Web で何かをするためにどのくらいコストがかかりますか?

Web に参加することは、見かけほど容易ではありません。この記事では、あなたがどのくらい費用をかける必要があるのか、そしてその理由について説明します。

学習の前提: どのソフトウェアが必要かWeb ページ、Web サイトなどの違いドメイン名とは何かを理解しているべきです。
学習の目標: Web サイトを作成するための完全なプロセスを確認し、各ステップにかかる費用を確認します。

要約

Web サイトを立ち上げるとき、費用は何も掛からないかもしれませんし、青天井かもしれません。 この記事では、費用の有無にかかわらず、どのように準備し、またどれだけ費用がかかるかについて議論します。

ソフトウェア

テキストエディタ

Windows のメモ帳、Linux の Gedit、Mac の TextEdit などのテキストエディタを使った経験はおありでしょう。色分けしたり、文法をチェックしたり、コードの構築を手助けしたりするエディタを選択すれば、コードを書くのが楽になります。

無料のエディタは多くあります。たとえば、AtomBracketsBluefishTextWranglerEclipseNetbeansなどです。またSublime Textのように好きなだけ試用できるが、料金を支払ったほうが良いものもあります。なかには、PhpStorm,のように、購入ライセンスによって、価格が数百円から2万円の間になるものもあります。Microsoft Visual Studioは数万円から数十万円しますが、Visual Studio Expressは個人やオープンソースプロジェクトでは無料で使えます。 有料ソフトウエアには、無料の試用期間を設けているものもあります。

最初に何種類かのエディタを試して、用途に合うのはどれか調べるといいでしょう。T HTMLCSS、それにJavascriptで簡単なコードを書くのであれば、単純なエディタをお勧めします。

テキストエディタの品質と使いやすさは、あまり価格と連動しません。実際に使ってみて、目的に合うか調べるようにしてください。例えばSublime Textは安価ですが、多くの無料プラグインがあり、拡張性が高いエディタです。

画像エディタ

あなたが使用しているシステムには、単純な画像編集ソフトまたはビューアーが搭載されているでしょう。WindowsではPaint、UbuntuではEye of Gnome、MacではPreviewです。これらのプログラムは比較的制限されているので、レイヤー、エフェクト、およびグループ化を追加するなどのために高機能なエディタが、すぐに必要になります。

編集ソフトは無料 (GIMP, Paint.NET)、やや高価 (PaintShop Pro, less than $100)、または数百ドル (Adobe Photoshop)のものもあります。

これらは似たような機能を持っているので、どれを使用しても構いません。この中には様々な機能を網羅しているソフトもありますが、すべての機能を使う日は決して来ないでしょう。 ある時点で他の設計者とプロジェクトを交換する必要がある場合は、彼らがどのツールを使用しているかを調べる必要があります。 編集ソフトは完成したプロジェクトを標準のファイル形式にエクスポートできますが、各編集ソフトは進行中のプロジェクトを独自の特別な形式で保存します。 インターネット上のほとんどの画像は著作権で保護されているので、使用する前にファイルのライセンスを確認することをお勧めします。 Pixabay のようなサイトは、CC0ライセンスの下で画像提供を行なっているので、商用利用のための変更・編集を加えても公開することができます。

メディアエディタ

If you want to include video or audio into your website, you can either embed online services (for example YouTube, Vimeo, or Dailymotion), or include your own videos (see below for bandwidth costs).

For audio files, you can find free software (Audacity, Wavosaur), or paying up to a few hundred dollars (Sony Sound Forge, Adobe Audition). Likewise, video-editing software can be free (PiTiVi, OpenShot for Linux, iMovie for Mac), less than $100 (Adobe Premiere Elements), or several hundred dollars (Adobe Premiere Pro, Avid Media Composer, Final Cut Pro). The software you received with your digital camera may cover all your needs.

パブリッシングツール

You also need a way to upload files: from your hard drive to a distant web server. To do that you should use a publishing tool such as an (S)FTP client, RSync, or Git/GitHub.

Each operating system includes an (S)FTP client, as part of its file manager. Windows Explorer, Nautilus (a common Linux file manager), and the Mac Finder all include this functionality. However, people often choose dedicated (S)FTP clients to display local or remote directories side-by-side and store server passwords.

If you want to install an (S)FTP client, there are several reliable and free options: for example, FileZilla for all platforms, WinSCP for Windows, Cyberduck for Mac or Windows, and more.

Because FTP is inherently insecure, you should make sure to use SFTP — the secure, encrypted version of FTP that most hosting sites you'll deal with these days will offer by default — or another secure solution like Rsync over SSH.

