MDN’s new design is in Beta! A sneak peek: https://blog.mozilla.org/opendesign/mdns-new-design-beta/

Making content editable

Traducción en curso

En HTML, cualquier elemento puede ser editable. Con el uso de algunos manejadores de eventos de JavaScript, puedes transformar tu página web en un completo y rápido editor de texto. Este artículo brinda información sobre esta funcionalidad.

¿Cómo funciona?

Todo lo que debes hacer es definir el atributo contenteditable en cualquier elemento HTML que quiera hacer editable.

Este es un ejemplo simple con el cual puedes crear elemento <div> cuyo contenido pueda ser editado por el usuario.

<div contenteditable="true">
  This text can be edited by the user.
</div>

Aquí esta el HTML anterion en acción:

Executing Commands

When an HTML element has had contenteditable set to true, the document.execCommand method is made available, allowing you to run commands to manipulate the contents of the editable region. Most commands affect the document's selection (bold, italics, etc), while others insert new elements (adding a link) or affect an entire line (indenting). When using contentEditable, calling execCommand will affect the currently active editable element.

Differences in markup generation

Use of contenteditable across different browsers has been painful for a long time because of the differences in generated markup between browsers. For example, even something as simple as what happens when you press Enter/Return to create a new line of text inside an editable element was handled differently across the major browsers (Firefox inserted <br> elements, IE/Opera used <p>, Chrome/Safari used <div>).

Fortunately, in modern browsers things are somewhat more consistent. As of Firefox 55, Firefox has been updated to wrap the separate lines in <div> elements, matching the behaviour of Chrome, modern Opera, Edge, and Safari.

Try it out in the above example.

Note: IE is no longer being developed, and uses <p> elements instead.

If you want to use a different paragraph separator, the above browsers all support document.execCommand, which provides a DefaultParagraphSeparator command to allow you to change it. For example, to use <p> elements:

document.execCommand("DefaultParagraphSeparator", false, "p");

Security

For security reasons, Firefox doesn't let JavaScript code use clipboard related features (copy, paste, etc.) by default. You can enable them by setting the preferences shown below using about:config:

user_pref("capability.policy.policynames", "allowclipboard");
user_pref("capability.policy.allowclipboard.sites", "https://www.mozilla.org");
user_pref("capability.policy.allowclipboard.Clipboard.cutcopy", "allAccess");
user_pref("capability.policy.allowclipboard.Clipboard.paste", "allAccess");

Example: a simple but complete rich text editor

<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Rich Text Editor</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
var oDoc, sDefTxt;

function initDoc() {
  oDoc = document.getElementById("textBox");
  sDefTxt = oDoc.innerHTML;
  if (document.compForm.switchMode.checked) { setDocMode(true); }
}

function formatDoc(sCmd, sValue) {
  if (validateMode()) { document.execCommand(sCmd, false, sValue); oDoc.focus(); }
}

function validateMode() {
  if (!document.compForm.switchMode.checked) { return true ; }
  alert("Uncheck \"Show HTML\".");
  oDoc.focus();
  return false;
}

function setDocMode(bToSource) {
  var oContent;
  if (bToSource) {
    oContent = document.createTextNode(oDoc.innerHTML);
    oDoc.innerHTML = "";
    var oPre = document.createElement("pre");
    oDoc.contentEditable = false;
    oPre.id = "sourceText";
    oPre.contentEditable = true;
    oPre.appendChild(oContent);
    oDoc.appendChild(oPre);
  } else {
    if (document.all) {
      oDoc.innerHTML = oDoc.innerText;
    } else {
      oContent = document.createRange();
      oContent.selectNodeContents(oDoc.firstChild);
      oDoc.innerHTML = oContent.toString();
    }
    oDoc.contentEditable = true;
  }
  oDoc.focus();
}

