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    Using XMLHttpRequest

    XMLHttpRequest 让发送一个HTTP请求变得非常容易。你只需要简单的创建一个请求对象实例,打开一个URL,然后发送这个请求。当传输完毕后,结果的HTTP状态以及返回的响应内容也可以从请求对象中获取。本页把这个强大的JavaScript对象的一些常用的甚至略有晦涩使用案例进行了一下概述

    function reqListener () {
      console.log(this.responseText);
    }
    
    var oReq = new XMLHttpRequest();
    oReq.onload = reqListener;
    oReq.open("get", "yourFile.txt", true);
    oReq.send();

    请求类型

    通过XMLHttpRequest生成的请求可以有两种方式来获取数据,异步模式或同步模式。请求的类型是由这个XMLHttpRequest对象的open()方法的第三个参数async的值决定的。如果该参数的值为false,则该XMLHttpRequest请求以同步模式进行,否则该过程将以异步模式完成。这两种类型请求的详细讨论和指南可以在同步和异步请求页找到。

    注意:由于对用户体验的糟糕效果,从Gecko 30.0(Firefox 30.0 / Thunderbird 30.0 / SeaMonkey 2.27)版本开始,在主线程上的同步请求已经被弃用。

    处理响应

    W3C规范定义了XMLHttpRequest对象的几种类型的响应属性。这些属性告诉客户端关于XMLHttpRequest返回状态的重要信息。一些处理非文本返回类型的用例可能包含一些下面章节描述的操作和分析。

    Analyzing and manipulating the responseXML property

    If you use XMLHttpRequest to get the content of a remote XML document, the responseXML property will be a DOM Object containing a parsed XML document, which can be hard to manipulate and analyze. There are four primary ways of analyzing this XML document:

    1. Using XPath to address (point to) parts of it.
    2. Using JXON to convert it into a JavaScript Object tree.
    3. Manually Parsing and serializing XML to strings or objects.
    4. Using XMLSerializer to serialize DOM trees to strings or to files.
    5. RegExp can be used if you always know the content of the XML document beforehand. You might want to remove line breaks, if you use RegExp to scan with regard to linebreaks. However, this method is a "last resort" since if the XML code changes slightly, the method will likely fail.

    Analyzing and manipulating a responseText property containing an HTML document

    Note: The W3C XMLHttpRequest specification has added HTML parsing support to XMLHttpRequest, which originally supported only XML parsing. This feature allows Web apps to obtain an HTML resource as a parsed DOM using XMLHttpRequest.responseXML property. Read the article about HTML in XMLHttpRequest for details.

    If you use XMLHttpRequest to get the content of a remote HTML webpage, the responseText property is a string containing a "soup" of all the HTML tags, which can be hard to manipulate and analyze. There are three primary ways of analyzing this HTML soup string:

    1. Safely parsing with nsIScriptableUnescapeHTML will quickly convert the HTML string into DOM, while stripping out JavaScript and other advanced elements, including the <head> of the webpage.
    2. RegExp can be used if you always know the content of the HTML responseText beforehand. You might want to remove line breaks, if you use RegExp to scan with regard to linebreaks. However, this method is a "last resort" since if the HTML code changes slightly, the method will likely fail.
    3. Using a hidden chrome or content-level iframe to load up the webpage can also be done to then manipulate it as DOM, however there are security risks to giving remote code this level of privileged access, which can cause issues for the review of your addon. For example, if a webpage executes the common "document.location = redirecttothispage.html" command on load, this will get interpreted as changing the browser chrome location (document.location in an extension) as opposed to the webpage location (content.document.location in an extension), thus destroying all browser components. Alternatively, and somewhat safer, a responseText string attained through a XMLHttpRequest can be analyzed using RegExp to remove potential JavaScript problems, then loaded into the hidden iframe that you have set up:
    document.getElementById("hiddenXULiframe").contentWindow.document.body.innerHTML = req.responseText
    

    Using FormData objects

    The FormData object lets you compile a set of key/value pairs to send using XMLHttpRequest. Its primarily intended for use in sending form data, but can be used independently from forms in order to transmit keyed data. The transmitted data is in the same format that the form's submit() method would use to send the data if the form's encoding type were set to "multipart/form-data". FormData objects can be utilized in a number of ways with an XMLHttpRequest. For examples and explanations of how one can utilize FormData with XMLHttpRequests see the Using FormData Objects page.

