Window

window 物件代表了一個包含 DOM 文件的視窗,其中的 document 屬性指向了視窗中載入的 Document 物件。而使用 document defaultView 屬性,則可取得該 Document 物件所在的視窗 window 物件。

本節提供了 DOM window 物件的所有方法、屬性以及事件的說明。window 物件實作了 Window 介面,而 Window 介面則繼承自 AbstractView 介面。一些額外、與 window 物件沒有直接關係,但卻置於 window 物件中的全域函式、命名空間、物件、介面以及建構式,將會在 JavaScript 參考文件文件物件模型(DOM)中說明。

在支援分頁的瀏覽器中(如 Firefox),每一個分頁標籤都擁有自己的 window 物件(如果你正在撰寫瀏覽器附加元件,瀏覽器視窗本身也是一個個別的 window-請參閱 Working with windows in chrome code),分頁不會於同一個瀏覽器視窗中共享 window 物件。但有部分的方法,如 window.resizeTo() (en-US)window.resizeBy() (en-US) 會套用至整個視窗,而不只是該 window 物件所屬的分頁標籤。一般來說,若無法適當的應用於分頁,便會套用至瀏覽器視窗。

屬性

This interface inherits properties from the EventTarget interface and implements properties from the WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope and WindowEventHandlers mixins.

