Escrevendo CSS eficiente

  • Revision slug: Escrevendo_CSS_eficiente
  • Revision title: Escrevendo CSS eficiente
  • Revision id: 76917
  • Created:
  • Creator: Verruckt
  • Is current revision? Não
  • コメント /* Use -moz-image-region! */

Revision Content

O documento seguinte esboça regras para otimizar arquivos CSS para uso no Mozilla UI. A primeira seção é uma discussão geral de como o Mozilla renderiza as regras. Com a compreensão deste sistema, as seguintes seções contém diretrizes de como escrever regras para uma renderização mais rápida e melhor implementação do sistema do Mozilla.

Como o sistema de estilo quebra regras

O sistema de estilo quebra regras acima de quatro categorias primárias. É crítico entender estas categorias, como se fossem a primeira linha de defesa tanto quanto as regras de uma partida são interessantes. Uso o termo seletor de chave nos parágrafos que se seguem. O seletor de chave é definido por ser a mais correta ocorrência de um seletor de id, um seletor de classe ou um seletor de tags.

Regras ID

A primeira categoria consiste nestas regras que têm um seletor de ID como seu seletor de chave.

Exemplos

button#backButton { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */
#urlBar[type="autocomplete"] { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */
treeitem > treerow > treecell#myCell :active { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */

Regras Classe

Se uma regra tem uma classe especificada como seu seletor de chave, então ela cairá nesta categoria.

Exemplos

button.toolbarButton { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */
.fancyText { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */
menuitem > .menu-left[checked="true"] { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */

Regras Tag

Se não for especificado uma classe ou ID como o seletor de chave, então a próxima categoria potencial pra uma regra é a categoria tag. Se uma regra tem uma especificação tag como seu seletor de chave, então esta regra cairá nesta categoria.

Exemplos

td { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */
treeitem > treerow { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */
input[type="checkbox"] { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */

Regras universais

Todas as outras regras cairão nesta categoria.

Exemplos

:table { } /* Uma regra universal */
[hidden="true"] { } /* Uma regra universal */
* { } /* Uma regra universal */
tree > [collapsed="true"] { } /* Uma regra universal */

How the Style System Matches Rules

The style system matches a rule by starting with the rightmost selector and moving to the left through the rule's selectors. As long as your little subtree continues to check out, the style system will continue moving to the left until it either matches the rule or bails out because of a mismatch.

Your first line of defense is the rule filtering that occurs based on the type of the key selector. The purpose of this categorization is to filter out rules so that you don't even have to waste time trying to match them. This is the key to dramatically increasing performance. The fewer rules that you even have to check for a given element, the faster style resolution will be. As an example, if your element has an ID, then only ID rules that match your element's ID will be checked. Only class rules for a class found on your element will be checked. Only tag rules that match your tag will be checked. Universal rules will always be checked.

Guidelines for Efficient CSS

Avoid Universal Rules!

Make sure a rule doesn't end up in the universal category!

Don't qualify ID-categorized rules with tag names or classes

If you have a style rule that has an ID selector as its key selector, don't bother also adding the tag name to the rule. IDs are unique, so you're slowing down the matching for no real reason.

  • BAD - button#backButton { }
  • BAD - .menu-left#newMenuIcon { }
  • GOOD - #backButton { }
  • GOOD - #newMenuIcon { }

Don't qualify class-categorized rules with tag names

Similar to the rule above, all of our classes will be unique. The convention you should use is to include the tag name in the class name.

  • BAD - treecell.indented { }
  • GOOD - .treecell-indented { }

Try to put rules into the most specific category you can!

The single biggest cause of slowdown in our system is that we have too many rules in the tag category. By adding classes to our elements, we can further subdivide these rules into class categories, and then we no longer waste time trying to match as many rules for a given tag.

  • BAD - treeitem{{ mediawiki.external('mailfolder=\"true\"') }} > treerow > treecell { }
  • GOOD - .treecell-mailfolder { }

Avoid the descendant selector!

The descendant selector is the most expensive selector in CSS. It is dreadfully expensive, especially if a rule using the selector is in the tag or universal category. Frequently what is really desired is the child selector. The use of the descendant selector is banned in UI CSS without the explicit approval of your skin's module owner.

  • BAD - treehead treerow treecell { }
  • BETTER, BUT STILL BAD (see next guideline) - treehead > treerow > treecell { }

Tag-categorized rules should never contain a child selector!

Avoid using the child selector with tag-categorized rules. You will dramatically increase the matching time (especially if the rule is likely to be matched more often than not) for all occurrences of that element.

  • BAD - treehead > treerow > treecell { }
  • BEST - .treecell-header { }

Question all usages of the child selector!

Be careful about using the child selector. If you can come up with a way to avoid having to use it, do so. In particular, the child selector is frequently used with RDF trees and menus like so.

