Returns a Location object, which contains information about the URL of the document and provides methods for changing that URL. You can also assign to this property to load another URL.


var locationObj = window.location;
window.location = newLocation;


  • locationObj is an object of type Location, providing information about the current URL and methods to change it. Its properties and methods are described below.
  • newLocation is a Location object or a string, specifying the URL to navigate to.

Location object

This section describes the properties and methods of the location object.

Use as a string

Location objects have a toString method returning the current URL. You can also assign a string to window.location. This means that you can work with window.location as if it were a string in most cases. Sometimes, for example when you need to call a String method on it, you have to explicitly call toString:



All of the following properties are strings. You can read them to get information about the current URL or set them to navigate to another URL.

The "Example" column contains the values of the properties of the following URL:

  • http://[]:80/search?q=devmo#test
Property Description Example
hash the part of the URL that follows the # symbol, including the # symbol. You can listen for the hashchange event (en-US) to get notified of changes to the hash in supporting browsers. #test
host the host name and port number. []:80
hostname the host name (without the port number or square brackets).
href the entire URL. http://[]:80/search?q=devmo#test
pathname the path (relative to the host). /search
port the port number of the URL. 80
protocol the protocol of the URL. http:
search the part of the URL that follows the ? symbol, including the ? symbol. ?q=devmo

If the hash part of the URL contains encoded characters (see Core_JavaScript_1.5_Reference:Global_Functions:encodeURIComponent), hash returns the decoded URL part. This is a bug in Firefox. href, search and pathname return the correct, encoded URL parts. For example:


results in:

  • hash=#Fire fox
  • search=?q=Fire%20fox


Method Description
assign(url) Load the document at the provided URL.
reload(forceget) Reload the document from the current URL. forceget is a boolean, which, when it is true, causes the page to always be reloaded from the server. If it is false or not specified, the browser may reload the page from its cache.
replace(url) Replace the current document with the one at the provided URL. The difference from the assign() method is that after using replace() the current page will not be saved in session history, meaning the user won't be able to use the Back button to navigate to it.
toString() Returns the string representation of the Location object's URL. See the JavaScript reference for details.


Whenever a property of the location object is modified, a document will be loaded using the URL as if window.location.assign() had been called with the modified URL.

Replace the current document with the one at the given URL:

function goMoz() {
   window.location = "";

// in html: <button onclick="goMoz();">Mozilla</button>

備註: The example above works in situations where window.location.hash does not need to be retained. However, in Gecko-based browsers, setting window.location.pathname in this manner will erase any information in window.location.hash, whereas in WebKit (and possibly other browsers), setting the pathname will not alter the the hash. If you need to change pathname but keep the hash as is, use the replace() method instead, which should work consistently across browsers.

Consider the following example, which will reload the page by using the replace() method to insert the value of window.location.pathname into the hash (similar to Twitter's reload of to!/username):

function reloadPageWithHash() {
  var initialPage = window.location.pathname;
  window.location.replace('' + initialPage);

Display the properties of the current URL in an alert dialog:

function showLoc() {
  var oLocation = window.location, aLog = ["Property (Typeof): Value", "window.location (" + (typeof oLocation) + "): " + oLocation ];
  for (var sProp in oLocation){
    aLog.push(sProp + " (" + (typeof oLocation[sProp]) + "): " +  (oLocation[sProp] || "n/a"));

// in html: <button onclick="showLoc();">Show location properties</button>

Send a string of data to the server by modifying the search property:

function sendData (sData) { = sData;

// in html: <button onclick="sendData('Some data');">Send data</button>

The current URL with "?Some%20data" appended is sent to the server (if no action is taken by the server, the current document is reloaded with the modified search string).

Get the value of a single key:

function loadPageVar (sVar) {
  return unescape( RegExp("^(?:.*[&\\?]" + escape(sVar).replace(/[\.\+\*]/g, "\\$&") + "(?:\\=([^&]*))?)?.*$", "i"), "$1"));


Nestle the variables obtained through the string in an object named oGetVars:

var oGetVars = {};

if ( > 1) {
  for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples ="&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
    aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
    oGetVars[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? unescape(aItKey[1]) : "";

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

…the same thing obtained by an anonymous constructor – useful for a global variable declaration:

var oGetVars = new (function (sSearch) {
  if (sSearch.length > 1) {
    for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = sSearch.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
      aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
      this[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? unescape(aItKey[1]) : "";

