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钻研在网络上做某些事情要花费多少

翻译正在进行中。

参与互联网并不像看起来那么容易。在这篇文章中我们将会讨论你需要付出多少以及为什么付出这么多。

前提: 你应该了解了what software you need, 以及 a webpage, a website, etc.之间的差异, 还有 what a domain name is
目的: 回顾创建一个网站的完整流程和了解其中每一步我们需要做的。

概要

当你运营一个网站的时候, 你可能花费很多或者什么都不用。 在这篇文章中我们将会讨论每个的花费以及你花费后能得到的(或者不用花钱)。

深入了解

自己独立完成

软件

文字编辑器

你可能已经拥有了一个文字编辑器 (常用的在 Windows 上的 Notepad , Linux 上的 gedit, Mac 上的 TextEdit )。但是,你马上就会发现, 如果编辑器对代码进行颜色高亮并检查语法,那么编写代码时会更加简单,并帮助您进行结构化。

很多编辑器都是免费的,例如, Bluefish, TextWrangler, Eclipse, and Netbeans。它们中有一部分, 例如 Sublime Text,你可以想试用多久就试用多久,但是鼓励你去付费。另外一些,例如 PhpStorm,可能会花费几十到200美元,取决于你想买哪种套餐。 还有一些,例如 Microsoft Visual Studio, 花费几百到上千美元 (虽然 Visual Studio Express 对于独立开发者或者一些开源项目免费)。

刚开始,我们建议你多试试几个编辑器(即使是付费编辑器也会有试用版),找到一个最适合你自己的。 如果你只写简单的 HTML, CSS, 和 Javascript, 可以使用一个简单的编辑器。

价格并不能完全反应编辑器的质量或者是否有用。你需要去自己试用一下来决定是否使用这个编辑器。举个例子, Sublime Text很便宜,但却带有许多可以大大扩展其功能的免费插件。

图像编辑器

你的系统可能已经自带了一个简单的图像编辑器或者图像浏览器(Windows上的画图,Ubuntu上的 Eye of Gnome, Mac上的Preview)。但是这些程序功能都很有限然后很快,你就会需要一个更强大的编辑器来添加图层,效果和分组。

编辑器的价格可以是免费的(GIMP),还有中等价位(PaintShop Pro,少于100美元)或几百美元(Adobe Photoshop)。

你可以使用其中的任何一款。 它们都具有大致相同的功能(尽管其中一些功能非常完整,你可能永远不会使用所提供的每个功能)。无论如何,如果在某些时候你需要与其他设计师交流正在进行的项目,那么你应该首先了解他们正在使用的工具。编辑器可以将完成的项目导出为标准文件格式,但每个编辑器都可以按照专门的项目格式保存正在进行的项目。

媒体编辑器

如果你想在你的网站中添加音频或者视频,那么您可以嵌入在线服务(例如YouTube,Vimeo或Dailymotion)或包含您自己的视频(请参阅下面的带宽费用)。

对于音频文件,你可以找到免费软件(Audacity,Wavosaur)或支付高达几百美元(Sony Sound Forge,Adobe Audition)。视频编辑软件同样可以免费使用(PiTiVi,OpenShot for Linux,iMovie for Mac),少于100美元(Adobe Premiere Elements)或几百美元(Adobe Premiere Pro,Avid Media Composer,Final Cut Pro)。 你使用数码相机购买的软件可能已经涵盖了你的所有需求。

发布工具: FTP 客户端

你还需要一种将文件从本地硬盘上传到远程Web服务器的方法。 为了做到这一点,你必须使用FTP客户端。

每个系统都包含一个FTP客户端作为文件管理器的一部分。 Windows资源管理器,Nautilus(一个常见的Linux文件管理器)和Mac Finder都包含该功能。 然而,人们更经常选择专门的FTP客户端,可以存储密码并且并行显示本地和远程目录。

如果你需要安装一个FTP客户端,这里有很多免费的选择:例如, 可以全平台使用的 FileZilla , windows上使用的WinSCP , Mac和 windows上都能使用的 Cyberduck ,还有很多)。

注意:还有其他方法可以在远程服务器上发布内容,如rsync和git,但并不像FTP那样简单,我们不会在这里讨论。

浏览器

你已经拥有了一个浏览器或者可以免费下载一个。如果需要的话, 在这 here 下载火狐浏览器或者 Google Chrome浏览器 here

网络访问

电脑 / 调制解调器

你需要一台电脑。费用根据你的预算和你住的地方而有很大的不同。 要发布准系统网站,你只需要一台能够启动编辑器和浏览器的基本计算机,因此整个的价格相当低。

Of course you need a more serious computer if you want to produce heavier designs, touch up photos, or produce audio and video files.

