MDN’s new design is in Beta! A sneak peek: https://blog.mozilla.org/opendesign/mdns-new-design-beta/

翻译正在进行中。

HTML 拖放接口使应用程序能够在Firefox和其他浏览器中使用拖放功能。例如,通过这些功能,用户可以使用鼠标选择可拖动元素,将元素拖动到可放置元素,并通过释放鼠标按钮来放置这些元素。可拖动元素的一个半透明表示在拖动操作期间跟随鼠标指针。

对于网站、扩展以及 XUL 应用程序来说,你可以自定义能够成为可拖拽的元素类型、可拖拽元素产生的反馈类型,以及可放置的元素。

此文档为 HTML 拖放的概述,包含了相关接口的说明、在应用程序中加入拖放支持的基本步骤,以及相关接口的使用简介。

拖拽事件

HTML的drag和drop使用了 DOM event model 以及从mouse events 继承而来的 drag events 。一个典型的drag操作是这样开始的:用户用鼠标选中一个可拖动的(draggable)元素,移动鼠标到一个可放置的(droppable)元素,然后释放鼠标。 在操作期间,会触发一些事件类型,有一些事件类型可能会被多次触发(比如dragdragover 事件类型)。

所有的drag event types 有一个对应的 global event handler。每个拖动事件类型和拖动全局属性都有对应的描述文档。下面的表格提供了一个简短的事件类型描述,以及一个相关文档的链接。

Event On Event Handler Description
drag ondrag Fired when an element or text selection is being dragged.
dragend ondragend Fired when a drag operation is being ended (for example, by releasing a mouse button or hitting the escape key). (See Finishing a Drag.)
dragenter ondragenter Fired when a dragged element or text selection enters a valid drop target. (See Specifying Drop Targets.)
dragexit ondragexit Fired when an element is no longer the drag operation's immediate selection target.
dragleave ondragleave Fired when a dragged element or text selection leaves a valid drop target.
dragover ondragover Fired when an element or text selection is being dragged over a valid drop target (every few hundred milliseconds).
dragstart ondragstart Fired when the user starts dragging an element or text selection. (See Starting a Drag Operation.)
drop ondrop Fired when an element or text selection is dropped on a valid drop target. (See Performing a Drop.)

Note that dragstart and dragend events are not fired when dragging a file into the browser from the OS.

接口

The HTML drag and drop interfaces are DragEvent, DataTransfer, DataTransferItem and DataTransferItemList.

The DragEvent interface has a constructor and one property, the dataTransfer property which is a DataTransfer object. DataTransfer objects include the drag event's state such as the type of drag being done (for example copy or move), the drag's data (one or more items) and the type of each drag item (a MIME type). DataTransfer objects also have methods to add items to the drag's data and to remove a drag item. The DragEvent and DataTransfer interfaces should be the only ones needed to add HTML drag and drop capabilities to an application. However, note Firefox supports some Gecko-specific extensions to the DataTransfer object that may be used, although those extensions will only work on Firefox.

Each DataTransfer object contains an items property which is a list of DataTransferItem objects. Each DataTransferItem object represents a single drag item and each item has a kind property which is the kind of data (either string or file) and a type property which is the data item's type (i.e. MIME type). The DataTransferItem object also has methods to get the drag item's data.

The DataTransferItemList object is a list of DataTransferItem objects. The list object has methods to: add a drag item to the list, remove a drag item from the list and clear the list of all drag items.

A key difference between the DataTransfer and DataTransferItem interfaces is that the former uses the synchronous getData() method to access a drag item's data, whereas the later uses the asynchronous getAsString() method to access a drag item's data.

Note: the DragEvent and DataTransfer interfaces are broadly interoperable with desktop browsers. However, the DataTransferItem and DataTransferItemList interfaces have limited browser support. See Interoperability for more information about drag and drop interoperability.

Gecko-专用接口

Mozilla and Firefox support some features not in the standard drag and drop model. These are convenience functions to facilitate dragging multiple items and dragging non-string data (such as files). For more information, see Dragging and Dropping Multiple Items. Additionally, see the DataTransfer reference page for all of the Gecko-specific properties and Gecko-specific methods.

基础

This section provides a summary of the basic steps to add drag and drop functionality to an application. Each section includes a description of the step, a short code example, and links to additional information.

确定什么是可拖动的

To make an element draggable requires adding the draggable attribute plus the ondragstart global event handler, as shown in the following code sample

function dragstart_handler(ev) {
 console.log("dragStart");
 // Add the target element's id to the data transfer object
 ev.dataTransfer.setData("text/plain", ev.target.id);
}

<body>
 <p id="p1" draggable="true" ondragstart="dragstart_handler(event);">This element is draggable.</p>
</body>

See the draggable attribute reference and the Drag operations guide for more information.

定义拖动数据

The application is free to include any number of data items in a drag operation. Each data item is a string of a particular type, typically a MIME type such as text/html.