ブラウザ

あなたはすでにブラウザを持っているか、無料でそれを手に入れることができます。必要に応じて、ここから Firefox または Google Chrome をダウンロードしてください。

Web アクセス

コンピュータ / モデム

You need a computer. Costs can vary tremendously, depending on your budget, and where you live. To publish a barebones website, you only need a basic computer capable of launching an editor, and a Web browser, so the entry level can be quite low.

Of course, you'll need a more serious computer if you want to produce complicated designs, touch up photos, or produce audio and video files.

You need to upload content to a remote server (see Hosting below), so you need a modem. Your ISP can rent Internet connectivity to you for a few dollars per month, though your budget might vary, depending on your location.

ISP access

Make sure that you have sufficient bandwidth:

  • Low-bandwidth access may be adequate to support a 'simple' website: reasonably-sized images, texts, some CSS and JavaScript. That will likely cost you a few dozen dollars, including the rent for the modem.
  • On the other hand, you'll need a high-bandwidth connections, such as DSL, cable, or fiber access, if you want a more advanced website with hundreds of files, or if you want to deliver heavy video/audio files directly from your web server. It could cost the same as low-bandwidth access, upwards to several hundred dollars per month for more professional needs.

Hosting

Understanding bandwidth

Hosting providers charge you according to how much bandwidth your website consumes. This depends on how many people, and Web crawling robots, access your content during a given time, and how much server space your content takes up. This is why people usually store their videos on dedicated services such as Youtube, Dailymotion, and Vimeo. For example, your provider may have a plan that includes up to several thousand visitors per day, for “reasonable” bandwidth usage. Be careful, however as this is defined differently from one hosting provider to another. As a rule of thumb, recognize that reliable, paid, personal hosting can cost around ten to fifteen dollars per month.

Note that there is no such thing as “unlimited” bandwidth. If you consume a huge amount of bandwidth, expect to pay a huge amount of money.

Domain names

Your domain name has to be purchased through a domain name provider (a registrar). Your hosting provider may also be a registrar (1&1, Gandi for instance are at the same time registrars and hosting providers). The domain name usually costs $5-15 per year. This cost varies depending on:

  • Local obligations: some country top-level domain names are more costly, as different countries set different prices.
  • Services associated with the domain name: some registrars provide spam protection by hiding your postal address and email address behind their own addresses: the postal address can be provided in care of the registrar, and your email address can be obscured via your registrar's alias.

Do-it-yourself hosting vs. “packaged” hosting

When you want to publish a website, you could do everything by yourself: set up a database (if needed), Content Management System, or CMS (like Wordpress, Dotclear, spip, etc.), upload pre-made or your own templates.

You could use your hosting provider's environment, for roughly ten to fifteen dollars per month, or subscribe directly to a dedicated hosting service with pre-packaged CMSs (e.g., Wordpress, Tumblr, Blogger). For the latter, you won't have to pay anything, but you may have less control over templating and other options.

Free hosting vs. paid hosting

You might ask, why should I pay for my hosting when there are so many free services?

  • You have more freedom when you pay. Your website is yours, and you can migrate seamlessly from one hosting provider to the next.
  • Free hosting providers may add advertising to your content, beyond your control.

It is better to go for paid hosting rather than relying on free hosting, as it is possible to move your files easily and uptime is guaranteed by most paid sites. Most hosting providers give you a huge discount to start with.

Some people opt for a mixed approach. For example, their main blog on a paid host with a full domain name, and spontaneous, less strategic, content on a free host service.

Professional website agencies and hosting

If you desire a professional website, you will likely ask a web agency to do it for you.

Here, costs depend on multiple factors, such as:

  • Is this a simple website with a few pages of text? Or a more complex, thousand-pages-long website?
  • Will you want to update it regularly? Or will it be a static website?
  • Must the website connect to your company’s IT structure to gather content (say, internal data)?
  • Do you want some shiny new feature that is the rage of the moment? At the time of writing, clients are seeking single pages with complex parallax
  • Will you need the agency to think up user stories or solve complex UX problems? For example, creating a strategy to engage users, or A/B testing to choose a solution among several ideas

...and for hosting:

  • Do you want redundant servers, in case your server goes down?
  • Is 95% percent reliability adequate, or do you need professional, around-the-clock service?
  • Do you want high-profile, ultra-responsive dedicated servers, or can you cope with a slower, shared machine?

Depending on how you answer these questions, your site could cost thousands to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Next steps

Now that you understand what kind of money your website may cost you, it's time to start designing that website and setting up your work environment.