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我该怎样开始设计我的网站?

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这篇文章介绍了所有项目最重要的第一步:确定你想要做什么

前提:
目标: 学会设定目标来给自己的web项目导航

概述

当刚开始一个Web项目时,大多数人所关心更多是技术方面。当然你必须先能熟练运用各种工具,但是最关键的其实是你想要做出一个怎样的产品。这看上去很简单,但是有很多的项目的失败并不是因为缺少相应的技术水平,而是缺少一个明确的目标。

所以当你有一个想法并且想把它付诸实践的话,在一切启动之前你首先要问一问自己下面这几个问题:

  • 我到底想完成什么?
  • 网站如何实现我的目标?
  • 做什么,以怎样的顺序,才能达成我的目标?

这就是项目构思(project ideation),这是达成你目标的第一步,无论你是初学者还是经验丰富的开发者。

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深入探索

一个项目永远不应该从技术的一方开始建立。音乐家没办法谱写任何旋律除非他知道他要创作出怎样的歌曲,对于画家、作家、Web开发者来说同样如此。技术是我们接下来才需要考虑的。

技术显然是重要的。音乐家必须精通他们手中的乐器。但再好的音乐家也不能在没有想法的情况下制作出美妙的音乐。因此,在我们考虑技术(采用怎样的编程语言个工具)之前,你首先应该停下来好好想一想关于你想要做出的产品的各种细节。

和朋友们讨论讨论你的想法是一个好的开始,但是光这样还不够。你需要安静地坐下来好好捋一捋你的想法,为了能有一个清晰的思路关于如何实现你的想法。想要做到这些,你只需要一支笔和一张纸并回答下面这些问题。

注意: 有数不清的方法来实现你的想法,这里就不一一列举了。(不单独写本书不足以说明它)我们这里只采用一些简单的方法来处理专业人士所谓的 项目想法, 项目计划项目管理

我到底想完成什么?

这是你需要想清楚的最重要的问题,因为它主导着所有其它的事情。列出你想要达到的左右目标。这个目标可以是任何事情:销售商品来赚钱、发表时政评论......

假设你是一位音乐家,你可能希望:

  • 让人们听你的音乐
  • 卖糖果
  • 拜会其他的音乐家
  • 谈论你的音乐
  • 通过视频教授音乐
  • 将你的爱猫图片发布到互联网
  • 找一个男朋友或女朋友

一旦你有了一张如上的表,你需要按照重要性进行排序(从最重要的到最次要的):

  1. 找一个男朋友或女朋友
  2. 让人们听你的音乐
  3. 谈论你的音乐
  4. 拜会其他的音乐家
  5. 卖糖果
  6. 通过视频教授音乐
  7. 将你的爱猫图片发布到互联网

这些简单的步骤(也就是写下目标并进行分类)将在你需要做出重大决定的时候帮助你(比如,我需要植入这些功能吗?需要使用这些服务吗?需要做这些设计吗?)

现在你有了按照重要程度排序的洌表,我们进入到下一个问题!

网站如何实现我的目标?

现在,你有了一个目录清单,而且你迫切需要一个网站来实现这些目标。你确定吗?

让我们回过头看看我们的例子。我们有5个目标和音乐相关,另一个和日常生活相关(找到你的另一半),还有一个和这些完全无关:猫的照片。建立一个网站来实现这所有的目标合理吗?甚至是必要的吗? 毕竟现有的很多网站服务就能达成你的目标,不需要新建一个网站。

Finding a girl-/boyfriend is a prime case where it makes more sense to use existing resources rather than build a whole new site. Why? Because we'll spend more time building and maintaining the website rather than actually searching for a girl- or boyfriend. Since our goal is what matters most, we should spend our energy on leveraging existing tools rather than starting from scratch. Again, there are so many web services already available for showcasing photos that it isn't worth the effort to build a new site just to spread the word about how cute our cats are.

The other five goals are all connected to music. There are, of course, many web services that could handle these goals, but it makes sense in this case to build a dedicated website of our own. Such a website is the best way to aggregate all the stuff we want to publish in a single place (good for goals 3, 5 and 6) and promote interaction between us and the public (good for goals 2 and 4). In short, since these goals all revolve around the same topic, having everything in one place will help us meet our goals and help our followers connect with us.

How can a website help me reach my goals? By answering that, you'll find the best way to reach your goals and save yourself from wasted effort.

做什么,以怎样的顺序,才能达成我的目标?

Now that you know what you want to accomplish, it's time to turn those goals into actionable steps. As a side note, your goals are not necessarily set in stone. They evolve over time even in the course of the project, if you run across unexpected obstacles or just change your mind.

Rather than a long explanation, let's go back to our example with this table:

目标 要做的事
Let people hear your music
  1. Record music
  2. Prepare some audio files usable online (Could you do this with existing web services?)
  3. Give people access to your music on some part of your website
Talk about your music
  1. Write a few articles to start the discussion
  2. Define how articles should look
  3. Publish those articles on the website (How to do this?)
Meet other musicians
  1. Provide ways for people to contact you (Email? Facebook? Phone? Mail?)
  2. Define how people will find those contact channels from your website
Sell goodies
  1. Create the goodies
  2. Store the goodies
  3. Find a way to handle shipping
  4. Find a way to handle payment
  5. Make a mechanism on your site for people to place orders
Teach music through videos
  1. Record video lessons
  2. Prepare video files viewable online (Again, could you do this with existing web services?)
  3. Give people access to your videos on some part of your website

Two things to notice. First, some of these items are not web-related (e.g., record music, write articles). Often those offline activities matter even more than the web side of the project. In sales, for instance, it's far more important and time-consuming to handle supply, payment, and shipment than to build a website where people can place orders.

Second, setting out actionable steps leads to new questions you'll need to answer. Usually there turn out to be more questions than we thought at first. (For example, should I learn how to do all this myself, ask someone to do it for me, or use third-party services?)

总结

正如你所看到的,一个最简单的“我想建一个网站”的想法,也会产生一个长长的代办事物清单,并且随着你的想法改变而变得更长,很快你就将会被这些事物所淹没。但是不用担心,不是所有清单上的问题都要得到答案,也不是每一件清单上的事情都需要完成。重要的是你首先要弄清楚目标是什么,以及如何实现它。目前确定之后,你需要决定什么时候以及如何来实现它。将大的目标分成小的,较容易且可控制的目标,逐一实现它们,你就能达成那个在之前看起来是不可能的目标。

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 此页面的贡献者: ziyouwa, Zeng, MinimalistYing, ziyunfei, wth
 最后编辑者: ziyouwa,