  promise 有一个失败(rejected),此实例回调失败(reject),失败原因的是第一个失败 promise 的结果。

语法

Promise.all(iterable);

参数

iterable
一个可迭代对象,如 Array 或 String

返回值

  • 如果传入的参数是一个空的可迭代对象,则返回一个已完成(already resolved)状态的 Promise
  • 如果传入的参数不包含任何 promise,则返回一个异步完成(asynchronously resolved) Promise。注意:Google Chrome 58 在这种情况下返回一个已完成(already resolved)状态的 Promise
  • 其它情况下返回一个处理中(pending)Promise。这个返回的 promise 之后会在所有的 promise 都完成或有一个 promise 失败时异步地变为完成或失败。 见下方关于“Promise.all 的异步或同步”示例。返回值将会按照参数内的 promise 顺序排列,而不是由调用 promise 的完成顺序决定。

说明

此方法在集合多个 promise 的返回结果时很有用。

完成(Fulfillment):
如果传入的可迭代对象为空,Promise.all 会同步地返回一个已完成(resolved)状态的promise
如果所有传入的 promise 都变为完成状态,或者传入的可迭代对象内没有 promisePromise.all 返回的 promise 异步地变为完成。
在任何情况下,Promise.all 返回的 promise 的完成状态的结果都是一个数组,它包含所有的传入迭代参数对象的值(也包括非 promise 值)。

失败/拒绝(Rejection):
如果传入的 promise 中有一个失败(rejected),Promise.all 异步地将失败的那个结果给失败状态的回调函数,而不管其它 promise 是否完成。

示例

Promise.all 的使用

Promise.all 等待所有都完成(或第一个失败)。

var p1 = Promise.resolve(3);
var p2 = 1337;
var p3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'foo');
}); 

Promise.all([p1, p2, p3]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values); // [3, 1337, "foo"] 
});

如果参数中包含非 promise 值,这些值将被忽略,但仍然会被放在返回数组中(如果 promise 完成的话):

// this will be counted as if the iterable passed is empty, so it gets fulfilled
var p = Promise.all([1,2,3]);
// this will be counted as if the iterable passed contains only the resolved promise with value "444", so it gets fulfilled
var p2 = Promise.all([1,2,3, Promise.resolve(444)]);
// this will be counted as if the iterable passed contains only the rejected promise with value "555", so it gets rejected
var p3 = Promise.all([1,2,3, Promise.reject(555)]);

// using setTimeout we can execute code after the stack is empty
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log(p);
    console.log(p2);
    console.log(p3);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[3] }
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[4] }
// Promise { <state>: "rejected", <reason>: 555 }

Promise.all 的异步和同步

下面的例子中演示了 Promise.all 的异步性(如果传入的可迭代对象是空的,就是同步):

// we are passing as argument an array of promises that are already resolved,
// to trigger Promise.all as soon as possible
var resolvedPromisesArray = [Promise.resolve(33), Promise.resolve(44)];

var p = Promise.all(resolvedPromisesArray);
// immediately logging the value of p
console.log(p);

// using setTimeout we can execute code after the stack is empty
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p);
});

// logs, in order:
// Promise { <state>: "pending" } 
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[2] }

如果 Promise.all 失败,也是一样的:

var mixedPromisesArray = [Promise.resolve(33), Promise.reject(44)];
var p = Promise.all(mixedPromisesArray);
console.log(p);
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "pending" } 
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "rejected", <reason>: 44 }

但是,Promise.all 当且仅当传入的可迭代对象为空时为同步:

var p = Promise.all([]); // will be immediately resolved
var p2 = Promise.all([1337, "hi"]); // non-promise values will be ignored, but the evaluation will be done asynchronously
console.log(p);
console.log(p2)
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p2);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[0] }
// Promise { <state>: "pending" }
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[2] }

Promise.all 的快速返回失败行为

Promise.all 在任意一个传入的 promise 失败时返回失败。例如,如果你传入的 promise中,有四个 promise 在一定的时间之后调用成功函数,有一个立即调用失败函数,那么 Promise.all 将立即变为失败。

var p1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => { 
  setTimeout(resolve, 1000, 'one'); 
}); 
var p2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => { 
  setTimeout(resolve, 2000, 'two'); 
});
var p3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 3000, 'three');
});
var p4 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 4000, 'four');
});
var p5 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  reject('reject');
});

Promise.all([p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values);
}, reason => {
  console.log(reason)
});

//From console:
//"reject"

//You can also use .catch
Promise.all([p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values);
}).catch(reason => { 
  console.log(reason)
});

//From console: 
//"reject"

技术规范

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
Promise.all
Standard Initial definition in an ECMA standard.
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
Promise.all
Draft  

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