function printDoc() {
  if (!validateMode()) { return; }
  var oPrntWin = window.open("","_blank","width=450,height=470,left=400,top=100,menubar=yes,toolbar=no,location=no,scrollbars=yes");
  oPrntWin.document.open();
  oPrntWin.document.write("<!doctype html><html><head><title>Print<\/title><\/head><body onload=\"print();\">" + oDoc.innerHTML + "<\/body><\/html>");
  oPrntWin.document.close();
}
</script>
<style type="text/css">
.intLink { cursor: pointer; }
img.intLink { border: 0; }
#toolBar1 select { font-size:10px; }
#textBox {
  width: 540px;
  height: 200px;
  border: 1px #000000 solid;
  padding: 12px;
  overflow: scroll;
}
#textBox #sourceText {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
  min-width: 498px;
  min-height: 200px;
}
#editMode label { cursor: pointer; }
</style>
</head>
<body onload="initDoc();">
<form name="compForm" method="post" action="sample.php" onsubmit="if(validateMode()){this.myDoc.value=oDoc.innerHTML;return true;}return false;">
<input type="hidden" name="myDoc">
<div id="toolBar1">
<select onchange="formatDoc('formatblock',this[this.selectedIndex].value);this.selectedIndex=0;">
<option selected>- formatting -</option>
<option value="h1">Title 1 &lt;h1&gt;</option>
<option value="h2">Title 2 &lt;h2&gt;</option>
<option value="h3">Title 3 &lt;h3&gt;</option>
<option value="h4">Title 4 &lt;h4&gt;</option>
<option value="h5">Title 5 &lt;h5&gt;</option>
<option value="h6">Subtitle &lt;h6&gt;</option>
<option value="p">Paragraph &lt;p&gt;</option>
<option value="pre">Preformatted &lt;pre&gt;</option>
</select>
<select onchange="formatDoc('fontname',this[this.selectedIndex].value);this.selectedIndex=0;">
<option class="heading" selected>- font -</option>
<option>Arial</option>
<option>Arial Black</option>
<option>Courier New</option>
<option>Times New Roman</option>
</select>
<select onchange="formatDoc('fontsize',this[this.selectedIndex].value);this.selectedIndex=0;">
<option class="heading" selected>- size -</option>
<option value="1">Very small</option>
<option value="2">A bit small</option>
<option value="3">Normal</option>
<option value="4">Medium-large</option>
<option value="5">Big</option>
<option value="6">Very big</option>
<option value="7">Maximum</option>
</select>
<select onchange="formatDoc('forecolor',this[this.selectedIndex].value);this.selectedIndex=0;">
<option class="heading" selected>- color -</option>
<option value="red">Red</option>
<option value="blue">Blue</option>
<option value="green">Green</option>
<option value="black">Black</option>
</select>
<select onchange="formatDoc('backcolor',this[this.selectedIndex].value);this.selectedIndex=0;">
<option class="heading" selected>- background -</option>
<option value="red">Red</option>
<option value="green">Green</option>
<option value="black">Black</option>
</select>
</div>
<div id="toolBar2">
<img class="intLink" title="Clean" onclick="if(validateMode()&&confirm('Are you sure?')){oDoc.innerHTML=sDefTxt};" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAIQbAD04KTRLYzFRjlldZl9vj1dusY14WYODhpWIbbSVFY6O7IOXw5qbms+wUbCztca0ccS4kdDQjdTLtMrL1O3YitHa7OPcsd/f4PfvrvDv8Pv5xv///////////////////yH5BAEKAB8ALAAAAAAWABYAAAV84CeOZGmeaKqubMteyzK547QoBcFWTm/jgsHq4rhMLoxFIehQQSAWR+Z4IAyaJ0kEgtFoLIzLwRE4oCQWrxoTOTAIhMCZ0tVgMBQKZHAYyFEWEV14eQ8IflhnEHmFDQkAiSkQCI2PDC4QBg+OAJc0ewadNCOgo6anqKkoIQA7" />
