API Pointer Lock

 

Pointer Lock (antes llamado Bloqueo del Mouse)  proporciona métodos de entrada basados ​​en el movimiento del ratón a traves del tiempo (es decir, deltas), no sólo la posición absoluta del cursor del mouse. Te da acceso al movimiento puro del mouse, bloquea el objetivo de los eventos del mouse a un solo elemento, elimina límites en cuanto a  que tan lejos puedes mover el mouse en una sola dirección, y quita el cursor de la vista.

Esta API es útil para aplicaciones que requieren bastantes acciones para controlar los movimientos del mouse, rotar objetos y cambiar las entradas. Es especialmente importante para aplicaciones altamente visuales, tales como los que utilizan la perspectiva en primera persona, así como vistas en 3D y modelado.

Por ejemplo, puedes crear aplicaciones que permiten a los usuarios controlar el ángulo de visión con sólo mover el mouse sin ningún clic, permitiendo liberar los clics para otras acciones. Este tipo de entrada del mouse es muy útil para ver mapas, imágenes de satélite, o escenas en primera persona (como en un juego o un vídeo embebido).

Pointer Lock te permite acceder a los eventos del mouse incluso cuando el cursor pasa por el límite de la pantalla del navegador. Por ejemplo, los usuarios pueden seguir girando o manipular un modelo 3D moviendo el mouse sin fin. Sin Pointer Lock, la rotación o la manipulación se detiene en el momento en que el cursor alcanza el borde de la pantalla del navegador. Los jugadores se verán particularmente encantados con esta característica, ya que anciosamente pueden hacer clic en los botones y arrastrar el cursor del mouse de un lado a otro sin tener que preocuparse por salir de la zona de juego ni de cliquear accidentalmente otra aplicación que podría llevar al mouse fuera del juego. Una tragedia!

Conceptos Básicos

Pointer Lock está relacionado con la mouse capturemouse capture proporciona la entrega continua de eventos a un elemento de destino, mientras que el mouse se arrastra, pero se detiene cuando se suelta el clic. Pointer Lock es diferente de mouse capture en las siguientes maneras:

  • Es persistente. Pointer Lock no libera el mouse hasta que se haga una llamada explícita a la API  o el usuario utilize un gesto concreto de lanzamiento.
  • No está limitado por los limites del navegador o la pantalla.
  • Envia continuamente eventos independientemente del estado del clic del mouse.
  • Oculta el cursor.

Ejemplo

El siguiente es un ejemplo de cómo se puede configurar Pointer Lock en su página web.

<button onclick="lockPointer();">Lock it!</button>
<div id="pointer-lock-element"></div>
<script>
// Nota: Al momento de escribir esto, sólo Mozilla y WebKit apoyan Pointer Lock.

// El elemento que servirá para pantalla completa y pointer lock.
var elem;

document.addEventListener("mousemove", function(e) {
  var movementX = e.movementX       ||
                  e.mozMovementX    ||
                  e.webkitMovementX ||
                  0,
      movementY = e.movementY       ||
                  e.mozMovementY    ||
                  e.webkitMovementY ||
                  0;

  // Imprime los valores delta del movimiento del mouse
  console.log("movementX=" + movementX, "movementY=" + movementY);
}, false);

function fullscreenChange() {
  if (document.webkitFullscreenElement === elem ||
      document.mozFullscreenElement === elem ||
      document.mozFullScreenElement === elem) { // Older API upper case 'S'.
    // El elemento esta en pantalla completa, ahora podemos hacer el request de pointer lock
    elem.requestPointerLock = elem.requestPointerLock    ||
                              elem.mozRequestPointerLock ||
                              elem.webkitRequestPointerLock;
    elem.requestPointerLock();
  }
}

document.addEventListener('fullscreenchange', fullscreenChange, false);
document.addEventListener('mozfullscreenchange', fullscreenChange, false);
document.addEventListener('webkitfullscreenchange', fullscreenChange, false);

function pointerLockChange() {
  if (document.mozPointerLockElement === elem ||
      document.webkitPointerLockElement === elem) {
    console.log("Pointer Lock was successful.");
  } else {
    console.log("Pointer Lock was lost.");
  }
}

document.addEventListener('pointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);
document.addEventListener('mozpointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);
document.addEventListener('webkitpointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);

function pointerLockError() {
  console.log("Error while locking pointer.");
}

document.addEventListener('pointerlockerror', pointerLockError, false);
document.addEventListener('mozpointerlockerror', pointerLockError, false);
document.addEventListener('webkitpointerlockerror', pointerLockError, false);

function lockPointer() {
  elem = document.getElementById("pointer-lock-element");
  // Start by going fullscreen with the element.  Current implementations
  // require the element to be in fullscreen before requesting pointer
  // lock--something that will likely change in the future.
  elem.requestFullscreen = elem.requestFullscreen    ||
                           elem.mozRequestFullscreen ||
                           elem.mozRequestFullScreen || // Older API upper case 'S'.
                           elem.webkitRequestFullscreen;
  elem.requestFullscreen();
}
</script>

Method/properties overview

The Pointer lock API, similar to the Fullscreen API, extends DOM elements by adding a new method, requestPointerLock, which is vendor-prefixed for now. You write it as follows:

element.webkitRequestPointerLock(); // Chrome

element.mozRequestPointerLock(); // Firefox

Current implementations of requestPointerLock are tightly bound to requestFullScreen and the Fullscreen API. Before an element can be pointer locked, it must first enter the fullscreen state. As demonstrated above, the process of locking the pointer is asynchronous, with events (pointerlockchange, pointerlockerror) indicating the success or failure of the request. This matches how the Fullscreen API works, with its requestFullScreen method and fullscreenchange and fullscreenerror events.