You need to upload content to a remote server (see Hosting below), so you need a modem. Most of the time your ISP can rent Internet connectivity to you for a few dollars per month.

ISP access

Make sure that you have sufficient bandwidth:

  • Low-bandwidth access may be adequate to support a “simple” website (reasonably-sized images, texts, some CSS and JavaScript). That will cost a few dozen dollars, including the rent for the modem.
  • On the other hand, you'll probably need serious DSL, cable, or fiber access if you want a flashier website with hundreds of files, or if you want to deliver heavy video/audio files directly from your web server. It may cost the same as low-bandwidth access, or several hundred dollars per month for professional use.

Hosting

Understanding bandwidth

Hosting providers charge you according to how much bandwidth your website consumes. This depends on how many people and robots access your content during a given time and on how much server space your content takes up (that's why people usually store their videos on dedicated services such as Youtube, Dailymotion, and Vimeo). For instance, your provider may have a plan that includes up to several thousand visitors per day for “reasonable” bandwidth usage (defined very differently from one hosting provider to another). As a rule of thumb, consider that reliable paid personal hosting costs around ten to fifteen dollars per month.

Note that there is no such thing as “unlimited” bandwidth. If you consume a huge amount of bandwidth, expect to pay a huge amount of money.

Domain names

Your domain name has to be purchased by a domain name provider (a registrar). Your hosting provider may also be a registrar (1&1, Gandi for instance are at the same time registrars and hosting providers). The domain name usually costs $5-15 per year. The cost varies depending on

  • Local obligations (some country top-level domain names are more costly, since different countries set different prices)
  • Services associated with the domain name: some registrars provide spam protection by hiding your postal address and email address behind their own addresses (respectively, the postal address can be provided c/o the registrar, the email address can be hidden behind an alias belonging to the registrar).
Do-it-yourself hosting vs. “packaged” hosting

When you want to publish a website, you could do everything by yourself: set up a database (if need be), put up a Content Management System or CMS (like Wordpress, Dotclear, spip, etc.), upload pre-made templates or your own templates.

You could also rely on your hosting provider's already set-up environments, usually for the same monthly fee of ten to fifteen dollars, or subscribe directly to a dedicated hosting service with pre-packaged CMS's (eg. Wordpress, Tumblr, Blogger). In the latter case, you won't have to pay anything, but you may have less control over templating.

Free hosting vs. paid hosting

You might ask, why should I pay for my hosting when there are so many free services?

  1. You have more freedom when you pay. Your website is yours, and you can migrate seamlessly from one hosting provider to the next.
  2. Free hosting providers may add advertising to your content beyond your control.

Some people opt for a mixed approach: for example, put their main blog on a paid host with a proper domain name, and use another, free service to host spontaneous, less strategic content.

Professional website agencies and hosting

If you want to have a professional website, you will most likely ask a web agency to do it for you.

Here costs depend on multiple factors, such as:

  • Is this a simple website with a few pages of text? Or a complex, thousand-pages-long website?
  • Will you want to update it regularly? Or is it going to be a static website?
  • Must the website connect to your company’s IT to gather contents (say, internal data)?
  • Do you want some shiny new feature that is the rage of the moment? (at the time of writing, clients like one-pagers with complex parallax)
  • Will you need the agency to think up user stories or solve complex UX problems (for instance create a strategy to engage users or do some A/B testing to choose the best solution among several ideas)?

Additionally, for hosting purposes,

  • Do you want redundant servers, in case your server goes down?
  • Is 95% percent reliability adequate or do you need professional, around-the-clock service?
  • Do you want high-profile, ultra-responsive dedicated servers, or can you cope with a slower, shared machine?

Depending on how you answer these questions, your site could cost thousands to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Next steps

Now that you understand what kind of money your website may cost you, it's time to start designing that website and setting up your work environment.

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