Git and GitHub

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초안
이 문서는 작성중입니다.

모든 개발자는 버전 관리 시스템 (VCS)을 사용하거나 앞으로 그럴 것이다. VCS는 다른 개발자와의 협업 시 코드 중복작성으로 인한 손실을 방지해 주고, 문재가 생겼을 시 이전 버전으로의 롤백을 쉽게 해준다. 가장 유명한 VCS는 Git이고, 그와 관련된 소셜 코딩 사이트는 GitHub이다. 이 글은 이 두가지에 대해 설명할 것이다.

개요

VCS는 소프트웨어 개발을 할 때 필수적이다.

  • 프로젝트를 완전히 직접 수행하는 일은 드물며 다른 사람들과 작업을 시작하자마자 서로의 작업과 충돌할 위험이 있다. 대표적인 예시가 두 사람이 같은 부분을 업데이트하려고 할 때이다. 동시에 코드의. 발생을 관리하고 결과적으로 작업 손실을 피할 수있는 메커니즘이 필요하다.
  • 혼자 또는 다른 사람들과 함께 프로젝트를 수행 할 때 중앙 위치에 코드를 백업 할 수 있기 때문에 컴퓨터가 고장 나더라도 코드가 손실되지 않는다.
  • You will also want to be able to roll back to earlier versions if a problem is later discovered. You might have started doing this in your own work by creating different versions of the same file, e.g. myCode.js, myCode_v2.js, myCode_v3.js, myCode_final.js, myCode_really_really_final.js, etc., but this is really error-prone and unreliable.
  • Different team members will commonly want to create their own separate versions of the code (called branches in Git), work on a new feature in that version, and then get it merged in a controlled manner (in GitHub we use pull requests) with the master version when they are done with it.

VCSes provide tools to meet the above needs. Git is an example of a VCS, and GitHub is a web site + infrastructure that provides a Git server plus a number of really useful tools for working with git repositories individually or in teams, such as reporting issues with the code, reviewing tools, project management features such as assigning tasks and task statuses, and more.

Note: Git is actually a distributed version control system, meaning that a complete copy of the repository containing the codebase is made on your computer (and everyone else's). You make changes to your own copy, and then push those changes back up to the server, where an administrator will decide whether to merge your changes with the master copy.

전제 조건

Git와 GitHub를 사용하려면, 다음과 같은 사양이 요구된다:

  • Git가 설치된 데스크탑 컴퓨터(Git 설치 페이지를 참고하라).
  • A tool to use Git. Depending on how you like to work, you could use a Git GUI client (we'd recommend GitHub Desktop, SourceTree or Git Kraken) or just stick to using a terminal window. In fact, it is probably useful for you to get to know at least the basics of git terminal commands, even if you intend to use a GUI.
  • GitHub 계정. 만일 계정이 없다면, 이 링크에서 계정을 만들 수 있다.

In terms of prerequisite knowledge, you don't need to know anything about web development, Git/GitHub or VCSes to start this module. However, it is recommended that you know some coding so that you have reasonable computer literacy, and some code to store in your repositories!

It is also preferrable that you have some basic terminal knowledge, so for example moving between directories, creating files, and modifying the system PATH.

Note: Github is not the only site/toolset you can use with Git. There are other alternatives such as GitLab that you could try, and you could also try setting your own Git server up and using it instead of GitHub. We've only stuck with GitHub in this course to provide a single way that works.

가이드

아래 링크들은 모두 외부 사이트로 연결된다. Eventually we will are aiming to have our own dedicated Git/GitHub course, but for now, these will help you get to grips with the subject in hand.

Hello World (from GitHub)
This is a good place to start — this practical guide gets you to jump right into using GitHub, learning the basics of Git such as creating repositories and branches, making commits, and opening and merging pull requests.
Git Handbook (from GitHub)
This Git Handbook goes into a little more depth, explaining what a VCS is, what a repository is, how the basic GitHub model works, Git commands and examples, and more.
Forking Projects (from GitHub)
Forking projects is essential when you want to contribute to someone else's code. This guide explains how.
About Pull Requests (from GitHub)
A useful guide to managing pull requests, the way that your suggested code changes are delivered to people's repositories for consideration.
Mastering issues (from GitHub)
Issues are like a forum for your GitHub project, where people can ask questions and report problems, and you can manage updates (for example assigning people to fix issues, clarifying the issue, letting people know things are fixed). This articles gives you what you need to know about issues.

Note: There is a lot more that you can do with Git and GitHub, but we feel that the above represents the minimum you need to know to start using Git effectively. As you get deeper into Git, you'll start to realise that it is easy to go wrong when you start using more complicated commands. Don't worry, even professional web developers find Git confusing sometimes, and often solve problems by searching for solutions on the web, or consulting sites like Flight rules for Git and Dangit, git!

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