# <timing-function>

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The `<timing-function>` CSS data type denotes a mathematical function that describes how fast one-dimensional values change during animations. This lets you vary the animation's speed over the course of its duration.

"Smooth" timing functions are often called easing functions. They correlate a time ratio to an output ratio, both expressed as `<number>`s. For these values, `0.0` represents the initial state, and `1.0` represents the final state.

Depending on the specific function used, the calculated output can sometimes grow to be greater than `1.0` or smaller than `0.0` during the course of an animation. This causes the animation to go farther than the final state, and then return. For some properties, such as `left` or `right`, this creates a kind of "bouncing" effect.

However, certain properties will restrict the output if it goes outside an allowable range. For example, a color component greater than `255` or smaller than `0` will be clipped to the closest allowed value (`255` and `0`, respectively). Some `cubic-bezier()` curves exhibit this property.

## Timing functions

CSS supports two kinds of timing functions: the subset of the cubic Bézier curves that are functions, and staircase functions. The most useful of these functions are given a keyword that allows them to be easily referenced.

### The `cubic-bezier()` class of timing functions

The `cubic-bezier()` functional notation defines a cubic Bézier curve. As these curves are continuous, they are often used to smooth down the start and end of the animation and are therefore sometimes called easing functions.

A cubic Bézier curve is defined by four points P0, P1, P2, and P3. P0 and P3 are the start and the end of the curve and, in CSS these points are fixed as the coordinates are ratios (the abscissa the ratio of time, the ordinate the ratio of the output range). P0 is `(0, 0)` and represents the initial time and the initial state, P3 is `(1, 1)` and represents the final time and the final state.

Not all cubic Bézier curves are suitable as timing functions as not all are mathematical functions; i.e., curves that for a given abscissa have zero or one value. With P0 and P3 fixed as defined by CSS, a cubic Bézier curve is a function, and is therefore valid, if and only if the abscissas of P1 and P2 are both in the `[0, 1]` range.

Cubic Bézier curves with the P1 or P2 ordinate outside the `[0, 1]` range may generate bouncing effects.

When you specify an invalid `cubic-bezier` curve, CSS ignores the whole property.

#### Syntax

```cubic-bezier(x1, y1, x2, y2)
```

where:

x1, y1, x2, y2
Are `<number>` values representing the abscissas, and ordinates of the P1 and P2 points defining the cubic Bézier curve. x1 and x2 must be in the range [0, 1] or the value is invalid.

#### Examples

These cubic Bézier curves are valid for use in CSS:

```/* The canonical Bézier curve with four <number> in the [0,1] range. */
cubic-bezier(0.1, 0.7, 1.0, 0.1)

/* Using <integer> is valid as any <integer> is also a <number>. */
cubic-bezier(0, 0, 1, 1)

/* Negative values for ordinates are valid, leading to bouncing effects.*/
cubic-bezier(0.1, -0.6, 0.2, 0)

/* Values > 1.0 for ordinates are also valid. */
cubic-bezier(0, 1.1, 0.8, 4)
```

These cubic Bézier curves definitions are invalid:

```/* Though the animated output type may be a color,
Bézier curves work w/ numerical ratios.*/
cubic-bezier(0.1, red, 1.0, green)

/* Abscissas must be in the [0, 1] range or
the curve is not a function of time. */
cubic-bezier(2.45, 0.6, 4, 0.1)

/* The two points must be defined, there is no default value. */
cubic-bezier(0.3, 2.1)

/* Abscissas must be in the [0, 1] range or
the curve is not a function of time. */
cubic-bezier(-1.9, 0.3, -0.2, 2.1)
```

### Keywords for common cubic-bezier timing functions

#### `linear`

The animation moves from beginning to end at a constant rate. This keyword represents the timing function `cubic-bezier(0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)`.

#### `ease`

The animation starts slowly, accelerates sharply, and then slows gradually towards the end. This keyword represents the timing function `cubic-bezier(0.25, 0.1, 0.25, 1.0)`. It is similar to `ease-in-out`, though it accelerates more sharply at the beginning.

