window.location

« DOM 參考

Summary

Returns a Location object, which contains information about the URL of the document and provides methods for changing that URL. You can also assign to this property to load another URL.

語法

var locationObj = window.location;
window.location = newLocation;

where

  • locationObj is an object of type Location, providing information about the current URL and methods to change it. Its properties and methods are described below.
  • newLocation is a Location object or a string, specifying the URL to navigate to.

Location object

This section describes the properties and methods of the location object.

Use as a string

Location objects have a toString method returning the current URL. You can also assign a string to window.location. This means that you can work with window.location as if it were a string in most cases. Sometimes, for example when you need to call a String method on it, you have to explicitly call toString:

alert(window.location.toString().charAt(17));

Properties

All of the following properties are strings. You can read them to get information about the current URL or set them to navigate to another URL.

The "Example" column contains the values of the properties of the following URL:

  • http://[www.example.com]:80/search?q=devmo#test
Property Description Example
hash the part of the URL that follows the # symbol, including the # symbol.
You can listen for the hashchange event to get notified of changes to the hash in supporting browsers.
#test
host the host name and port number. [www.example.com]:80
hostname the host name (without the port number or square brackets). www.example.com
href the entire URL. http://[www.example.com]:80/search?q=devmo#test
pathname the path (relative to the host). /search
port the port number of the URL. 80
protocol the protocol of the URL. http:
search the part of the URL that follows the ? symbol, including the ? symbol. ?q=devmo

If the hash part of the URL contains encoded characters (see Core_JavaScript_1.5_Reference:Global_Functions:encodeURIComponent), hash returns the decoded URL part. This is a bug in Firefox. href, search and pathname return the correct, encoded URL parts. For example:

  • http://www.example.com/search?q=Fire%20fox#Fire%20fox

results in:

  • hash=#Fire fox
  • search=?q=Fire%20fox

Methods

Method Description
assign(url) Load the document at the provided URL.
reload(forceget) Reload the document from the current URL. forceget is a boolean, which, when it is true, causes the page to always be reloaded from the server. If it is false or not specified, the browser may reload the page from its cache.
replace(url) Replace the current document with the one at the provided URL. The difference from the assign() method is that after using replace() the current page will not be saved in session history, meaning the user won't be able to use the Back button to navigate to it.
toString() Returns the string representation of the Location object's URL. See the JavaScript reference for details.

Examples

Whenever a property of the location object is modified, a document will be loaded using the URL as if window.location.assign() had been called with the modified URL.

Replace the current document with the one at the given URL:
function goMoz() { 
   window.location = "http://www.mozilla.org";
} 

// in html: <button onclick="goMoz();">Mozilla</button>

Note: The example above works in situations where window.location.hash does not need to be retained. However, in Gecko-based browsers, setting window.location.pathname in this manner will erase any information in window.location.hash, whereas in WebKit (and possibly other browsers), setting the pathname will not alter the the hash. If you need to change pathname but keep the hash as is, use the replace() method instead, which should work consistently across browsers.


Consider the following example, which will reload the page by using the replace() method to insert the value of window.location.pathname into the hash (similar to Twitter's reload of http://twitter.com/username to http://twitter.com/#!/username):

function reloadPageWithHash() {
  var initialPage = window.location.pathname;
  window.location.replace('http://example.com/#' + initialPage);
} 
Display the properties of the current URL in an alert dialog:
function showLoc() {
  var oLocation = window.location, aLog = ["Property (Typeof): Value", "window.location (" + (typeof oLocation) + "): " + oLocation ];
  for (var sProp in oLocation){
    aLog.push(sProp + " (" + (typeof oLocation[sProp]) + "): " +  (oLocation[sProp] || "n/a"));
  }
  alert(aLog.join("\n"));
}

// in html: <button onclick="showLoc();">Show location properties</button>
Send a string of data to the server by modifying the search property:
function sendData (sData) {
  window.location.search = sData;
}

// in html: <button onclick="sendData('Some data');">Send data</button>

The current URL with "?Some%20data" appended is sent to the server (if no action is taken by the server, the current document is reloaded with the modified search string).

Get the value of a single window.location.search key:
function loadPageVar (sVar) {
  return unescape(window.location.search.replace(new RegExp("^(?:.*[&\\?]" + escape(sVar).replace(/[\.\+\*]/g, "\\$&") + "(?:\\=([^&]*))?)?.*$", "i"), "$1"));
}

alert(loadPageVar("name"));
Nestle the variables obtained through the window.location.search string in an object named oGetVars:
var oGetVars = {};

if (window.location.search.length > 1) {
  for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = window.location.search.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
    aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
    oGetVars[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? unescape(aItKey[1]) : "";
  }
}

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

…the same thing obtained by an anonymous constructor – useful for a global variable declaration:

var oGetVars = new (function (sSearch) {
  if (sSearch.length > 1) {
    for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = sSearch.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
      aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
      this[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? unescape(aItKey[1]) : "";
    }
  }
})(window.location.search);