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

Nestle the variables obtained through the string in an object named oGetVars, also attempting to recognize their typeof:

var oGetVars = {};

function buildValue(sValue) {
  if (/^\s*$/.test(sValue)) { return null; }
  if (/^(true|false)$/i.test(sValue)) { return sValue.toLowerCase() === "true"; }
  if (isFinite(sValue)) { return parseFloat(sValue); }
  if (isFinite(Date.parse(sValue))) { return new Date(sValue); }
  return sValue;

if ( > 1) {
  for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples ="&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
    aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
    oGetVars[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? buildValue(unescape(aItKey[1])) : null;

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

…the same thing obtained by an anonymous constructor – useful for a global variable declaration:

var oGetVars = new (function (sSearch) {
  var rNull = /^\s*$/, rBool = /^(true|false)$/i;
  function buildValue(sValue) {
    if (rNull.test(sValue)) { return null; }
    if (rBool.test(sValue)) { return sValue.toLowerCase() === "true"; }
    if (isFinite(sValue)) { return parseFloat(sValue); }
    if (isFinite(Date.parse(sValue))) { return new Date(sValue); }
    return sValue;
  if (sSearch.length > 1) {
    for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = sSearch.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
      aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
      this[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? buildValue(unescape(aItKey[1])) : null;

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

Using bookmars without changing the window.location.hash property:

<!doctype html>
<meta content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
<title>MDN Example</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
function showNode (oNode) {
  var nLeft = 0, nTop = 0;
  for (var oItNode = oNode; oItNode; nLeft += oItNode.offsetLeft, nTop += oItNode.offsetTop, oItNode = oItNode.offsetParent);
  document.documentElement.scrollTop = nTop;
  document.documentElement.scrollLeft = nLeft;

function showBookmark (sBookmark, bUseHash) {
  if (arguments.length === 1 || bUseHash) { window.location.hash = sBookmark; return; }
  var oBookmark = document.querySelector(sBookmark);
  if (oBookmark) { showNode(oBookmark); }
<style type="text/css">
span.intLink {
    cursor: pointer;
    color: #0000ff;
    text-decoration: underline;