  • BAD - treeitem{{ mediawiki.external('IsImapServer=\"true\"') }} > treerow > .tree-folderpane-icon { }

Remember that attributes from RDF can be duplicated in a template! Take advantage of this fact to duplicate RDF properties on child XUL elements that wish to change based off that attribute.

  • GOOD - .tree-folderpane-icon{{ mediawiki.external('IsImapServer=\"true\"') }} { }

Rely on inheritance!

Learn which properties inherit, and allow them to do so! We have explicitly set up XUL widgetry so that you can put list-style-image (just one example) or font rules on the parent tag, and it will filter in to the anonymous content. You don't have to waste time writing a rule that talks directly to the anonymous content.

  • BAD - #bookmarkMenuItem > .menu-left { list-style-image: url(blah); }
  • GOOD - #bookmarkMenuItem { list-style-image: url(blah); }

In the above example, the desire to style the anonymous content (without understanding that list-style-image inherits) resulted in a rule that was in the class category, when this rule really should have ended up being in the most specific category of all, the ID category.

Remember, especially with anonymous content, that they all have the same classes! The bad rule above causes the icon of every menu to be checked to see if it is contained in the bookmarks menu item. This is hideously expensive (since there are many menus); this rule never should have even been checked by any menu other than the bookmarks menu.

Use -moz-image-region!

Putting a bunch of images into a single image file and selecting them with {{ Cssxref("-moz-image-region") }} performs significantly better than putting each image into its own file.

{{ InfoDocOriginal("David Hyatt", "David Tobias Nunes", "12/06/2007", "") }}

Categorias

Interwiki Language Links

{{ languages( { "en": "en/Writing_Efficient_CSS", "ja": "ja/Writing_Efficient_CSS" } ) }}

