Как выбрать текстовый редактор?

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In this article we highlight some things to think about when installing a text editor for web development.

Необходимые знания:

Вы уже должны знать о различных программах, необходимых для создания веб-сайта.

Цель:

Узнать, как выбрать текстовый редактор, который наилучшим образом соответствует вашим потребностям в качестве веб-разработчика.

Summary

Веб-сайт состоит в основном из текстовых файлов, поэтому для веселого и приятного процесса разработки вы должны выбрать свой текстовый редактор с умом.

Огромное количество вариантов немного ошеломляет, так как текстовый редактор настолько важен для компьютерных наук (да, веб-разработка - это компьютерная наука). В идеале вы должны попробовать столько редакторов, сколько сможете, и почувствовать, что соответствует вашему рабочему процессу. Но мы дадим вам несколько советов для начала.

Вот основные вопросы, на которые вы должны ответить:

  • С какой ОС (операционной системой) я хочу работать?
  • Какие технологии я хочу использовать?
  • Какие основные функции я ожидаю от моего текстового редактора?
  • Хочу ли я добавить дополнительные функции в мой текстовый редактор?
  • Нужна ли мне поддержка / помощь при использовании моего текстового редактора?
  • Имеет ли смысл мой текстовый редактор для меня?

Обратите внимание, что мы не упомянули цену. Очевидно, что это тоже важно, но стоимость продукта мало связана с его качеством или возможностями. Существует большая вероятность, что вы найдете подходящий текстовый редактор бесплатно.

Here are some popular editors:

Редактор Лицензия Цена ОС Поддержка Док. Расширяемый
Atom MIT/BSD Free Windows, Mac, Linux Forum Online Manual Yes
Brackets MIT/BSD Free Windows, Mac, Linux Forum, IRC GitHub Wiki Yes
Coda Closed source $99 Mac Twitter, Forum, E-mail eBook Yes
CodeLobster Closed source Free Windows, Mac, Linux Forum, E-mail No end user doc Yes
Emacs GPL 3 Free Windows, Mac, Linux FAQ, Mailing list, News Group Online Manual Yes
Espresso Closed source $75 Mac FAQ, E-mail No end user doc,
but plug-in doc
Yes
Gedit GPL Free Windows, Mac, Linux Mailing list, IRC Online Manual Yes
Komodo Edit MPL Free Windows, Mac, Linux Forum Online Manual Yes
Notepad++ GPL Free Windows Forum Wiki Yes
PSPad Closed source Free Windows FAQ, Forum Online Help Yes
Sublime Text Closed source $70 Windows, Mac, Linux Forum Official, Unofficial Yes
TextMate Closed source $50 Mac Twitter, IRC, Mailing list, E-mail Online Manual, Wiki Yes
TextWrangler Closed source Free Mac FAQ, Forum PDF Manual No
Vim Specific open license Free Windows, Mac, Linux Mailing list Online Manual Yes
Visual Studio Code Open Source under MIT licence/ Specific licence for product Free Windows, Mac, Linux FAQ      Documentation Yes

Активное изучение

Активное изучение пока не доступно. Пожалуйста, рассмотрите возможность внести свой вклад.

Копай глебже

Критерии выбора

Итак, более подробно, о чем вы должны думать, когда выбираете текстовый редактор?

С какой ОС (операционной системой) я хочу работать?

Конечно, это Ваш выбор. Однако некоторые редакторы доступны только для определенных ОС, поэтому, если Вам нравится переключаться вперед и назад, это сузит возможности. Любой текстовый редактор может выполнить работу, если он работает в вашей системе, но кроссплатформенный редактор облегчает переход с ОС на ОС.

So first find out which OS you're using, and then check if a given editor supports your OS. Most editors specify on their website whether they support Windows or Mac, though some editors only support certain versions (say, only Windows 7 or later and not Vista). If you're running Ubuntu, your best bet is to search within the Ubuntu Software Center. In general, of course, the Linux/UNIX world is a pretty diverse place where different distros work with different, incompatible packaging systems. That means, if you've set your heart on an obscure text editor, you may have to compile it from source yourself (not for the faint-hearted).

What kind of technologies do I want to manipulate?

Generally speaking, any text editor can open any text file. That works great for writing notes to yourself, but when you're doing web development and writing in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you can produce some pretty large, complex files. Make it easier on yourself by choosing a text editor that understands the technologies you're working with. Many text editors help you out with features like

  • Code coloring. Make your file more legible by color-coding keywords based on the technology you're using.
  • Code completion. Save you time by auto-completing recurring structures (for example, automatically close HTML tags, or suggesting valid values for a given CSS property).
  • Code snippets. As you saw when starting a new HTML document, many technologies use the same document structure over and over. Save yourself the hassle of retyping all this by using a code snippet to pre-fill your document.

Most text editors now support code coloring, but not necessarily the other two features. Make sure in particular that your text editor color-codes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

What kind of basic features do I expect from my text editor?

It depends on your needs and plans. These functionalities are often helpful:

  • Search-and-replace, in one or multiple documents, based on regular expressions or other patterns as needed
  • Quickly jump to a given line
  • View two parts of a large document separately
  • View HTML as it will look in the browser
  • Select text in multiple places at once
  • View your project's files and directories
  • Format your code automatically with code beautifier
  • Check spelling

Do I want to add extra features to my text editor?

An extensible editor comes with fewer built-in features, but can be extended based on your needs.

If you aren't sure which features you want, or your favorite editor lacks those features out of the box, look for an extensible editor. The best editors provide many plugins, and ideally a way to look for and install new plugins automatically.

If you like lots of features and your editor is slowing down because of all your plugins, try using an IDE (integrated development environment). An IDE provides many tools in one interface and it's a bit daunting for beginners, but always an option if your text editor feels too limited. Here are some popular IDEs:

Do I need support/help while using my text editor?

Always good to know if you can get help or not when using software. For text editors, check for two different kinds of support:

  1. User-oriented content (FAQ, manual, online help)
  2. Discussion with developers and other users (forum, email, IRC)

Use the written documentation when you're learning how to use the editor. Get in touch with other users if you're troubleshooting while installing or using the editor.

Does my text editor's look-and-feel matter to me?

Well, that's a matter of taste, but some people like customizing every bit of the UI (user interface), from colors to button positions. Editors vary widely in flexibility, so check beforehand. It's not hard to find a text editor that can change color scheme, but if you want hefty customizing you may be better off with an IDE.

Install and set up

Installing a text editor is usually quite straightforward. The method varies based on your platform but it shouldn't be too hard:

  • Windows. The developers will give you an .exe or .msi file. Sometimes the software comes in a compressed archive like .zip, .7z, or .rar, and in that case you'll need to install an additional program to extract the content from the archive. Windows supports .zip by default.
  • Mac. On the editor's website you can download a .dmg file. Some text editors you can find directly in the Apple Store to make installation even simpler.
  • Linux. In the most popular distros you can start with your graphical package manager (Ubuntu Software Center, mintInstall, GNOME Software, &c.). You can often find a .deb or .rpm file for prepackaged software, but most of the time you'll have to use your distro's repository server or, in worst case scenario, compile your editor from source. Take the time to carefully check the installation instructions on the text editor's website.

When you install a new text editor, your OS will probably continue to open text files with its default editor until you change the file association. These instructions will help you specify that your OS should open files in your preferred editor when you double-click them:

Next steps

Now that you have a good text editor, you could take some time to finalize your basic working environment, or, if you want to play with it right away, write your very first web page.