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API de WebRTC

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WebRTC (Comunicações da Web em Tempo Real) é uma tecnologia que permite às aplicações e sites da Web capturar e opcionalmente transmitir multimédia de áudio e/ou vídeo, bem como trocar dados arbitrariamente entre navegadores sem a necessidade de um intermediário. O conjunto de normas que compreende WebRTC torna possível a partilha de dados e realizar teleconferência 
peer-to-peer, sem precisar que o utilizador instale plug-ins ou qualquer outro software de terceiros.

WebRTC consists of several interrelated APIs and protocols which work together to achieve this. The documentation you'll find here will help you understand the fundamentals of WebRTC, how to set up and use both data and media connections, and more.

Conceitos e utilização de WebRTC

WebRTC serves multiple purposes, and overlaps substantially with the Media Capture and Streams API. Together, they provide powerful multimedia capabilities to the Web, including support for audio and video conferencing, file exchange, identity management, and interfacing with legacy telephone systems by sending DTMF signals. Connections between peers can be made without requiring any special drivers or plug-ins, and can often be made without any intermediary servers.

Connections between two peers are created using—and represented by—the RTCPeerConnection interface. Once a connection has been established and opened, media streams (MediaStreams) and/or data channels (RTCDataChannels) can be added to the connection.

Media streams can consist of any number of tracks of media information; tracks, which are represented by objects based on the MediaStreamTrack interface, may contain one of a number of types of media data, including audio, video, and text (such as subtitles or even chapter names). Most streams consist of at least one audio track and likely also a video track, and can be used to send and receive both live media or stored media information (such as a streamed movie).

You can also use the connection between two peers to exchange arbitrary binary data using the RTCDataChannel interface. This can be used for back-channel information, metadata exchange, game status packets, file transfers, or even as a primary channel for data transfer.

more details and links to relevant guides and tutorials needed

Interfaces de WebRTC

Because WebRTC provides interfaces that work together to accomplish a variety of tasks, we have divided up the interfaces in the list below by category. Please see the sidebar for an alphabetical list.

Gestão e configuração de ligação

These interfaces are used to set up, open, and manage WebRTC connections.

RTCPeerConnection
Represents a WebRTC connection between the local computer and a remote peer. It is used to handle efficient streaming of data between the two peers.
RTCDataChannel
Represents a bi-directional data channel between two peers of a connection.
RTCDataChannelEvent
Represents events that occur while attaching a RTCDataChannel to a RTCPeerConnection. The only event sent with this interface is datachannel.
RTCSessionDescription
Represents the parameters of a session. Each RTCSessionDescription consists of a description type indicating which part of the offer/answer negotiation process it describes and of the SDP descriptor of the session.
RTCStatsReport
Provides information detailing statistics for a connection or for an individual track on the connection; the report can be obtained by calling RTCPeerConnection.getStats().
RTCIceCandidate
Represents a candidate internet connectivity establishment (ICE) server for establishing an RTCPeerConnection.
RTCIceTransport
Represents information about an internet connectivity establishment (ICE) transport.
RTCPeerConnectionIceEvent
Represents events that occurs in relation to ICE candidates with the target, usually an RTCPeerConnection. Only one event is of this type: icecandidate.
RTCRtpSender
Manages the encoding and transmission of data for a MediaStreamTrack on an RTCPeerConnection.
RTCRtpReceiver
Manages the reception and decoding of data for a MediaStreamTrack on an RTCPeerConnection.
RTCTrackEvent
Indicates that a new incoming MediaStreamTrack was created and an associated RTCRtpReceiver object was added to the RTCPeerConnection object.

Identidade e segurança

The WebRTC API includes a number of interfaces to manage security and identity.

RTCIdentityProvider
Enables a user agent is able to request that an identity assertion be generated or validated.
RTCIdentityAssertion
Represents the identity of the a remote peer of the current connection. If no peer has yet been set and verified this interface returns null. Once set it can't be changed.
RTCIdentityProviderRegistrar
Registers an  identity provider (idP).
RTCIdentityEvent
Represents an identity assertion generated by an identity provider (idP). This is usually for an RTCPeerConnection. The only event sent with this type is identityresult.
RTCIdentityErrorEvent
Represents an error associated with the identity provider (idP). This is usually for an RTCPeerConnection. Two events are sent with this type: idpassertionerror and idpvalidationerror.
RTCCertificate
Represents a certificate that an RTCPeerConnection uses to authenticate.

Telephony

These interfaces are related to interactivity with public-switched telephone networks (PTSNs).

RTCDTMFSender
Manages the encoding and transmission of dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling for an RTCPeerConnection.
RTCDTMFToneChangeEvent
Indicates an occurrence of a of dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF). This event does not bubble (except where otherwise stated) and is not cancelable (except where otherwise stated).

Guias

Introduction to WebRTC protocols
This article introduces the protocols on top of which the WebRTC API is built.
WebRTC connectivity
A guide to how WebRTC connections work and how the various protocols and interfaces can be used together to build powerful communication apps.
Lifetime of a WebRTC session
WebRTC lets you build peer-to-peer communication of arbitrary data, audio, or video—or any combination thereof—into a browser application. In this article, we'll look at the lifetime of a WebRTC session, from establishing the connection all the way through closing the connection when it's no longer needed.
Signaling and two-way video calling
A tutorial and example which turbs a WebSocket-based chat system created for a previous example and adds support for opening video calls among participants. The chat server's WebSocket connection is used for WebRTC signaling.
Using WebRTC data channels
This guide covers how you can use a peer connection and an associated RTCDataChannel to exchange arbitrary data between two peers.
Using DTMF with WebRTC
WebRTC's support for interacting with gateways that link to old-school telephone systems includes support for sending DTMF tones using the RTCDTMFSender interface. This guide shows how to do so.

Tutoriais

Improving compatibility using WebRTC adapter.js
The WebRTC organization provides on GitHub the WebRTC adapter to work around compatibility issues in different browsers' WebRTC implementations. The adapter is a JavaScript shim which lets your code to be written to the specification so that it will "just work" in all browsers with WebRTC support.
Taking still photos with WebRTC
This article shows how to use WebRTC to access the camera on a computer or mobile phone with WebRTC support and take a photo with it.
A simple RTCDataChannel sample
The RTCDataChannel interface is a feature which lets you open a channel between two peers over which you may send and receive arbitrary data. The API is intentionally similar to the WebSocket API, so that the same programming model can be used for each.

Recursos

Protocolos

WebRTC-proper protocols

Especificações

Especificação Estado Comentário
WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers Working Draft The initial definition of the API of WebRTC.
Media Capture and Streams Editor's Draft The initial definition of the object conveying the stream of media content.
Media Capture from DOM Elements Editor's Draft The initial definition on how to obtain stream of content from DOM Elements

In additions to these specifications defining the API needed to use WebRTC, there are several protocols, listed under resources.

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