The Pointer lock API also extends the document interface, adding both a new property and a new method. The new property is used for accessing the currently locked element (if any), and is named pointerLockElement, which is vendor-prefixed for now. The new method on document is exitPointerLock and, as the name implies, it is used to exit Pointer lock.

The pointerLockElement property is useful for determining if any element is currently pointer locked (e.g., for doing a boolean check) and also for obtaining a reference to the locked element, if any. Here is an example of both uses:

document.pointerLockElement = document.pointerLockElement    ||
                              document.mozPointerLockElement ||
                              document.webkitPointerLockElement;

// 1) Used as a boolean check--are we pointer locked?
if (!!document.pointerLockElement) {
  // pointer is locked
} else {
  // pointer is not locked
}

// 2) Used to access the pointer locked element
if (document.pointerLockElement === someElement) {
  // someElement is currently pointer locked
}

The document's exitPointerLock method is used to exit pointer lock, and like requestPointerLock, works asynchrounously using the pointerlockchange and pointerlockerror events:

document.exitPointerLock = document.exitPointerLock    ||
                           document.mozExitPointerLock ||
                           document.webkitExitPointerLock;

function pointerLockChange() {
  document.pointerLockElement = document.pointerLockElement    ||
                                document.mozPointerLockElement ||
                                document.webkitPointerLockElement;

  if (!!document.pointerLockElement) {
    console.log("Still locked.");
  } else {
    console.log("Exited lock.");
  }
}

document.addEventListener('pointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);
document.addEventListener('mozpointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);
document.addEventListener('webkitpointerlockchange', pointerLockChange, false);

// Attempt to unlock
document.exitPointerLock();

pointerlockchange event

When the Pointer lock state changes—for example, when calling requestPointerLock, exitPointerLock, the user pressing the ESC key, etc.—the pointerlockchange event is dispatched to the document. This is a simple event and contains no extra data.

This event is currently prefixed as mozpointerlockchange in Firefox and webkitpointerlockchange in Chrome. 

pointerlockerror event

When there is an error caused by calling requestPointerLock or exitPointerLock, the pointerlockerror event is dispatched to the document. This is a simple event and contains no extra data.

This event is currently prefixed as mozpointerlockerror in Firefox and webkitpointerlockerror in Chrome. 

Extensions to mouse events

The Pointer lock API extends the normal MouseEvent with movement attributes.

partial interface MouseEvent {
    readonly attribute long movementX;
    readonly attribute long movementY;
};
The movement attributes are currently prefixed as .mozMovementX and .mozMovementY in Firefox, and.webkitMovementX and .webkitMovementY in Chrome.

Two new parameters to mouse events—movementX and movementY—provide the change in mouse positions. The values of the parameters are the same as the difference between the values of MouseEvent properties, screenX and screenY, which are stored in two subsequent mousemove events, eNow and ePrevious. In other words, the Pointer lock parameter movementX = eNow.screenX - ePrevious.screenX.

Locked state

When Pointer lock is enabled, the standard MouseEvent properties clientX, clientY, screenX, and screenY are held constant, as if the mouse is not moving. The movementX and movementY properties continue to provide the mouse's change in position. There is no limit to movementX and movementY values if the mouse is continuously moving in a single direction. The concept of the mouse cursor does not exist and the cursor cannot move off the window or be clamped by a screen edge.

Unlocked state

The parameters movementX and movementY are valid regardless of the mouse lock state, and are available even when unlocked for convenience.

When the mouse is unlocked, the system cursor can exit and re-enter the browser window. If that happens, movementX and movementY could be set to zero.

iframe limitations

Pointer lock can only lock one iframe at a time. If you lock one iframe, you cannot try to lock another iframe and transfer the target to it; Pointer lock will error out. To avoid this limitation, first unlock the locked iframe, and then lock the other.

While iframes work by default, "sandboxed" iframes block Pointer lock. The ability to avoid this limitation, in the form of the attribute/value combination <iframe sandbox="allow-pointer-lock">, is expected to appear in Chrome soon.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Pointer Lock Working Draft Initial specification.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support

Targeting 23webkit*

See CR/72574

14.0 (14.0)

bug 633602

Not supported Not supported Not supported
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported

* Requires the feature be enabled in about:flags or Chrome started with the --enable-pointer-lock flag.

See also

MouseEvent

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 Última actualización por: joredjs,