Gaia is the user interface level of Firefox OS. Everything that appears on the screen after Firefox OS starts up is drawn by Gaia, including the lock screen, home screen, dialer, and other applications. Gaia is written entirely in HTMLCSS, and JavaScript. Its only interface to the underlying operating system and hardware is through standard Web APIs, which are implemented by Gecko.

Because of this design, not only can Gaia be run on Firefox OS devices, but also on other operating systems and in other web browsers (Albeit with potentially degraded functionality depending on the capabilities of the browser).

Third party applications onto the device installed alongside Gaia can be launched by Gaia.

Documentation about Gaia

Introduction to Gaia
Gaia is the user interface application for Firefox OS devices; it's simply a Web application running atop the Firefox OS software stack. This guide introduces Gaia at a high level.
Gaia hacking guide
A guide to hacking and modifying the Gaia interface.
Gaia Build System Primer
Most of the meaniful work for the build steps are performed by the scripts that live inside the build/ subdirectory of Gaia.
Gaia Hacking Tips And FAQ
A list of helpful tips and frequently asked questions around hacking on Gaia.

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Getting help from the community

If you're working with Gaia, or developing Gaia applications, there are community resources to help you!