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The HTML Ruby Fallback Parenthesis (<rp>) element is used to provide fall-back parentheses for browsers that do not support display of ruby annotations using the <ruby> element. One <rp> element should enclose each of the opening and closing parentheses that wrap the <rt> element that contains the annotation's text.

Content categories None.
Permitted content Text
Tag omission The end tag can be omitted if the element is immediately followed by an <rt> or another <rp> element, or if there is no more content in the parent element.
Permitted parents A <ruby> element. <rp> must be positioned immediately before or after an <rt> element.
Permitted ARIA roles Any
DOM interface HTMLElement


This element only includes the global attributes.

Usage notes

  • Ruby annotations are for showing pronunciation of East Asian characters, like using Japanese furigana or Taiwanese bopomofo characters. The <rp> element is used in the case of lack of <ruby> element support; the <rp> content provides what should be displayed in order to indicate the presence of a ruby annotation, usually parentheses.


This example uses ruby annotations to display the Romaji equivalents for each character.

  漢 <rp>(</rp><rt>Kan</rt><rp>)</rp>
  字 <rp>(</rp><rt>ji</rt><rp>)</rp>

The result looks like this in your browser:

The HTML above rendered by a browser without ruby support might look like this:

See the article about the <ruby> element for further examples.


Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of '<rp>' in that specification.
Living Standard  
The definition of '<rp>' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support5 No385155
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support Yes Yes No3815 Yes Yes

See also

Метки документа и участники

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