<img class="intLink" title="Print" onclick="printDoc();" src="data:image/png;base64,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">
<img class="intLink" title="Undo" onclick="formatDoc('undo');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAOMKADljwliE33mOrpGjuYKl8aezxqPD+7/I19DV3NHa7P///////////////////////yH5BAEKAA8ALAAAAAAWABYAAARR8MlJq7046807TkaYeJJBnES4EeUJvIGapWYAC0CsocQ7SDlWJkAkCA6ToMYWIARGQF3mRQVIEjkkSVLIbSfEwhdRIH4fh/DZMICe3/C4nBQBADs=" />
<img class="intLink" title="Redo" onclick="formatDoc('redo');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAMIHAB1ChDljwl9vj1iE34Kl8aPD+7/I1////yH5BAEKAAcALAAAAAAWABYAAANKeLrc/jDKSesyphi7SiEgsVXZEATDICqBVJjpqWZt9NaEDNbQK1wCQsxlYnxMAImhyDoFAElJasRRvAZVRqqQXUy7Cgx4TC6bswkAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Remove formatting" onclick="formatDoc('removeFormat')" src="data:image/png;base64,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">
<img class="intLink" title="Bold" onclick="formatDoc('bold');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAID/AMDAwAAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAAWABYAQAInhI+pa+H9mJy0LhdgtrxzDG5WGFVk6aXqyk6Y9kXvKKNuLbb6zgMFADs=" />
<img class="intLink" title="Italic" onclick="formatDoc('italic');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAKEDAAAAAF9vj5WIbf///yH5BAEAAAMALAAAAAAWABYAAAIjnI+py+0Po5x0gXvruEKHrF2BB1YiCWgbMFIYpsbyTNd2UwAAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Underline" onclick="formatDoc('underline');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAKECAAAAAF9vj////////yH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAWABYAAAIrlI+py+0Po5zUgAsEzvEeL4Ea15EiJJ5PSqJmuwKBEKgxVuXWtun+DwxCCgA7" />
<img class="intLink" title="Left align" onclick="formatDoc('justifyleft');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAID/AMDAwAAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAAWABYAQAIghI+py+0Po5y02ouz3jL4D4JMGELkGYxo+qzl4nKyXAAAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Center align" onclick="formatDoc('justifycenter');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAID/AMDAwAAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAAWABYAQAIfhI+py+0Po5y02ouz3jL4D4JOGI7kaZ5Bqn4sycVbAQA7" />
<img class="intLink" title="Right align" onclick="formatDoc('justifyright');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAID/AMDAwAAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAAWABYAQAIghI+py+0Po5y02ouz3jL4D4JQGDLkGYxouqzl43JyVgAAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Numbered list" onclick="formatDoc('insertorderedlist');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAMIGAAAAADljwliE35GjuaezxtHa7P///////yH5BAEAAAcALAAAAAAWABYAAAM2eLrc/jDKSespwjoRFvggCBUBoTFBeq6QIAysQnRHaEOzyaZ07Lu9lUBnC0UGQU1K52s6n5oEADs=" />
<img class="intLink" title="Dotted list" onclick="formatDoc('insertunorderedlist');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAMIGAAAAAB1ChF9vj1iE33mOrqezxv///////yH5BAEAAAcALAAAAAAWABYAAAMyeLrc/jDKSesppNhGRlBAKIZRERBbqm6YtnbfMY7lud64UwiuKnigGQliQuWOyKQykgAAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Quote" onclick="formatDoc('formatblock','blockquote');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAIQXAC1NqjFRjkBgmT9nqUJnsk9xrFJ7u2R9qmKBt1iGzHmOrm6Sz4OXw3Odz4Cl2ZSnw6KxyqO306K63bG70bTB0rDI3bvI4P///////////////////////////////////yH5BAEKAB8ALAAAAAAWABYAAAVP4CeOZGmeaKqubEs2CekkErvEI1zZuOgYFlakECEZFi0GgTGKEBATFmJAVXweVOoKEQgABB9IQDCmrLpjETrQQlhHjINrTq/b7/i8fp8PAQA7" />