Revision Source

<p>
O documento seguinte esboça regras para otimizar arquivos CSS para uso no Mozilla UI. A primeira seção é uma discussão geral de como o Mozilla renderiza as regras. Com a compreensão deste sistema, as seguintes seções contém diretrizes de como escrever regras para uma renderização mais rápida e melhor implementação do sistema do Mozilla.
</p>
<h3 name="Como_o_sistema_de_estilo_quebra_regras"> Como o sistema de estilo quebra regras </h3>
<p>O sistema de estilo quebra regras acima de quatro categorias primárias. É crítico entender estas categorias, como se fossem a primeira linha de defesa tanto quanto as regras de uma partida são interessantes. Uso o termo <i>seletor de chave</i> nos parágrafos que se seguem. O seletor de chave é definido por ser a mais correta ocorrência de um seletor de id, um seletor de classe ou um seletor de tags.
</p>
<h4 name="Regras_ID"> Regras ID </h4>
<p>A primeira categoria consiste nestas regras que têm um seletor de ID como seu seletor de chave.
</p><p><b>Exemplos</b>
</p>
<pre class="eval">button#backButton { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */
#urlBar[type="autocomplete"] { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */
treeitem &gt; treerow &gt; treecell#myCell :active { } /* Esta é uma regra de ID categorizada */
</pre>
<h4 name="Regras_Classe"> Regras Classe </h4>
<p>Se uma regra tem uma classe especificada como seu seletor de chave, então ela cairá nesta categoria.
</p><p><b>Exemplos</b>
</p>
<pre class="eval">button.toolbarButton { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */
.fancyText { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */
menuitem &gt; .menu-left[checked="true"] { } /* Uma regra baseada em classe */
</pre>
<h4 name="Regras_Tag"> Regras Tag </h4>
<p>Se não for especificado uma classe ou ID como o seletor de chave, então a próxima categoria potencial pra uma regra é a categoria tag. Se uma regra tem uma especificação tag como seu seletor de chave, então esta regra cairá nesta categoria.
</p><p><b>Exemplos</b>
</p>
<pre class="eval">td { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */
treeitem &gt; treerow { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */
input[type="checkbox"] { } /* Uma regra baseada em tag */
</pre>
<h4 name="Regras_universais"> Regras universais </h4>
<p>Todas as outras regras cairão nesta categoria.
</p><p><b>Exemplos</b>
</p>
<pre class="eval">:table { } /* Uma regra universal */
[hidden="true"] { } /* Uma regra universal */
* { } /* Uma regra universal */
tree &gt; [collapsed="true"] { } /* Uma regra universal */
</pre>
<h3 name="How_the_Style_System_Matches_Rules"> How the Style System Matches Rules </h3>
<p>The style system matches a rule by starting with the rightmost selector and moving to the left through the rule's selectors. As long as your little subtree continues to check out, the style system will continue moving to the left until it either matches the rule or bails out because of a mismatch. </p><p>Your first line of defense is the rule filtering that occurs based on the type of the key selector. The purpose of this categorization is to filter out rules so that you don't even have to waste time trying to match them. This is the key to dramatically increasing performance. The fewer rules that you even have to check for a given element, the faster style resolution will be. As an example, if your element has an ID, then only ID rules that match your element's ID will be checked. Only class rules for a class found on your element will be checked. Only tag rules that match your tag will be checked. Universal rules will always be checked.
</p>
<h3 name="Guidelines_for_Efficient_CSS"> Guidelines for Efficient CSS </h3>
<h4 name="Avoid_Universal_Rules.21"> Avoid Universal Rules! </h4>
<p>Make sure a rule doesn't end up in the universal category!
</p>
<h4 name="Don.27t_qualify_ID-categorized_rules_with_tag_names_or_classes"> Don't qualify ID-categorized rules with tag names or classes </h4>
<p>If you have a style rule that has an ID selector as its key selector, don't bother also adding the tag name to the rule. IDs are unique, so you're slowing down the matching for no real reason.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>button#backButton { }</code>
</li><li> BAD - <code>.menu-left#newMenuIcon { }</code>
</li><li> GOOD - <code>#backButton { }</code>
</li><li> GOOD - <code>#newMenuIcon { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Don.27t_qualify_class-categorized_rules_with_tag_names"> Don't qualify class-categorized rules with tag names </h4>
<p>Similar to the rule above, all of our classes will be unique. The convention you should use is to include the tag name in the class name.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>treecell.indented { }</code>
</li><li> GOOD - <code>.treecell-indented { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Try_to_put_rules_into_the_most_specific_category_you_can.21"> Try to put rules into the most specific category you can! </h4>
<p>The single biggest cause of slowdown in our system is that we have too many rules in the tag category. By adding classes to our elements, we can further subdivide these rules into class categories, and then we no longer waste time trying to match as many rules for a given tag.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>treeitem{{ mediawiki.external('mailfolder=\"true\"') }} &gt; treerow &gt; treecell { }</code>
</li><li> GOOD - <code>.treecell-mailfolder { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Avoid_the_descendant_selector.21"> Avoid the descendant selector! </h4>
<p>The descendant selector is the most expensive selector in CSS. It is dreadfully expensive, especially if a rule using the selector is in the tag or universal category. Frequently what is really desired is the child selector. The use of the descendant selector is banned in UI CSS without the explicit approval of your skin's module owner.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>treehead treerow treecell { }</code>
</li><li> BETTER, BUT STILL BAD (see next guideline) - <code>treehead &gt; treerow &gt; treecell { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Tag-categorized_rules_should_never_contain_a_child_selector.21"> Tag-categorized rules should never contain a child selector! </h4>
<p>Avoid using the child selector with tag-categorized rules. You will dramatically increase the matching time (especially if the rule is likely to be matched more often than not) for all occurrences of that element.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>treehead &gt; treerow &gt; treecell { }</code>
</li><li> BEST - <code>.treecell-header { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Question_all_usages_of_the_child_selector.21"> Question all usages of the child selector! </h4>
<p>Be careful about using the child selector. If you can come up with a way to avoid having to use it, do so. In particular, the child selector is frequently used with RDF trees and menus like so.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>treeitem{{ mediawiki.external('IsImapServer=\"true\"') }} &gt; treerow &gt; .tree-folderpane-icon { }</code>
</li></ul>
<p>Remember that attributes from RDF can be duplicated in a template! Take advantage of this fact to duplicate RDF properties on child XUL elements that wish to change based off that attribute.
</p>
<ul><li> GOOD - <code>.tree-folderpane-icon{{ mediawiki.external('IsImapServer=\"true\"') }} { }</code>
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Rely_on_inheritance.21"> Rely on inheritance! </h4>
<p>Learn which properties inherit, and allow them to do so! We have explicitly set up XUL widgetry so that you can put list-style-image (just one example) or font rules on the parent tag, and it will filter in to the anonymous content. You don't have to waste time writing a rule that talks directly to the anonymous content.
</p>
<ul><li> BAD - <code>#bookmarkMenuItem &gt; .menu-left { list-style-image: url(blah); }</code>
</li><li> GOOD - <code>#bookmarkMenuItem { list-style-image: url(blah); }</code>
</li></ul>
<p>In the above example, the desire to style the anonymous content (without understanding that list-style-image inherits) resulted in a rule that was in the class category, when this rule really should have ended up being in the most specific category of all, the ID category.
</p><p>Remember, especially with anonymous content, that they all have the same classes! The bad rule above causes the icon of every menu to be checked to see if it is contained in the bookmarks menu item. This is hideously expensive (since there are many menus); this rule never should have even been checked by any menu other than the bookmarks menu.
</p>
<h4 name="Use_-moz-image-region.21"> Use -moz-image-region! </h4>
<p>Putting a bunch of images into a single image file and selecting them with {{ Cssxref("-moz-image-region") }} performs significantly better than putting each image into its own file.
</p><p>{{ InfoDocOriginal("David Hyatt", "David Tobias Nunes", "12/06/2007", "") }}
</p><p><span class="comment">Categorias</span>
</p><p><span class="comment">Interwiki Language Links</span>
</p>{{ languages( { "en": "en/Writing_Efficient_CSS", "ja": "ja/Writing_Efficient_CSS" } ) }}
Revert to this revision