perspective-origin

The perspective-origin CSS property determines the position at which the viewer is looking. It is used as the vanishing point by the perspective property.

The perspective-origin and perspective properties are attached to the parent of a child transformed in 3-dimensional space, unlike the perspective() transform function which is placed on the element being transformed.

Syntax

/* One-value syntax */
perspective-origin: x-position;

/* Two-value syntax */
perspective-origin: x-position y-position;

/* When both x-position and y-position are keywords,
   the following is also valid */
perspective-origin: y-position x-position;

/* Global values */
perspective-origin: inherit;
perspective-origin: initial;
perspective-origin: unset;

Values

x-position
Indicates the position of the abscissa of the vanishing point. It can have one of the following values:
  • <length-percentage> indicating the position as an absolute length value or relative to the width of the element. The value may be negative.
  • left, a keyword being a shortcut for the 0 length value.
  • center, a keyword being a shortcut for the 50% percentage value.
  • right, a keyword being a shortcut for the 100% percentage value.
y-position
Indicates the position of the ordinate of the vanishing point. It can have one of the following values:
  • <length-percentage> indicating the position as an absolute length value or relative to the height of the element. The value may be negative.
  • top, a keyword being a shortcut for the 0 length value.
  • center, a keyword being a shortcut for the 50% percentage value.
  • bottom, a keyword being a shortcut for the 100% percentage value.

Formal definition

Initial value50% 50%
Applies totransformable elements
Inheritedno
Percentagesrefer to the size of bounding box
Computed valuefor <length> the absolute value, otherwise a percentage
Animation typesimple list of length, percentage, or calc

Formal syntax

<position>

where
<position> = [ [ left | center | right ] || [ top | center | bottom ] | [ left | center | right | <length-percentage> ] [ top | center | bottom | <length-percentage> ]? | [ [ left | right ] <length-percentage> ] && [ [ top | bottom ] <length-percentage> ] ]

where
<length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage>

Examples

Changing the perspective origin

This example shows cubes with popular perspective-origin values.

HTML

<section>
<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: top left;</code></caption>
    <div class="container">
    <div class="cube potl">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: top;</code></caption>
   <div class="container">
    <div class="cube potm">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: top right;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube potr">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: left;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube poml">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: 50% 50%;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube pomm">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: right;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube pomr">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: bottom left;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube pobl">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: bottom;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube pobm">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: bottom right;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube pobr">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: -200% -200%;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube po200200neg">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: 200% 200%;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube po200200pos">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

<figure>
  <caption><code>perspective-origin: 200% -200%;</code></caption>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="cube po200200">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>
    </div>
  </div>
</figure>

</section>    

CSS

/* perspective-origin values (unique per example) */
.potl {
  perspective-origin: top left;
}
.potm {
  perspective-origin: top;
}
.potr {
  perspective-origin: top right;
}
.poml {
  perspective-origin: left;
}
.pomm {
  perspective-origin: 50% 50%;
}
.pomr {
  perspective-origin: right;
}
.pobl {
  perspective-origin: bottom left;
}
.pobm {
  perspective-origin: bottom;
}
.pobr {
  perspective-origin: bottom right;
}
.po200200neg {
  perspective-origin: -200% -200%;
}
.po200200pos {
  perspective-origin: 200% 200%;
}
.po200200 {
  perspective-origin: 200% -200%;
}

/* Define the container div, the cube div, and a generic face */
.container {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  margin: 24px;
  border: none;
}

.cube {
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  backface-visibility: visible;
  perspective: 300px;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
}

.face {
  display: block;
  position: absolute;
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  border: none;
  line-height: 100px;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 60px;
  color: white;
  text-align: center;
}

/* Define each face based on direction */
.front {
  background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
  transform: translateZ(50px);
}
.back {
  background: rgba(0, 255, 0, 1);
  color: black;
  transform: rotateY(180deg) translateZ(50px);
}
.right {
  background: rgba(196, 0, 0, 0.7);
  transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}
.left {
  background: rgba(0, 0, 196, 0.7);
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}
.top {
  background: rgba(196, 196, 0, 0.7);
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}
.bottom {
  background: rgba(196, 0, 196, 0.7);
  transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

/* Make the layout a little nicer */
section {
  background-color: #EEE;
  padding: 10px;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  text-align: left;
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'perspective-origin' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
perspective-originChrome Full support 36
Full support 36
Full support 12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Edge Full support 12
Full support 12
Full support 12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 45
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE Full support 10Opera Full support 23
Full support 23
Full support 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 4
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
WebView Android Full support 37
Full support 37
Full support 3
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Chrome Android Full support 36
Full support 36
Full support 18
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox Android Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 45
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android Full support 24
Full support 24
Full support 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari iOS Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Samsung Internet Android Full support 3.0
Full support 3.0
Full support 1.0
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Support for three-value syntax of positionChrome No support 36 — 68
No support 36 — 68
Full support 12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Edge No support 12 — 79
No support 12 — 79
Full support 12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox No support 16 — 70
No support 16 — 70
Full support 10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 45
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE Full support 10Opera No support 15 — 55
Prefixed
No support 15 — 55
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 4
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
WebView Android No support 37 — 68
No support 37 — 68
Full support 3
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Chrome Android No support 36 — 68
No support 36 — 68
Full support 18
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox Android Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 45
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android No support 14 — 48
Prefixed
No support 14 — 48
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari iOS Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Samsung Internet Android No support 3.0 — 10.0
No support 3.0 — 10.0
Full support 1.0
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.

See also