請注意,指向物件的屬性(例如覆蓋了內建物件原型的元素)會在另外的列表中說明。

Window.applicationCache (en-US) Read only
指向 OfflineResourceList 物件,此物件提供了視窗的離線資源。
Window.closed (en-US) Read only
This property indicates whether the current window is closed or not.
Window.Components
The entry point to many XPCOM features. Some properties, e.g. classes, are only available to sufficiently privileged code. Web code should not use this property.
Window.console (en-US) Read only
Returns a reference to the console object which provides access to the browser's debugging console.
Window.content (en-US) and Window._content This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work. Read only
Returns a reference to the content element in the current window. The obsolete variant with underscore is no longer available from Web content.
Window.controllers Read only
Returns the XUL controller objects for the current chrome window.
Window.crypto (en-US) Read only
Returns the browser crypto object.
Window.defaultStatus (en-US) 已過時 Gecko 23
Gets/sets the status bar text for the given window.
Window.devicePixelRatio (en-US) Read only
Returns the ratio between physical pixels and device independent pixels in the current display.
Window.dialogArguments (en-US) Read only
Gets the arguments passed to the window (if it's a dialog box) at the time window.showModalDialog() (en-US) was called. This is an nsIArray.
Window.directories This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Synonym of window.personalbar (en-US)
Window.document (en-US) Read only
指向此 window 中的 document 物件。
Window.frameElement (en-US) Read only
Returns the element in which the window is embedded, or null if the window is not embedded.
Window.frames (en-US) Read only
Returns an array of the subframes in the current window.
Window.fullScreen (en-US)
此屬性表示目前視窗是否為全螢幕顯示。
Window.globalStorage 已過時 Gecko 13
Unsupported since Gecko 13 (Firefox 13). Use Window.localStorage instead.
Was: Multiple storage objects that are used for storing data across multiple pages.
Window.history Read only
指向 history 物件。
Window.innerHeight (en-US) Read only
取得視窗內的網頁內容高度,包含水平捲軸。
Window.innerWidth (en-US) Read only
取得視窗內的網頁內容寬度,包含垂直捲軸。
Window.isSecureContext Read only
Indicates whether a context is capable of using features that require secure contexts.
Window.length (en-US) Read only
Returns the number of frames in the window. See also window.frames (en-US).
Window.location
Gets/sets the location, or current URL, of the window object.
Window.locationbar (en-US) Read only
Returns the locationbar object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.localStorage Read only
Returns a reference to the local storage object used to store data that may only be accessed by the origin that created it.
Window.menubar (en-US) Read only
Returns the menubar object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.messageManager
Returns the message manager object for this window.
Window.mozAnimationStartTime (en-US) Read only
The time in milliseconds since epoch at which the current animation cycle began.
Window.mozInnerScreenX (en-US) Read only
Returns the horizontal (X) coordinate of the top-left corner of the window's viewport, in screen coordinates. This value is reported in CSS pixels. See mozScreenPixelsPerCSSPixel in nsIDOMWindowUtils for a conversion factor to adapt to screen pixels if needed.
Window.mozInnerScreenY (en-US) Read only
Returns the vertical (Y) coordinate of the top-left corner of the window's viewport, in screen coordinates. This value is reported in CSS pixels. See mozScreenPixelsPerCSSPixel for a conversion factor to adapt to screen pixels if needed.
Window.mozPaintCount (en-US) Read only
Returns the number of times the current document has been rendered to the screen in this window. This can be used to compute rendering performance.
Window.name (en-US)
Gets/sets the name of the window.
Window.navigator Read only
Returns a reference to the navigator object.
Window.opener
Returns a reference to the window that opened this current window.
Window.orientation (en-US) Read only
Returns the orientation in degrees (in 90 degree increments) of the viewport relative to the device's natural orientation.
Window.outerHeight (en-US) Read only
取得瀏覽器視窗的高度。
Window.outerWidth (en-US) Read only
取得瀏覽器視窗的寬度。
Window.pageXOffset (en-US) Read only
An alias for window.scrollX (en-US).
Window.pageYOffset (en-US)Read only
An alias for window.scrollY (en-US)
Window.sessionStorage Read only
Returns a reference to the session storage object used to store data that may only be accessed by the origin that created it.
Window.parent (en-US) Read only
Returns a reference to the parent of the current window or subframe.
Window.performance (en-US) Read only
Returns a Performance object, which includes the timing and navigation (en-US) attributes, each of which is an object providing performance-related (en-US) data. See also Using Navigation Timing (en-US) for additional information and examples.
Window.personalbar (en-US) Read only
Returns the personalbar object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.pkcs11 已過時 Gecko 29
Formerly provided access to install and remove PKCS11 modules.
Window.returnValue
The return value to be returned to the function that called window.showModalDialog() (en-US) to display the window as a modal dialog.
Window.screen (en-US) Read only
回傳一個與 window 關聯的 screen 物件。
Window.screenX (en-US) Read only
Returns the horizontal distance of the left border of the user's browser from the left side of the screen.
Window.screenY (en-US) Read only
Returns the vertical distance of the top border of the user's browser from the top side of the screen.
Window.scrollbars (en-US) Read only
Returns the scrollbars object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.scrollMaxX (en-US) Read only
The maximum offset that the window can be scrolled to horizontally, that is the document width minus the viewport width.
Window.scrollMaxY (en-US) Read only
The maximum offset that the window can be scrolled to vertically (i.e., the document height minus the viewport height).
Window.scrollX (en-US) Read only
Returns the number of pixels that the document has already been scrolled horizontally.
Window.scrollY (en-US) Read only
Returns the number of pixels that the document has already been scrolled vertically.
Window.self (en-US) Read only
Returns an object reference to the window object itself.
Window.sessionStorage
Returns a storage object for storing data within a single page session.
Window.sidebar Read only
Returns a reference to the window object of the sidebar.
Window.speechSynthesis (en-US) Read only
Returns a SpeechSynthesis (en-US) object, which is the entry point into using Web Speech API (en-US) speech synthesis functionality.
Window.status (en-US)
Gets/sets the text in the statusbar at the bottom of the browser.
Window.statusbar (en-US) Read only
Returns the statusbar object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.toolbar (en-US) Read only
Returns the toolbar object, whose visibility can be toggled in the window.
Window.top (en-US) Read only
Returns a reference to the topmost window in the window hierarchy. This property is read only.
Window.window (en-US) Read only
Returns a reference to the current window.
window[0], window[1], etc.
Returns a reference to the window object in the frames. See Window.frames (en-US) for more details.

Properties implemented from elsewhere

WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.caches (en-US) Read only
Returns the CacheStorage (en-US) object associated with the current context. This object enables functionality such as storing assets for offline use, and generating custom responses to requests.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.indexedDB (en-US) Read only
Provides a mechanism for applications to asynchronously access capabilities of indexed databases; returns an IDBFactory (en-US) object.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.isSecureContext (en-US) Read only
Returns a boolean indicating whether the current context is secure (true) or not (false).
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.origin (en-US) Read only
Returns the global object's origin, serialized as a string. (This does not yet appear to be implemented in any browser.)

