This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

The subscribe() method of the PushManager interface subscribes to a push service.

It returns a Promise that resolves to a PushSubscription object containing details of a push subscription. A new push subscription is created if the current service worker does not have an existing subscription.


​PushManager.subscribe(options).then(function(pushSubscription) { ... } );


options Optional
An object containing optional configuration parameters. It can have the following properties:
  • userVisibleOnly: A boolean indicating that the returned push subscription will only be used for messages whose effect is made visible to the user.
  • applicationServerKey: A Base64-encoded DOMString or ArrayBuffer containing an ECDSA P-256 public key that the push server will use to authenticate your application server. If specified, all messages from your application server must use the VAPID authentication scheme, and include a JWT signed with the corresponding private key. This key IS NOT the same ECDH key that you use to encrypt the data. For more information, see "Using VAPID with WebPush".

Note: This parameter is required in some browsers like Chrome and Edge.


A Promise that resolves to a PushSubscription object.


this.onpush = function(event) {
  // From here we can write the data to IndexedDB, send it to any open
  // windows, display a notification, etc.


// Use serviceWorker.ready to ensure that you can subscribe for push
  function(serviceWorkerRegistration) {
    var options = {
      userVisibleOnly: true,
      applicationServerKey: applicationServerKey
      function(pushSubscription) {
        // The push subscription details needed by the application
        // server are now available, and can be sent to it using,
        // for example, an XMLHttpRequest.
      }, function(error) {
        // During development it often helps to log errors to the
        // console. In a production environment it might make sense to
        // also report information about errors back to the
        // application server.

Responding to user gestures

subscribe() calls should be done in response to a user gesture, such as clicking a button, for example:

btn.addEventListener('click', function() {
  .then(function(pushSubscription) {
    // handle subscription

This is not only best practice — you should not be spamming users with notifications they didn't agree to — but going forward browsers will explicitly disallow notifications not triggered in response to a user gesture. Firefox is already doing this from version 72, for example.


Specification Status Comment
Push API
The definition of 'subscribe()' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Chrome Full support 42
Full support 42
Notes The options parameter with a applicationServerKey value is required.
Edge Full support 16
Full support 16
Disabled From version 16: this feature is behind the Enable service workers preference.
Full support 17
Firefox Full support 44
Full support 44
Notes Extended Support Releases (ESR) before Firefox 78 ESR do not support service workers and the Push API.
Notes From Firefox 72 onwards, can only be called in response to a user gesture such as a click event.
IE No support NoOpera Full support 29Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android Full support 42Firefox Android Full support 48
Full support 48
Notes Push enabled by default.
Opera Android Full support 29Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 4.0


Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.