#### `ease-in`

The animation starts slowly, and then progressively speeds up until the end, at which point it stops abruptly. This keyword represents the timing function `cubic-bezier(0.42, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)`.

#### `ease-in-out`

The animation starts slowly, speeds up, and then slows down towards the end. This keyword represents the timing function `cubic-bezier(0.42, 0.0, 0.58, 1.0)`. At the beginning, it behaves like the `ease-in` function; at the end, it is like the `ease-out` function.

#### `ease-out`

The animation starts abruptly, and then progressively slows down towards the end. This keyword represents the timing function `cubic-bezier(``0.0, 0.0, 0.58, 1.0``)`.

### The `steps()` class of timing functions

The `steps()` functional notation defines a step function dividing the domain of output values in equidistant steps.This subclass of step functions are sometimes also called staircase functions.

#### Syntax

```steps(number_of_steps, direction)
```

where:

number_of_steps
Is a strictly positive `<integer>`, representing the amount of equidistant treads composing the stepping function.
direction
Is a keyword indicating if it the function is left- or right-continuous:
• `jump-start` denotes a left-continuous function, so that the first step or jump happens when the animation begins;
• `jump-end` denotes a right-continuous function, so that the last step or jump happens when the animation ends;
• `jump-both` denotes a right and left continuous function, includes pauses at both the 0% and 100% marks, effectively adding a step during the animation iteration;
• `jump-none` There is no jump on either end. Instead, holding at both the 0% mark and the 100% mark, each for 1/n of the duration
• `start` is the equivalent of `jump-start`
• `end` is the equivalent of `jump-end`
`end` is the default.

#### `steps( n, <direction> )`

• `steps(2, jump-start)`
`steps(2, start)`

• ```steps(4, jump-end) steps(4, end)```

• `steps(5, jump-none)`

• `steps(3, jump-both)`

`steps-start`
The equivalent of `steps(1, jump-start)`
`steps-end`
The equivalent of `steps(1, jump-end)`

#### `step-start`

The animation jumps immediately to its final state, where it stays until the end. This keyword represents the timing function `steps(1, jump-start)` or `steps(1, start)`.

#### `step-end`

The animation stays in its initial state until the end, at which point it jumps directly to its final state. This keyword represents the timing function `steps(1, jump-end)` or `steps(1, end)`.

#### Examples

These timing functions are valid:

```/* There is 5 treads, the last one happens
right before the end of the animation. */
steps(5, end)

/* A two-step staircase, the first one happening
at the start of the animation. */
steps(2, start)

/* The second parameter is optional. */
steps(2)
```

These timing function are invalid:

```/* The first parameter must be an <integer> and
cannot be a real value, even if it is equal to one. */
steps(2.0, jump-end)

/* The amount of steps must be non-negative. */
steps(-3, start)

/* There must be at least one step.*/
steps(0, jump-none)```

## Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Animations
The definition of '<timing-function>' in that specification.
Working Draft Defines `<single-timing-function>` as a synonym for `<single-transition-timing-function>` of the CSS Transitions Module.
CSS Transitions
The definition of '<timing-function>' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

## Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
Desktop Mobile Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Chrome Full support 4 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 4 IE Full support 10 Opera Full support 10.5 Safari Full support 3.1 WebView Android Full support 4 Chrome Android Full support 18 Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support 11 Safari iOS Full support 2 Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0 Chrome Full support 16 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 4 IE Full support 10 Opera Full support 12.1 Safari Full support 6 WebView Android Full support 4.4 Chrome Android Full support 18 Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support 14 Safari iOS Full support 6 Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0 Chrome Full support 8 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 4 IE Full support 10 Opera Full support 12.1 Safari Full support 5.1 WebView Android Full support 4 Chrome Android Full support 18 Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support 14 Safari iOS Full support 5 Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0 Chrome No support No Edge No support No Firefox Full support 65 IE No support No Opera No support No Safari No support No WebView Android No support No Chrome Android No support No Firefox Android Full support 65 Opera Android No support No Safari iOS No support No Samsung Internet Android No support No

### Legend

Full support
Full support
No support
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.