方法

This interface inherits methods from the EventTarget interface and implements methods from WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope and EventTarget.

Window.alert() (en-US)
Displays an alert dialog.
Window.back() (en-US) This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Moves back one in the window history.
Window.blur() (en-US)
Sets focus away from the window.
Window.cancelAnimationFrame() (en-US)
Enables you to cancel a callback previously scheduled with Window.requestAnimationFrame.
Window.cancelIdleCallback() (en-US)
Enables you to cancel a callback previously scheduled with Window.requestIdleCallback.
Window.captureEvents() (en-US)
Registers the window to capture all events of the specified type.
Window.clearImmediate() (en-US)
Cancels the repeated execution set using setImmediate.
Window.close() (en-US)
Closes the current window.
Window.confirm() (en-US)
Displays a dialog with a message that the user needs to respond to.
Window.disableExternalCapture() 已過時 Gecko 24
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.dispatchEvent()
Used to trigger an event.
Window.dump() (en-US)
Writes a message to the console.
Window.enableExternalCapture() 已過時 Gecko 24
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.find() (en-US)
Searches for a given string in a window.
Window.focus() (en-US)
Sets focus on the current window.
Window.forward() (en-US) This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Moves the window one document forward in the history.
Window.getAttention() This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Flashes the application icon.
Window.getAttentionWithCycleCount()
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.getComputedStyle()
Gets computed style for the specified element. Computed style indicates the computed values of all CSS properties of the element.
Window.getDefaultComputedStyle() (en-US)
Gets default computed style for the specified element, ignoring author stylesheets.
Window.getSelection() (en-US)
Returns the selection object representing the selected item(s).
Window.home() This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Returns the browser to the home page.
Window.matchMedia() (en-US)
Returns a MediaQueryList object representing the specified media query string.
Window.maximize()
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.minimize() (en-US) (top-level XUL windows only)
Minimizes the window.
Window.moveBy() (en-US)
Moves the current window by a specified amount.
Window.moveTo() (en-US)
Moves the window to the specified coordinates.
Window.open() (en-US)
Opens a new window.
Window.openDialog() (en-US) This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Opens a new dialog window.
Window.postMessage() (en-US)
Provides a secure means for one window to send a string of data to another window, which need not be within the same domain as the first.
Window.print()
Opens the Print Dialog to print the current document.
Window.prompt() (en-US)
Returns the text entered by the user in a prompt dialog.
Window.releaseEvents() (en-US)
Releases the window from trapping events of a specific type.
Window.requestAnimationFrame()
Tells the browser that an animation is in progress, requesting that the browser schedule a repaint of the window for the next animation frame.
Window.requestIdleCallback()
Enables the scheduling of tasks during a browser's idle periods.
Window.resizeBy() (en-US)
Resizes the current window by a certain amount.
Window.resizeTo() (en-US)
Dynamically resizes window.
Window.restore() (en-US) This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.routeEvent() 已過時 Gecko 24
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.scroll() (en-US)
Scrolls the window to a particular place in the document.
Window.scrollBy() (en-US)
Scrolls the document in the window by the given amount.
Window.scrollByLines() (en-US)
Scrolls the document by the given number of lines.
Window.scrollByPages() (en-US)
Scrolls the current document by the specified number of pages.
Window.scrollTo() (en-US)
Scrolls to a particular set of coordinates in the document.
Window.setCursor() (en-US) (top-level XUL windows only)
Changes the cursor for the current window
Window.setImmediate() (en-US)
Executes a function after the browser has finished other heavy tasks
Window.setResizable()
Toggles a user's ability to resize a window.
Window.sizeToContent() (en-US)
Sizes the window according to its content.
Window.stop() (en-US)
This method stops window loading.
Window.updateCommands() (en-US)
Updates the state of commands of the current chrome window (UI).