<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam ultrices dolor ac dolor imperdiet ullamcorper. Suspendisse quam libero, luctus auctor mollis sed, malesuada condimentum magna. Quisque in ante tellus, in placerat est. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Donec a mi magna, quis mattis dolor. Etiam sit amet ligula quis urna auctor imperdiet nec faucibus ante. Mauris vel consectetur dolor. Nunc eget elit eget velit pulvinar fringilla consectetur aliquam purus. Curabitur convallis, justo posuere porta egestas, velit erat ornare tortor, non viverra justo diam eget arcu. Phasellus adipiscing fermentum nibh ac commodo. Nam turpis nunc, suscipit a hendrerit vitae, volutpat non ipsum.</p>
<p>Duis lobortis sapien quis nisl luctus porttitor. In tempor semper libero, eu tincidunt dolor eleifend sit amet. Ut nec velit in dolor tincidunt rhoncus non non diam. Morbi auctor ornare orci, non euismod felis gravida nec. Curabitur elementum nisi a eros rutrum nec blandit diam placerat. Aenean tincidunt risus ut nisi consectetur cursus. Ut vitae quam elit. Donec dignissim est in quam tempor consequat. Aliquam aliquam diam non felis convallis suscipit. Nulla facilisi. Donec lacus risus, dignissim et fringilla et, egestas vel eros. Duis malesuada accumsan dui, at fringilla mauris bibendum quis. Cras adipiscing ultricies fermentum. Praesent bibendum condimentum feugiat.</p>
<p id="myBookmark1">[&nbsp;<span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark2');">Go to bookmark #2</span>&nbsp;]</p>
<p>Vivamus blandit massa ut metus mattis in fringilla lectus imperdiet. Proin ac ante a felis ornare vehicula. Fusce pellentesque lacus vitae eros convallis ut mollis magna pellentesque. Pellentesque placerat enim at lacus ultricies vitae facilisis nisi fringilla. In tincidunt tincidunt tincidunt. Nulla vitae tempor nisl. Etiam congue, elit vitae egestas mollis, ipsum nisi malesuada turpis, a volutpat arcu arcu id risus.</p>
<p>Nam faucibus, ligula eu fringilla pulvinar, lectus tellus iaculis nunc, vitae scelerisque metus leo non metus. Proin mattis lobortis lobortis. Quisque accumsan faucibus erat, vel varius tortor ultricies ac. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Sed nec libero nunc. Nullam tortor nunc, elementum a consectetur et, ultrices eu orci. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Pellentesque a nisl eu sem vehicula egestas.</p>
<p>Aenean viverra varius mauris, sed elementum lacus interdum non. Phasellus sit amet lectus vitae eros egestas pellentesque fermentum eget magna. Quisque mauris nisl, gravida vitae placerat et, condimentum id metus. Nulla eu est dictum dolor pulvinar volutpat. Pellentesque vitae sollicitudin nunc. Donec neque magna, lobortis id egestas nec, sodales quis lectus. Fusce cursus sollicitudin porta. Suspendisse ut tortor in mauris tincidunt rhoncus. Maecenas tincidunt fermentum facilisis. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.</p>
<p>Suspendisse turpis nisl, consectetur in lacinia ut, ornare vel mi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Proin non lectus eu turpis vulputate cursus. Mauris interdum tincidunt erat id pharetra. Nullam in libero elit, sed consequat lectus. Morbi odio nisi, porta vitae molestie ut, gravida ut nunc. Ut non est dui, id ullamcorper orci. Praesent vel elementum felis. Maecenas ornare, dui quis auctor hendrerit, turpis sem ullamcorper odio, in auctor magna metus quis leo. Morbi at odio ante.</p>
<p>Curabitur est ipsum, porta ac viverra faucibus, eleifend sed eros. In sit amet vehicula tortor. Vestibulum viverra pellentesque erat a elementum. Integer commodo ultricies lorem, eget tincidunt risus viverra et. In enim turpis, porttitor ac ornare et, suscipit sit amet nisl. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Pellentesque vel ultrices nibh. Sed commodo aliquam aliquam. Nulla euismod, odio ut eleifend mollis, nisi dui gravida nibh, vitae laoreet turpis purus id ipsum. Donec convallis, velit non scelerisque bibendum, diam nulla auctor nunc, vel dictum risus ipsum sit amet est. Praesent ut nibh sit amet nibh congue pulvinar. Suspendisse dictum porttitor tempor.</p>
<p>Vestibulum dignissim erat vitae lectus auctor ac bibendum eros semper. Integer aliquet, leo non ornare faucibus, risus arcu tristique dolor, a aliquet massa mauris quis arcu. In porttitor, lectus ac semper egestas, ligula magna laoreet libero, eu commodo mauris odio id ante. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. In pretium erat diam, nec consequat eros. Praesent augue mi, consequat sed porttitor at, volutpat vitae eros. Sed pretium pharetra dapibus. Donec auctor interdum erat, lacinia molestie nibh commodo ut. Maecenas vestibulum vulputate felis, ut ullamcorper arcu faucibus in. Curabitur id arcu est. In semper mollis lorem at pellentesque. Sed lectus nisl, vestibulum id scelerisque eu, feugiat et tortor. Pellentesque porttitor facilisis ultricies.</p>
<p id="myBookmark2">[&nbsp;<span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark1');">Go to bookmark #1</span> | <span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark1', false);">Go to bookmark #1 without using location.hash</span> | <span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark3');">Go to bookmark #3</span>&nbsp;]</p>
<p>Phasellus tempus fringilla nunc, eget sagittis orci molestie vel. Nulla sollicitudin diam non quam iaculis ac porta justo venenatis. Quisque tellus urna, molestie vitae egestas sit amet, suscipit sed sem. Quisque nec lorem eu velit faucibus tristique ut ut dolor. Cras eu tortor ut libero placerat venenatis ut ut massa. Sed quis libero augue, et consequat libero. Morbi rutrum augue sed turpis elementum sed luctus nisl molestie. Aenean vitae purus risus, a semper nisl. Pellentesque malesuada, est id sagittis consequat, libero mauris tincidunt tellus, eu sagittis arcu purus rutrum eros. Quisque eget eleifend mi. Duis pharetra mi ac eros mattis lacinia rutrum ipsum varius.</p>
<p>Fusce cursus pulvinar aliquam. Duis justo enim, ornare vitae elementum sed, porta a quam. Aliquam eu enim eu libero mollis tempus. Morbi ornare aliquam posuere. Proin faucibus luctus libero, sed ultrices lorem sagittis et. Vestibulum malesuada, ante nec molestie vehicula, quam diam mollis ipsum, rhoncus posuere mauris lectus in eros. Nullam feugiat ultrices augue, ac sodales sem mollis in.</p>
<p id="myBookmark3"><em>Here is the bookmark #3</em></p>