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);
Nestle the variables obtained through the window.location.search string in an object named oGetVars, also attempting to recognize their typeof:
var oGetVars = {};

function buildValue(sValue) {
  if (/^\s*$/.test(sValue)) { return null; }
  if (/^(true|false)$/i.test(sValue)) { return sValue.toLowerCase() === "true"; }
  if (isFinite(sValue)) { return parseFloat(sValue); }
  if (isFinite(Date.parse(sValue))) { return new Date(sValue); }
  return sValue;
}

if (window.location.search.length > 1) {
  for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = window.location.search.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
    aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
    oGetVars[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? buildValue(unescape(aItKey[1])) : null;
  }
}

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);

…the same thing obtained by an anonymous constructor – useful for a global variable declaration:

var oGetVars = new (function (sSearch) {
  var rNull = /^\s*$/, rBool = /^(true|false)$/i;
  function buildValue(sValue) {
    if (rNull.test(sValue)) { return null; }
    if (rBool.test(sValue)) { return sValue.toLowerCase() === "true"; }
    if (isFinite(sValue)) { return parseFloat(sValue); }
    if (isFinite(Date.parse(sValue))) { return new Date(sValue); }
    return sValue;
  }
  if (sSearch.length > 1) {
    for (var aItKey, nKeyId = 0, aCouples = sSearch.substr(1).split("&"); nKeyId < aCouples.length; nKeyId++) {
      aItKey = aCouples[nKeyId].split("=");
      this[unescape(aItKey[0])] = aItKey.length > 1 ? buildValue(unescape(aItKey[1])) : null;
    }
  }
})(window.location.search);

// alert(oGetVars.yourVar);
Using bookmars without changing the window.location.hash property:
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
<meta content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
<title>MDN Example</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
function showNode (oNode) {
  var nLeft = 0, nTop = 0;
  for (var oItNode = oNode; oItNode; nLeft += oItNode.offsetLeft, nTop += oItNode.offsetTop, oItNode = oItNode.offsetParent);
  document.documentElement.scrollTop = nTop;
  document.documentElement.scrollLeft = nLeft;
}

function showBookmark (sBookmark, bUseHash) {
  if (arguments.length === 1 || bUseHash) { window.location.hash = sBookmark; return; }
  var oBookmark = document.querySelector(sBookmark);
  if (oBookmark) { showNode(oBookmark); }
}
</script>
<style type="text/css">
span.intLink {
    cursor: pointer;
    color: #0000ff;
    text-decoration: underline;
}
</style>
</head>

<body>
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<p id="myBookmark1">[&nbsp;<span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark2');">Go to bookmark #2</span>&nbsp;]</p>
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<p id="myBookmark2">[&nbsp;<span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark1');">Go to bookmark #1</span> | <span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark1', false);">Go to bookmark #1 without using location.hash</span> | <span class="intLink" onclick="showBookmark('#myBookmark3');">Go to bookmark #3</span>&nbsp;]</p>
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<p id="myBookmark3"><em>Here is the bookmark #3</em></p>
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</body>
</html>
Note: The function showNode is also an example of the use of the for cycle without a statement section. In this case a semicolon is always put immediately after the declaration of the cycle.

…the same thing but with a dynamic page scroll:

var showBookmark = (function () {
  var  _useHash, _scrollX, _scrollY, _nodeX, _nodeY, _itFrame, _scrollId = -1, _bookMark,
       /*
       * nDuration: the duration in milliseconds of each frame
       * nFrames: number of frames for each scroll
       */
       nDuration = 200, nFrames = 10;

  function _next () {
    if (_itFrame > nFrames) { clearInterval(_scrollId); _scrollId = -1; return; }
    _isBot = true;
    document.documentElement.scrollTop = Math.round(_scrollY + (_nodeY - _scrollY) * _itFrame / nFrames);
    document.documentElement.scrollLeft = Math.round(_scrollX + (_nodeX - _scrollX) * _itFrame / nFrames);
    if (_useHash && _itFrame === nFrames) { location.hash = _bookMark; }
    _itFrame++;
  }

  function _chkOwner () {
    if (_isBot) { _isBot = false; return; }
    if (_scrollId > -1) { clearInterval(_scrollId); _scrollId = -1; }
  }

  if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener("scroll", _chkOwner, false); }
  else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent("onscroll", _chkOwner); }

  return function (sBookmark, bUseHash) {
    _scrollY = document.documentElement.scrollTop;
    _scrollX = document.documentElement.scrollLeft;
    _bookMark = sBookmark;
    _useHash = arguments.length === 1 || bUseHash;
    for (
      var nLeft = 0, nTop = 0, oNode = document.querySelector(sBookmark);
      oNode;
      nLeft += oNode.offsetLeft, nTop += oNode.offsetTop, oNode = oNode.offsetParent
    );
    _nodeX = nLeft, _nodeY = nTop, _itFrame = 1;
    if (_scrollId === -1) { _scrollId = setInterval(_next, Math.round(nDuration / nFrames)); }
  };
})();

See also

Manipulating the browser history

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support ? ? ? ? ?
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support ? ? ? ? ?

Specification

HTML Specification: window . location

Document Tags and Contributors

Contributors to this page: appleboy
最近更新: appleboy,