Each drag event has a dataTransfer property that holds the event's data. This property (which is a DataTransfer object) also has methods to manage drag data. The setData() method is used to add an item to the drag data, as shown in the following example.

function dragstart_handler(ev) {
  // Add the drag data
  ev.dataTransfer.setData("text/plain", ev.target.id);
  ev.dataTransfer.setData("text/html", "<p>Example paragraph</p>");
  ev.dataTransfer.setData("text/uri-list", "http://developer.mozilla.org");
}

For a list of common data types used for drag and drop (such as text, HTML, links, and files), see Recommended Drag Types and for more information about drag data, see Drag Data.

定义拖动图像

By default, the browser supplies an image that appears beside the mouse pointer during a drag operation. However, an application may define a custom image by using the setDragImage() method as shown in the following example.

function dragstart_handler(ev) {
  // Create an image and then use it for the drag image.
  // NOTE: change "example.gif" to an existing image or the image 
  // will not be created and the default drag image will be used.
  var img = new Image(); 
  img.src = 'example.gif'; 
  ev.dataTransfer.setDragImage(img, 10, 10);
}

To learn more about drag feedback images, see Setting the Drag Feedback Image.

定义拖动效果

The dropEffect property is used to control the feedback (typically visual) the user is given during a drag and drop operation. It affects which cursor the browser displays while dragging. For example, when the user hovers over a target drop element, the browser's cursor may indicate the type of operation that will occur.

Three effects may be defined: 

copy indicates that the data being dragged will be copied from its present location to the drop location. 

move indicates that the data being dragged will be moved

link indicates that some form of relationship or connection will be created between the source and drop locations. 

During the drag operation, the drag effects may be modified to indicate that certain effects are allowed at certain locations. If allowed, a drop may occur at that location.

The following example shows how to use this property.

function dragstart_handler(ev) {
  // Set the drag effect to copy
  ev.dataTransfer.dropEffect = "copy";
}

See Drag Effects for more details.

定义一个放置区

By default, the browser prevents anything from happening when dropping something onto the HTML element. To change that behavior so that an element becomes a drop zone or is droppable, the element must have both ondragover and ondrop event handler attributes. The following example shows how to use those attributes and includes basic event handlers for each attribute.

function dragover_handler(ev) {
 ev.preventDefault();
 // Set the dropEffect to move
 ev.dataTransfer.dropEffect = "move"
}
function drop_handler(ev) {
 ev.preventDefault();
 // Get the id of the target and add the moved element to the target's DOM
 var data = ev.dataTransfer.getData("text");
 ev.target.appendChild(document.getElementById(data));
}
<body>
 <div id="target" ondrop="drop_handler(event);" ondragover="dragover_handler(event);">Drop Zone</div>
</body>

Note each handler calls preventDefault() to prevent additional event processing for this prevent (such as touch events or pointer events).

For more information, see Specifying Drop Targets.

处理放置效果

The handler for the drop event is free to process the drag data in an application specific way. Typically, an application will use the getData() method to retrieve drag items and process them accordingly. Additionally, application semantics may differ depending on the value of the dropEffect and/or the state of modifier keys.

The following example shows a drop handler getting the source element's id from the drag data and then using the id to move the source element to the drop element.

function dragstart_handler(ev) {
 // Add the target element's id to the data transfer object
 ev.dataTransfer.setData("text/plain", ev.target.id);
 ev.dropEffect = "move";
}
function dragover_handler(ev) {
 ev.preventDefault();
 // Set the dropEffect to move
 ev.dataTransfer.dropEffect = "move"
}
function drop_handler(ev) {
 ev.preventDefault();
 // Get the id of the target and add the moved element to the target's DOM
 var data = ev.dataTransfer.getData("text");
 ev.target.appendChild(document.getElementById(data));
}
<body>
 <p id="p1" draggable="true" ondragstart="dragstart_handler(event);">This element is draggable.</p>
 <div id="target" ondrop="drop_handler(event);" ondragover="dragover_handler(event);">Drop Zone</div>
</body>

For more information, see Performing a Drop.

拖动结束

At the end of a drag operation, the dragend event fires at the source element - the element that was the target of the drag start. This event fires whether the drag completed or was canceled. The dragend event handler can check the value of the dropEffect property to determine if the drag operation succeeded or not.

For more information about handling the end of a drag operation, see Finishing a Drag.

互操性

As can be seen in the DataTransferItem interface's Browser Compatibility table, drag-and-drop interoperability is relatively broad among desktop browsers (except the DataTransferItem and DataTransferItemList interfaces have less support). This data also indicates drag and drop support among mobile browsers is very low.

示例和演示

也可以看看

文档标签和贡献者

 此页面的贡献者: hxl, xgqfrms-GitHub, x4storm
 最后编辑者: hxl,