<p>Proin vitae sem non lorem pellentesque molestie. Nam tempus massa et turpis placerat sit amet sollicitudin orci sodales. Pellentesque enim enim, sagittis a lobortis ut, tempus sed arcu. Aliquam augue turpis, varius vel bibendum ut, aliquam at diam. Nam lobortis, dui eu hendrerit pellentesque, sem neque porttitor erat, non dapibus velit lectus in metus. Vestibulum sit amet felis enim. In quis est vitae nunc malesuada consequat nec nec sapien. Suspendisse aliquam massa placerat dui lacinia luctus sed vitae risus. Fusce tempus, neque id ultrices volutpat, mi urna auctor arcu, viverra semper libero sem vel enim. Mauris dictum, elit non placerat malesuada, libero elit euismod nibh, nec posuere massa arcu eu risus. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer urna velit, dapibus eget varius feugiat, pellentesque sit amet ligula. Maecenas nulla nisl, facilisis eu egestas scelerisque, mollis eget metus. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Morbi sed congue mi.</p>
<p>Fusce metus velit, pharetra at vestibulum nec, facilisis porttitor mi. Curabitur ligula sapien, fermentum vel porttitor id, rutrum sit amet magna. Sed sit amet sollicitudin turpis. Aenean luctus rhoncus dolor, et pulvinar ante egestas et. Donec ac massa orci, quis dapibus augue. Vivamus consectetur auctor pellentesque. Praesent vestibulum tincidunt ante sed consectetur. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce purus metus, imperdiet vitae iaculis convallis, bibendum vitae turpis.</p>
<p>Fusce aliquet molestie dolor, in ornare dui sodales nec. In molestie sollicitudin felis a porta. Mauris nec orci sit amet orci blandit tristique congue nec nunc. Praesent et tellus sollicitudin mauris accumsan fringilla. Morbi sodales, justo eu sollicitudin lacinia, lectus sapien ullamcorper eros, quis molestie urna elit bibendum risus. Proin eget tincidunt quam. Nam luctus commodo mauris, eu posuere nunc luctus non. Nulla facilisi. Vivamus eget leo rhoncus quam accumsan fringilla. Aliquam sit amet lorem est. Nullam vel tellus nibh, id imperdiet orci. Integer egestas leo eu turpis blandit scelerisque.</p>
<p>Etiam in blandit tellus. Integer sed varius quam. Vestibulum dapibus mi gravida arcu viverra blandit. Praesent tristique augue id sem adipiscing pellentesque. Sed sollicitudin, leo sed interdum elementum, nisi ante condimentum leo, eget ornare libero diam semper quam. Vivamus augue urna, porta eget ultrices et, dapibus ut ligula. Ut laoreet consequat faucibus. Praesent at lectus ut lectus malesuada mollis. Nam interdum adipiscing eros, nec sodales mi porta nec. Proin et quam vitae sem interdum aliquet. Proin vel odio at lacus vehicula aliquet.</p>
<p>Etiam placerat dui ut sem ornare vel vestibulum augue mattis. Sed semper malesuada mi, eu bibendum lacus lobortis nec. Etiam fringilla elementum risus, eget consequat urna laoreet nec. Etiam mollis quam non sem convallis vel consectetur lectus ullamcorper. Aenean mattis lacus quis ligula mattis eget vestibulum diam hendrerit. In non placerat mauris. Praesent faucibus nunc quis eros sagittis viverra. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Suspendisse eget nisl erat, ac molestie massa. Praesent mollis vestibulum tincidunt. Fusce suscipit laoreet malesuada. Aliquam erat volutpat. Aliquam dictum elementum rhoncus. Praesent in est massa, pulvinar sodales nunc. Pellentesque gravida euismod mi ac convallis.</p>
<p>Mauris vel odio vel nulla facilisis lacinia. Aliquam ultrices est at leo blandit tincidunt. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Suspendisse porttitor adipiscing facilisis. Duis cursus quam iaculis augue interdum porttitor. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Duis vulputate magna ac metus pretium condimentum. In tempus, est eget vestibulum blandit, velit massa dignissim nisl, ut scelerisque lorem neque vel velit. Maecenas fermentum commodo viverra. Curabitur a nibh non velit aliquam cursus. Integer semper condimentum tortor a pellentesque. Pellentesque semper, nisl id porttitor vehicula, sem dui feugiat lacus, vitae consequat augue urna vel odio.</p>
<p>Vestibulum id neque nec turpis iaculis pulvinar et a massa. Vestibulum sed nibh vitae arcu eleifend egestas. Mauris fermentum ultrices blandit. Suspendisse vitae lorem libero. Aenean et pellentesque tellus. Morbi quis neque orci, eu dignissim dui. Fusce sollicitudin mauris ac arcu vestibulum imperdiet. Proin ultricies nisl sit amet enim imperdiet eu ornare dui tempus. Maecenas lobortis nisi a tortor vestibulum vel eleifend tellus vestibulum. Donec metus sapien, hendrerit a fermentum id, dictum quis libero.</p>
<p>Pellentesque a lorem nulla, in tempor justo. Duis odio nisl, dignissim sed consequat sit amet, hendrerit ac neque. Nunc ac augue nec massa tempor rhoncus. Nam feugiat, tellus a varius euismod, justo nisl faucibus velit, ut vulputate justo massa eu nibh. Sed bibendum urna quis magna facilisis in accumsan dolor malesuada. Morbi sit amet nunc risus, in faucibus sem. Nullam sollicitudin magna sed sem mollis id commodo libero condimentum. Duis eu massa et lacus semper molestie ut adipiscing sem.</p>
<p>Sed id nulla mi, eget suscipit eros. Aliquam tempus molestie rutrum. In quis varius elit. Nullam dignissim neque nec velit vulputate porttitor. Mauris ac ligula sit amet elit fermentum rhoncus. In tellus urna, pulvinar quis condimentum ut, porta nec justo. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Proin volutpat elit id quam molestie ac commodo lacus sagittis. Quisque placerat, augue tempor placerat pulvinar, nisi nisi venenatis urna, eget convallis eros velit quis magna. Suspendisse volutpat iaculis quam, ut tristique lacus luctus quis.</p>
<p>Nullam commodo suscipit lacus non aliquet. Phasellus ac nisl lorem, sed facilisis ligula. Nam cursus lobortis placerat. Sed dui nisi, elementum eu sodales ac, placerat sit amet mauris. Pellentesque dapibus tellus ut ipsum aliquam eu auctor dui vehicula. Quisque ultrices laoreet erat, at ultrices tortor sodales non. Sed venenatis luctus magna, ultricies ultricies nunc fringilla eget. Praesent scelerisque urna vitae nibh tristique varius consequat neque luctus. Integer ornare, erat a porta tempus, velit justo fermentum elit, a fermentum metus nisi eu ipsum. Vivamus eget augue vel dui viverra adipiscing congue ut massa. Praesent vitae eros erat, pulvinar laoreet magna. Maecenas vestibulum mollis nunc in posuere. Pellentesque sit amet metus a turpis lobortis tempor eu vel tortor. Cras sodales eleifend interdum.</p>