Methods implemented from elsewhere

EventTarget.addEventListener() (en-US)
Register an event handler to a specific event type on the window.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.atob() (en-US)
Decodes a string of data which has been encoded using base-64 encoding.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.btoa()
Creates a base-64 encoded ASCII string from a string of binary data.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.clearInterval() (en-US)
Cancels the repeated execution set using WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.setInterval().
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.clearTimeout() (en-US)
Cancels the delayed execution set using WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.setTimeout() (en-US).
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.createImageBitmap() (en-US)
Accepts a variety of different image sources, and returns a Promise (en-US) which resolves to an ImageBitmap (en-US). Optionally the source is cropped to the rectangle of pixels originating at (sx, sy) with width sw, and height sh.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.fetch() (en-US)
Starts the process of fetching a resource from the network.
EventTarget.removeEventListener
Removes an event listener from the window.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.setInterval()
Schedules a function to execute every time a given number of milliseconds elapses.
WindowOrWorkerGlobalScope.setTimeout() (en-US)
Schedules a function to execute in a given amount of time.

Obsolete methods

Window.showModalDialog() (en-US) This is an obsolete API and is no longer guaranteed to work.
Displays a modal dialog. This method was removed completely in Chrome 43, and Firefox 55.

事件處理器

These are properties of the window object that can be set to establish event handlers for the various things that can happen in the window that might be of interest.

This interface inherits event handlers from the EventTarget interface and implements event handlers from WindowEventHandlers.

Note: Starting in Gecko 9.0, you can now use the syntax if ("onabort" in window) to determine whether or not a given event handler property exists. This is because event handler interfaces have been updated to be proper web IDL interfaces. See DOM event handlers (en-US) for details.

