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Express представляет собой популярный веб-фреймворк, написанный на JavaScript и работающий внутри среды исполнения node.js. Этот модуль освещает некоторые ключевые преимущества этого фреймворка, установку среды разработки и выполнение расхожих задач веб-разработки и развертывания.

Предварительные требования

Перед началом этого модуля вам необходимо представлять, что из себя представляют серверное программирование и веб-фремворки, желательно из прочтения статей другого модуля Server-side website programming first steps. Знакомство с основными концепциями программирования и языком программирования JavaScript будет очень полезным, но оно не является обязательным для схватывания базовых понятий этого модуля.

Заметка: Этот веб-сайт содержит множество источников для изучения JavaScript в контексте  разработки на стороне клиента: JavaScriptJavaScript Guide, JavaScript BasicsJavaScript (изучение). Ключевые особенности и коцепции языка JavaScript остаются сходными и для серверной разработки на Node.js и используемый материал достаточно релевантен. Node.js предоставляет additional APIs для обеспечения функционала, который полезен для "безбраузерной" разработки, т.е. для создания HTTP-сервера и доступа к файловой системе, но не поддерживает JavaScript APIs для работы с браузером и DOM.

Это руководство обеспечит вас некоторой информацией о работе с Node.js и Express, и существуют другие многочисленные отличные ресурсы в Интренете и книгах — неоторые из них доступны из тем How do I get started with Node.js (StackOverflow) и What are the best resources for learning Node.js? (Quora).


Express/Node introduction
In this first Express article we answer the questions "What is Node?" and "What is Express?" and give you an overview of what makes the Express web framework special. We'll outline the main features, and show you some of the main building blocks of an Express application (although at this point you won't yet have a development environment in which to test it).
Setting up a Node (Express) development environment
Now that you know what Express is for, we'll show you how to set up and test a Node/Express development environment on Windows, Linux (Ubuntu), and Mac OS X. Whatever common operating system you are using, this article should give you what you need to be able to start developing Express apps.
Express Tutorial: The Local Library website
The first article in our practical tutorial series explains what you'll learn, and provides an overview of the "local library" example website we'll be working through and evolving in subsequent articles.
Express Tutorial Part 2: Creating a skeleton website
This article shows how you can create a "skeleton" website project, which you can then go on to populate with site-specific routes, templates/views, and databases.
Express Tutorial Part 3: Using a Database (with Mongoose)
This article briefly introduces databases for Node/Express. It then goes on to show how we can use Mongoose to provide database access for the LocalLibrary website. It explains how object schema and models are declared, the main field types, and basic validation. It also briefly shows a few of the main ways you can access model data.
Express Tutorial Part 4: Routes and controllers
In this tutorial we'll set up routes (URL handling code) with "dummy" handler functions for all the resource endpoints that we'll eventually need in the LocalLibrary website. On completion, we'll have a modular structure for our route handling code, that we can extend with real handler functions in the following articles. We'll also have a really good understanding of how to create modular routes using Express.
Express Tutorial Part 5: Displaying library data
We're now ready to add the pages that display the LocalLibrary website books and other data. The pages will include a home page that shows how many records we have of each model type, and list and detail pages for all of our models. Along the way we'll gain practical experience in getting records from the database, and using templates.
Express Tutorial Part 6: Working with forms
In this tutorial we'll show you how to work with HTML Forms in Express, using Pug, and in particular how to write forms to create, update, and delete documents from the database.
Express Tutorial Part 7: Deploying to production
Now you've created an awesome LocalLibrary website, you're going to want to install it on a public web server so that it can be accessed by library staff and members over the Internet. This article provides an overview of how you might go about finding a host to deploy your website, and what you need to do in order to get your site ready for production.

See also

Installing LocalLibrary on PWS/Cloud Foundry
This article provides a practical demonstration of how to install LocalLibrary on the Pivotal Web Services PaaS cloud — this is a full-featured, open source alternative to Heroku, the PaaS cloud service used in Part 7 of the tutorial, listed above. PWS/Cloud Foundry is definitely worth checking out if you are looking for an alternative to Heroku (or another PaaS cloud service), or simply feel like trying something different.

Adding more tutorials

That's the end of the tutorial articles (for now). If you would like to extend it, other interesting topics to cover are:

  • Using sessions
  • User authentication
  • User authorisation and permissions
  • Testing an Express web application
  • Web security for Express web applications.

And of course it would be excellent to have an assessment task!

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