    Handling binary data

    尽管 XMLHttpRequest 一般用来发送和接收文本数据,但其实也可以发送和接受二进制内容。有许多经过良好测试的方法来强制使用 XMLHttpRequest 发送二进制数据。利用 XMLHttpRequest 的  .overrideMimeType() 方法是一个解决方案,虽然它并不是一个标准方法。

    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.open("GET", url, true);
    // retrieve data unprocessed as a binary string
    xhr.overrideMimeType("text/plain; charset=x-user-defined");
    /* ... */
    

    The XMLHttpRequest Level 2 Specification adds new responseType attributes which make sending and receiving binary data much easier.

    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.open("GET", url, true);
    xhr.responseType = "arraybuffer"; 
    xhr.onload = function(e) {
      var arraybuffer = xhr.response; // not responseText
      /* ... */
    }
    xhr.send();
    

    For more examples check out the Sending and Receiving Binary Data page

    Monitoring progress

    XMLHttpRequest provides the ability to listen to various events that can occur while the request is being processed. This includes periodic progress notifications, error notifications, and so forth.

    Support for DOM progress event monitoring of XMLHttpRequest transfers follows the Web API specification for progress events.

    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    
    req.addEventListener("progress", updateProgress, false);
    req.addEventListener("load", transferComplete, false);
    req.addEventListener("error", transferFailed, false);
    req.addEventListener("abort", transferCanceled, false);
    
    req.open();
    
    ...
    
    // progress on transfers from the server to the client (downloads)
    function updateProgress(evt) {
      if (evt.lengthComputable) {
        var percentComplete = evt.loaded / evt.total;
        ...
      } else {
        // Unable to compute progress information since the total size is unknown
      }
    }
    
    function transferComplete(evt) {
      alert("The transfer is complete.");
    }
    
    function transferFailed(evt) {
      alert("An error occurred while transferring the file.");
    }
    
    function transferCanceled(evt) {
      alert("The transfer has been canceled by the user.");
    }
    

    Lines 3-6 add event listeners for the various events that are sent while performing a data transfer using XMLHttpRequest

    Note: You need to add the event listeners before calling open() on the request.  Otherwise the progress events will not fire.

    The progress event handler, specified by the updateProgress() function in this example, receives the total number of bytes to transfer as well as the number of bytes transferred so far in the event's total and loaded fields.  However, if the lengthComputable field is false, the total length is not known and will be zero.

    Progress events exist for both download and upload transfers. The download events are fired on the XMLHttpRequest object itself, as shown in the above sample. The upload events are fired on the XMLHttpRequest.upload object, as shown below:

    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    
    req.upload.addEventListener("progress", updateProgress, false);
    req.upload.addEventListener("load", transferComplete, false);
    req.upload.addEventListener("error", transferFailed, false);
    req.upload.addEventListener("abort", transferCanceled, false);
    
    req.open();
    
    Note: Progress events are not available for the file: protocol.

    Gecko 9.0 note
    (Firefox 9.0 / Thunderbird 9.0 / SeaMonkey 2.6)

    Starting in Gecko 9.0 (Firefox 9.0 / Thunderbird 9.0 / SeaMonkey 2.6), progress events can now be relied upon to come in for every chunk of data received, including the last chunk in cases in which the last packet is received and the connection closed before the progress event is fired. In this case, the progress event is automatically fired when the load event occurs for that packet. This lets you now reliably monitor progress by only watching the "progress" event.

    Gecko 12.0 note
    (Firefox 12.0 / Thunderbird 12.0 / SeaMonkey 2.9)

    If your progress event is called with a responseType of "moz-blob", the value of response is a Blob containing the data received so far.

    One can also detect all three load-ending conditions (abort, load, or error) using the loadend event:

    req.addEventListener("loadend", loadEnd, false);
    
    function loadEnd(evt) {
      alert("The transfer finished (although we don't know if it succeeded or not).");
    } 
    

    Note that there's no way to be certain from the information received by the loadend event as to which condition caused the operation to terminate; however, you can use this to handle tasks that need to be performed in all end-of-transfer scenarios.