GlobalEventHandlers.onabort (en-US)
Called when the loading of a resource has been aborted, such as by a user canceling the load while it is still in progress
WindowEventHandlers.onafterprint (en-US)
Called when the print dialog box is closed. See afterprint (en-US) event.
WindowEventHandlers.onbeforeprint (en-US)
Called when the print dialog box is opened. See beforeprint (en-US) event.
Window.onbeforeinstallprompt (en-US)
An event handler property dispatched before a user is prompted to save a web site to a home screen on mobile.
WindowEventHandlers.onbeforeunload
An event handler property for before-unload events on the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onblur (en-US)
Called after the window loses focus, such as due to a popup.
GlobalEventHandlers.onchange (en-US)
An event handler property for change events on the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onclick
Called after the ANY mouse button is pressed & released
GlobalEventHandlers.ondblclick (en-US)
Called when a double click is made with ANY mouse button.
GlobalEventHandlers.onclose
Called after the window is closed
GlobalEventHandlers.oncontextmenu (en-US)
Called when the RIGHT mouse button is pressed
Window.ondevicelight
An event handler property for any ambient light levels changes
Window.ondevicemotion (en-US)
Called if accelerometer detects a change (For mobile devices)
Window.ondeviceorientation (en-US)
Called when the orientation is changed (For mobile devices)
Window.ondeviceorientationabsolute (en-US) Chrome only
An event handler property for any device orientation changes.
Window.ondeviceproximity (en-US)
An event handler property for device proximity event
GlobalEventHandlers.onerror (en-US)
Called when a resource fails to load OR when an error occurs at runtime. See error (en-US) event.
GlobalEventHandlers.onfocus (en-US)
Called after the window receives or regains focus. See focus (en-US) events.
WindowEventHandlers.onhashchange (en-US)
An event handler property for hashchange (en-US) events on the window; called when the part of the URL after the hash mark ("#") changes.
Window.onappinstalled (en-US)
Called when the page is installed as a webapp. See appinstalled event.
Window.ongamepadconnected (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a gamepad is connected (when the gamepadconnected (en-US) event fires).
Window.ongamepaddisconnected (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a gamepad is disconnected (when the gamepaddisconnected (en-US) event fires).
Window.oninput (en-US)
Called when the value of an <input> element changes
GlobalEventHandlers.onkeydown (en-US)
Called when you begin pressing ANY key. See keydown (en-US) event.
GlobalEventHandlers.onkeypress (en-US)
Called when a key (except Shift, Fn, and CapsLock) is in pressed position. See keypress (en-US) event.
GlobalEventHandlers.onkeyup (en-US)
Called when you finish releasing ANY key. See keyup (en-US) event.
WindowEventHandlers.onlanguagechange (en-US)
An event handler property for languagechange (en-US) events on the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onload (en-US)
Called after all resources and the DOM are fully loaded. WILL NOT get called when the page is loaded from cache, such as with back button.
WindowEventHandlers.onmessage (en-US)
Is an event handler representing the code to be called when the message event is raised.
GlobalEventHandlers.onmousedown (en-US)
Called when ANY mouse button is pressed.
GlobalEventHandlers.onmousemove (en-US)
Called continously when the mouse is moved inside the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onmouseout (en-US)
Called when the pointer leaves the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onmouseover (en-US)
Called when the pointer enters the window
GlobalEventHandlers.onmouseup (en-US)
Called when ANY mouse button is released
Window.onmozbeforepaint
An event handler property for the MozBeforePaint event, which is sent before repainting the window if the event has been requested by a call to the Window.mozRequestAnimationFrame() (en-US) method.
WindowEventHandlers.onoffline
Called when network connection is lost. See offline (en-US) event.
WindowEventHandlers.ononline
Called when network connection is established. See online (en-US) event.
WindowEventHandlers.onpagehide
Called when the user navigates away from the page, before the onunload event. See pagehide (en-US) event.
WindowEventHandlers.onpageshow
Called after all resources and the DOM are fully loaded. See pageshow (en-US) event.
Window.onpaint
An event handler property for paint events on the window.
WindowEventHandlers.onpopstate
Called when a back putton is pressed.
Window.onrejectionhandled (en-US)
An event handler for handled Promise rejection events.
GlobalEventHandlers.onreset (en-US)
Called when a form is reset
GlobalEventHandlers.onresize (en-US)
Called continuously as you are resizing the window.
GlobalEventHandlers.onscroll (en-US)
Called when the scroll bar is moved via ANY means. If the resource fully fits in the window, then this event cannot be invoked
GlobalEventHandlers.onwheel (en-US)
Called when the mouse wheel is rotated around any axis
GlobalEventHandlers.onselect (en-US)
Called after text in an input field is selected
GlobalEventHandlers.onselectionchange (en-US)
Is an event handler representing the code to be called when the selectionchange event is raised.
WindowEventHandlers.onstorage (en-US)
Called when there is a change in session storage or local storage. See storage (en-US) event
GlobalEventHandlers.onsubmit (en-US)
Called when a form is submitted
WindowEventHandlers.onunhandledrejection (en-US)
An event handler for unhandled Promise rejection events.
WindowEventHandlers.onunload (en-US)
Called when the user navigates away from the page.
Window.onuserproximity (en-US)
An event handler property for user proximity events.
Window.onvrdisplayconnect (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a compatible VR device has been connected to the computer (when the vrdisplayconnected event fires).
Window.onvrdisplaydisconnect (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a compatible VR device has been disconnected from the computer (when the vrdisplaydisconnected event fires).
Window.onvrdisplayactivate (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a display is able to be presented to (when the vrdisplayactivate event fires), for example if an HMD has been moved to bring it out of standby, or woken up by being put on.
Window.onvrdisplaydeactivate (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when a display can no longer be presented to (when the vrdisplaydeactivate event fires), for example if an HMD has gone into standby or sleep mode due to a period of inactivity.
Window.onvrdisplayblur (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when presentation to a display has been paused for some reason by the browser, OS, or VR hardware (when the vrdisplayblur event fires) — for example, while the user is interacting with a system menu or browser, to prevent tracking or loss of experience.
Window.onvrdisplayfocus (en-US)
Represents an event handler that will run when presentation to a display has resumed after being blurred (when the vrdisplayfocus event fires).
Window.onvrdisplaypresentchange (en-US)
represents an event handler that will run when the presenting state of a VR device changes — i.e. goes from presenting to not presenting, or vice versa (when the vrdisplaypresentchange event fires).

建構式

See also the DOM Interfaces (en-US).

DOMParser
DOMParser can parse XML or HTML source stored in a string into a DOM Document. DOMParser is specified in DOM Parsing and Serialization.
Window.GeckoActiveXObject
FIXME: NeedsContents
Image (en-US)
Used for creating an HTMLImageElement.
Option (en-US)
Used for creating an HTMLOptionElement (en-US)
Window.QueryInterface
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.XMLSerializer
FIXME: NeedsContents
Worker (en-US)
Used for creating a Web worker (en-US)
Window.XPCNativeWrapper
FIXME: NeedsContents
Window.XPCSafeJSObjectWrapper
FIXME: NeedsContents

相關介面

請參閱 DOM Reference

參見