<img class="intLink" title="Add indentation" onclick="formatDoc('outdent');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAMIHAAAAADljwliE35GjuaezxtDV3NHa7P///yH5BAEAAAcALAAAAAAWABYAAAM2eLrc/jDKCQG9F2i7u8agQgyK1z2EIBil+TWqEMxhMczsYVJ3e4ahk+sFnAgtxSQDqWw6n5cEADs=" />
<img class="intLink" title="Delete indentation" onclick="formatDoc('indent');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAOMIAAAAADljwl9vj1iE35GjuaezxtDV3NHa7P///////////////////////////////yH5BAEAAAgALAAAAAAWABYAAAQ7EMlJq704650B/x8gemMpgugwHJNZXodKsO5oqUOgo5KhBwWESyMQsCRDHu9VOyk5TM9zSpFSr9gsJwIAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Hyperlink" onclick="var sLnk=prompt('Write the URL here','http:\/\/');if(sLnk&&sLnk!=''&&sLnk!='http://'){formatDoc('createlink',sLnk)}" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAOMKAB1ChDRLY19vj3mOrpGjuaezxrCztb/I19Ha7Pv8/f///////////////////////yH5BAEKAA8ALAAAAAAWABYAAARY8MlJq7046827/2BYIQVhHg9pEgVGIklyDEUBy/RlE4FQF4dCj2AQXAiJQDCWQCAEBwIioEMQBgSAFhDAGghGi9XgHAhMNoSZgJkJei33UESv2+/4vD4TAQA7" />
<img class="intLink" title="Cut" onclick="formatDoc('cut');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAIQSAB1ChBFNsRJTySJYwjljwkxwl19vj1dusYODhl6MnHmOrpqbmpGjuaezxrCztcDCxL/I18rL1P///////////////////////////////////////////////////////yH5BAEAAB8ALAAAAAAWABYAAAVu4CeOZGmeaKqubDs6TNnEbGNApNG0kbGMi5trwcA9GArXh+FAfBAw5UexUDAQESkRsfhJPwaH4YsEGAAJGisRGAQY7UCC9ZAXBB+74LGCRxIEHwAHdWooDgGJcwpxDisQBQRjIgkDCVlfmZqbmiEAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Copy" onclick="formatDoc('copy');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAIQcAB1ChBFNsTRLYyJYwjljwl9vj1iE31iGzF6MnHWX9HOdz5GjuYCl2YKl8ZOt4qezxqK63aK/9KPD+7DI3b/I17LM/MrL1MLY9NHa7OPs++bx/Pv8/f///////////////yH5BAEAAB8ALAAAAAAWABYAAAWG4CeOZGmeaKqubOum1SQ/kPVOW749BeVSus2CgrCxHptLBbOQxCSNCCaF1GUqwQbBd0JGJAyGJJiobE+LnCaDcXAaEoxhQACgNw0FQx9kP+wmaRgYFBQNeAoGihCAJQsCkJAKOhgXEw8BLQYciooHf5o7EA+kC40qBKkAAAGrpy+wsbKzIiEAOw==" />
<img class="intLink" title="Paste" onclick="formatDoc('paste');" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhFgAWAIQUAD04KTRLY2tXQF9vj414WZWIbXmOrpqbmpGjudClFaezxsa0cb/I1+3YitHa7PrkIPHvbuPs+/fvrvv8/f///////////////////////////////////////////////yH5BAEAAB8ALAAAAAAWABYAAAWN4CeOZGmeaKqubGsusPvBSyFJjVDs6nJLB0khR4AkBCmfsCGBQAoCwjF5gwquVykSFbwZE+AwIBV0GhFog2EwIDchjwRiQo9E2Fx4XD5R+B0DDAEnBXBhBhN2DgwDAQFjJYVhCQYRfgoIDGiQJAWTCQMRiwwMfgicnVcAAAMOaK+bLAOrtLUyt7i5uiUhADs=" />
</div>
<div id="textBox" contenteditable="true"><p>Lorem ipsum</p></div>
<p id="editMode"><input type="checkbox" name="switchMode" id="switchBox" onchange="setDocMode(this.checked);" /> <label for="switchBox">Show HTML</label></p>
<p><input type="submit" value="Send" /></p>
</form>
</body>
</html>
Note: if you want to see how to standardize the creation and the insertion of your editor in your page, please see our more complete rich-text editor example.

See also

Etiquetas y colaboradores del documento

 Colaboradores en esta página: V.Morantes
 Última actualización por: V.Morantes,