備註: The function showNode is also an example of the use of the for cycle without a statement section. In this case a semicolon is always put immediately after the declaration of the cycle.

…the same thing but with a dynamic page scroll:

var showBookmark = (function () {
  var  _useHash, _scrollX, _scrollY, _nodeX, _nodeY, _itFrame, _scrollId = -1, _bookMark,
       * nDuration: the duration in milliseconds of each frame
       * nFrames: number of frames for each scroll
       nDuration = 200, nFrames = 10;

  function _next () {
    if (_itFrame > nFrames) { clearInterval(_scrollId); _scrollId = -1; return; }
    _isBot = true;
    document.documentElement.scrollTop = Math.round(_scrollY + (_nodeY - _scrollY) * _itFrame / nFrames);
    document.documentElement.scrollLeft = Math.round(_scrollX + (_nodeX - _scrollX) * _itFrame / nFrames);
    if (_useHash && _itFrame === nFrames) { location.hash = _bookMark; }

  function _chkOwner () {
    if (_isBot) { _isBot = false; return; }
    if (_scrollId > -1) { clearInterval(_scrollId); _scrollId = -1; }

  if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener("scroll", _chkOwner, false); }
  else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent("onscroll", _chkOwner); }

  return function (sBookmark, bUseHash) {
    _scrollY = document.documentElement.scrollTop;
    _scrollX = document.documentElement.scrollLeft;
    _bookMark = sBookmark;
    _useHash = arguments.length === 1 || bUseHash;
    for (
      var nLeft = 0, nTop = 0, oNode = document.querySelector(sBookmark);
      nLeft += oNode.offsetLeft, nTop += oNode.offsetTop, oNode = oNode.offsetParent
    _nodeX = nLeft, _nodeY = nTop, _itFrame = 1;
    if (_scrollId === -1) { _scrollId = setInterval(_next, Math.round(nDuration / nFrames)); }

See also

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser