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The encrypt() method of the SubtleCrypto interface encrypts data.

It takes as its arguments a key to encrypt with, some algorithm-specific parameters, and the data to encrypt (also known as "plaintext"). It returns a Promise which will be fulfilled with the encrypted data (also known as "ciphertext").

Syntax

const result = crypto.subtle.encrypt(algorithm, key, data);

Parameters

Return value

Exceptions

The promise is rejected when the following exceptions are encountered:

InvalidAccessError
Raised when the requested operation is not valid for the provided key (e.g. invalid encryption algorithm, or invalid key for the specified encryption algorithm).
OperationError
Raised when the operation failed for an operation-specific reason (e.g. algorithm parameters of invalid sizes, or AES-GCM plaintext longer than 2³⁹−256 bytes).

Supported algorithms

The Web Crypto API provides four algorithms that support the encrypt() and decrypt() operations.

One of these algorithms — RSA-OAEP — is a public-key cryptosystem.

The other three encryption algorithms here are all symmetric algorithms, and they're all based on the same underlying cipher, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). The difference between them is the mode. The Web Crypto API supports three different AES modes:

  • CTR (Counter Mode)
  • CBC (Cipher Block Chaining)
  • GCM (Galois/Counter Mode)

It's strongly recommended to use authenticated encryption, which includes checks that the ciphertext has not been modified by an attacker. Authentication helps protect against chosen-ciphertext attacks, in which an attacker can ask the system to decrypt arbitrary messages, and use the result to deduce information about the secret key. While it's possible to add authentication to CTR and CBC modes, they do not provide it by default and when implementing it manually one can easily make minor, but serious mistakes. GCM does provide built-in authentication, and for this reason it's often recommended over the other two AES modes.

RSA-OAEP

The RSA-OAEP public-key encryption system is specified in RFC 3447.

AES-CTR

This represents AES in Counter Mode, as specified in NIST SP800-38A.

AES-CBC

This represents AES in Cipher Block Chaining Mode, as specified in NIST SP800-38A.

AES-GCM

This represents AES in Galois/Counter Mode, as specified in NIST SP800-38D.

One major difference between this mode and the others is that GCM is an "authenticated" mode, which means that it includes checks that the ciphertext has not been modified by an attacker.

Examples

Note: You can try the working examples out on GitHub.

RSA-OAEP

This code fetches the contents of a text box, encodes it for encryption, and encrypts it with using RSA-OAEP. See the complete code on GitHub.

function getMessageEncoding() {
  const messageBox = document.querySelector(".rsa-oaep #message");
  let message = messageBox.value;
  let enc = new TextEncoder();
  return enc.encode(message);
}

function encryptMessage(publicKey) {
  let encoded = getMessageEncoding();
  return window.crypto.subtle.encrypt(
    {
      name: "RSA-OAEP"
    },
    publicKey,
    encoded
  );
}

AES-CTR

This code fetches the contents of a text box, encodes it for encryption, and encrypts it using AES in CTR mode. See the complete code on GitHub.

function getMessageEncoding() {
  const messageBox = document.querySelector(".aes-ctr #message");
  let message = messageBox.value;
  let enc = new TextEncoder();
  return enc.encode(message);
}

function encryptMessage(key) {
  let encoded = getMessageEncoding();
  // counter will be needed for decryption
  counter = window.crypto.getRandomValues(new Uint8Array(16));
  return window.crypto.subtle.encrypt(
    {
      name: "AES-CTR",
      counter,
      length: 64
    },
    key,
    encoded
  );
}

AES-CBC

This code fetches the contents of a text box, encodes it for encryption, and encrypts it using AES in CBC mode. See the complete code on GitHub.

function getMessageEncoding() {
  const messageBox = document.querySelector(".aes-cbc #message");
  let message = messageBox.value;
  let enc = new TextEncoder();
  return enc.encode(message);
}

function encryptMessage(key) {
  let encoded = getMessageEncoding();
  // iv will be needed for decryption
  iv = window.crypto.getRandomValues(new Uint8Array(16));
  return window.crypto.subtle.encrypt(
    {
      name: "AES-CBC",
      iv
    },
    key,
    encoded
  );
}

AES-GCM

This code fetches the contents of a text box, encodes it for encryption, and encrypts it using AES in GCM mode. See the complete code on GitHub.

function getMessageEncoding() {
  const messageBox = document.querySelector(".aes-gcm #message");
  let message = messageBox.value;
  let enc = new TextEncoder();
  return enc.encode(message);
}

function encryptMessage(key) {
  let encoded = getMessageEncoding();
  // iv will be needed for decryption
  iv = window.crypto.getRandomValues(new Uint8Array(12));
  return window.crypto.subtle.encrypt(
    {
      name: "AES-GCM",
      iv: iv
    },
    key,
    encoded
  );
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Web Cryptography API
The definition of 'SubtleCrypto.encrypt()' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
encryptChrome Full support 37Edge Partial support 12
Notes
Partial support 12
Notes
Notes Not supported: AES-CTR.
Firefox Full support 34
Full support 34
No support 32 — 34
Disabled
Disabled From version 32 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.webcrypto.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE Partial support 11
Notes
Partial support 11
Notes
Notes Returns CryptoOperation instead of Promise
Opera Full support 24Safari Full support 7WebView Android Full support 37Chrome Android Full support 37Edge Mobile Full support 12Firefox Android Full support 34
Full support 34
No support 32 — 34
Disabled
Disabled From version 32 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.webcrypto.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android Full support 24Safari iOS Full support 7Samsung Internet Android Full support 6.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
Partial support  
Partial support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

See also

Etiquetas do documento e colaboradores

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