    Cross-site XMLHttpRequest

    Modern browsers support cross-site requests by implementing the web applications working group's Access Control for Cross-Site Requests standard.  As long as the server is configured to allow requests from your web application's origin, XMLHttpRequest will work.  Otherwise, an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception is thrown.

    Bypassing the cache

    Normally, XMLHttpRequest tries to retrieve content from the cache, if it's available.  To bypass this, do the following:

    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    req.open('GET', url, false);
    req.channel.loadFlags |= Components.interfaces.nsIRequest.LOAD_BYPASS_CACHE;
    req.send(null);
    Note: This approach will only work in Gecko-based software, as the channel attribute is Gecko-specific.

    An alternate, cross-browser compatible approach is to append a timestamp to the URL, being sure to include a "?" or "&" as appropriate.  For example:

    http://foo.com/bar.html

    becomes

    http://foo.com/bar.html?12345

    and

    http://foo.com/bar.html?foobar=baz

    becomes

    http://foo.com/bar.html?foobar=baz&12345

    Since the local cache is indexed by URL, this causes every request to be unique, thereby bypassing the cache.

    You can automatically adjust URLs using the following code:

    var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
    req.open("GET", url += ((/\?/).test(url) ? "&" : "?") + (new Date()).getTime(), false);
    req.send(null); 

    Security

    The recommended way to enable cross-site scripting is to use the Access-Control-Allow-Origin HTTP header in the response to the XMLHttpRequest.

    XMLHttpRequests being stopped

    If you end up with an XMLHttpRequest having status=0 and statusText=null, it means that the request was not allowed to be performed. It was UNSENT. A likely cause for this is when the XMLHttpRequest origin (at the creation of the XMLHttpRequest) has changed when the XMLHttpRequest is then open(). This case can happen for example when one has an XMLHttpRequest that gets fired on an onunload event for a window: the XMLHttpRequest gets in fact created when the window to be closed is still there, and then the request is sent (ie open()) when this window has lost its focus and potentially different window has gained focus. The way to avoid this problem is to set a listener on the new window "activate" event that gets set when the old window has its "unload" event fired.

    Downloading JSON and JavaScript from extensions

    For security reasons, extensions should never use eval() to parse JSON or JavaScript code downloaded from the web.  See Downloading JSON and JavaScript in extensions for details.

    Using XMLHttpRequest from JavaScript modules / XPCOM components

    Instantiating XMLHttpRequest from a JavaScript module or an XPCOM component works a little differently; it can't be instantiated using the XMLHttpRequest() constructor. The constructor is not defined inside components and the code results in an error. The easiest way to work around this is to use the XMLHttpRequest constructor associated with the hidden DOM window:

    const { XMLHttpRequest } = Components.classes["@mozilla.org/appshell/appShellService;1"]
                                         .getService(Components.interfaces.nsIAppShellService)
                                         .hiddenDOMWindow;
    var req = XMLHttpRequest();
    

    Warning: The following code will create an XMLHttpRequest associated with the nearest available window object. If this window is closed then it will cancel your XMLHttpRequest.

    Gecko 16 note
    (Firefox 16 / Thunderbird 16 / SeaMonkey 2.13)
    This was fixed by bug 756277, so starting from this version it is always safe to create an XMLHttpRequest this way.

    const XMLHttpRequest = Components.Constructor("@mozilla.org/xmlextras/xmlhttprequest;1");
    var req = XMLHttpRequest();
    

    For C++ code, you would need to QueryInterface the component to an nsIEventTarget in order to add event listeners, but chances are that in C++, using a channel directly would be better.

    See also

    1. MDC AJAX introduction
    2. HTTP access control
    3. How to check the security state of an XMLHTTPRequest over SSL
    4. XMLHttpRequest - REST and the Rich User Experience
    5. Microsoft documentation
    6. Apple developers' reference
    7. "Using the XMLHttpRequest Object" (jibbering.com)
    8. The XMLHttpRequest Object: W3C Specification
    9. Web Progress Events specification
    10. Reading Ogg files with JavaScript (Chris Double)

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