HTML (Ngôn ngữ đánh dấu siêu văn bản), là một ngôn ngữ mang tính miêu tả chỉ dành riêng cho cấu trúc trang web.


Vào năm 1990, như một phần của công trình thiết kế web Web, Tim Berners-Lee tạo ra định nghĩa  hypertext, thứ mà đã được Berners-Lee chính thức công nhận vào năm tiếp theo thông qua markup được dựa phần lớn vàoSGML. The IETF began formally specifying HTML in 1993, and after several drafts released version 2.0 in 1995. In 1994 Berners-Lee founded the W3C to develop the Web. In 1996, the W3C took over the HTML work and published the HTML 3.2 recommendation a year later. HTML 4.0 was released in 1999 and became an ISO standard in 2000.

At that time, the W3C nearly abandoned HTML in favor of XHTML, prompting the founding of an independent group called WHATWG in 2004. Thanks to WHATWG, work on HTML5 continued: the two organizations released the first draft in 2008 and the final standard in 2014.

Concept and syntax

An HTML document is a plaintext document structured with elements. Elements are surrounded by matching opening and closing tags. Each tag begins and ends with angle brackets (<>). There are a few empty or void tags that cannot enclose any text, for instance <img> (en-US).

You can extend HTML tags with attributes, which provide additional information affecting how the browser interprets the element:

Detail of the structure of an HTML element

An HTML file is normally saved with an .htm or .html extension, served by a web server, and can be rendered by any Web browser.

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General knowledge

Learning HTML

Technical reference