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Localização e Plurais

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Você provavelmente está aqui porque está localizando um arquivo .properties e ele tem um link para essa página. Essa página ajuda a explicar como localizar essas strings de forma que a forma de plural correta seja mostrada para o usuário. Por exemplo, "1 página" vs "2 páginas".

Se você está aqui para tornar seu código (ex.: extensões) localizável para formas de plural, você pode pular direto para Desenvolvendo com PluralForm, mas se você provavelmente precisa localizar as strings iniciais para seu código, então seria bom também ler pelo menos a seção Uso.

 

Uso

Aqui estão alguns termos usados nesta página para ajudar a manter as coisas claras:

  • regra de plural: Para um idioma dado, há uma regra gramatical sobre como alterar palavras dependendo do número qualificando a palavra. Idiomas diferentes podem ter regras diferentes.
  • forma de plural: Para uma regra de plural em particular, pode haver múltiplas formas de uma palavra, tal como "página" e "páginas". Neste caso, há 2 formas, mas outros idiomas podem ter 1 ou muito mais.

Se você está aqui para pluralRule no arquivo chrome/global/intl.properties, você precisa descobrir qual regra de plural deve ser escolhida para sua localização. Essa regra de plural é usada para determinar quantas formas de plural são necessárias para cada palavra que precisa ser localizada com plurais em mente.

Para todos os demais arquivos de propriedades que possuem link para essa página, você terá que fornecer formas de plural suficiente da palavra desejada e separá-las com ponto e vírgula (;). Se você não sabe quantas formas de plural você precisa, verifique o número de pluralRule em chrome/global/intl.properties e procure pela entrada correspondente à entrada na lista de regras de plural a seguir.

Lista de Regras de Plural

Essa seção contém uma lista de regras de plural ordenada por seu número de regras de plural. Cada entrada indica quantas formas de plural são necessárias ao localizar uma palavra. Para cada entrada, há uma lista de famílias e idiomas naquelas famílias para lhe ajudar a descobrir se esta é a regra que você deveria escolher para pluralRule. Adicionalmente, há uma breve descrição de cada forma de plural seguida por alguns exemplos de números que caem naquela forma em particular.

Para a regra de plural dada, a ordem na qual as formas de plural são listadas está na mesma ordem que você localizar uma palavra, separadas por caractere de ponto e vírgula. Por exemplo, o inglês usa a regra de plural 1, e localizar plurals exigiria uma string de "plural;plurais" na qual a primeira palavra é a forma singular e a segunda é a forma plural geral.

Regra de plural #0 (1 forma)

Famílias: asiática (chinês, japonês, coreano), persa, turca/altaica (turco), tailandês, laociana
tudo: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, …

Regra de plural #1 (2 formas)

Famílias: germânica (dinamarquês, holandês, inglês, faroês, frísio, alemão, norueguês, sueco), fino-úgricas (estoniando, finlandês, húngaro), língua isolada (basco), latina/grega (grego), semítica (hebráico), românica (italiano, português, espanhol, catalão), vietnamita
é 1: 1
todo resto: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, …

Regra de plural #2 (2 formas)

Família: Românica (francês, português brasileiro)
é 0 ou 1: 0, 1
todo resto: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, …

Regra de plural #3 (3 formas)

Famílias: báltica (letã)
é 0: 0
termina em 1, excluindo 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
todo resto: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, …

Regra de plural #4 (4 formas)

Famílias: céltica (gaélico escocês)
é 1 ou 11: 1, 11
é 2 ou 12: 2, 12
é 3-10 ou 13-19: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
todo resto: 0, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, …

Regra de plural #5 (3 formas)

Families: Romanic (Romanian)
is 1: 1
is 0 or ends in 01-19, excluding 1: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, …
everything else: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, …

Regra de plural #6 (3 formas)

Families: Baltic (Lithuanian)
ends in 1, excluding 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
ends in 0 or ends in 11-19: 0, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, …
everything else: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, …

Regra de plural #7 (3 formas)

Families: Slavic (Belarusian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian)
ends in 1, excluding 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
ends in 2-4, excluding 12-14: 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 42, 43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 74, 82, 83, 84, 92, 93, 94, 102, 103, 104, 122, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 152, 153, 154, 162, 163, 164, 172, 173, 174, 182, 183, …
everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, …

Regra de plural #8 (3 formas)

Families: Slavic (Slovak, Czech)
is 1: 1
is 2-4: 2, 3, 4
everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, …

Regra de plural #9 (3 formas)

Families: Slavic (Polish)
is 1: 1
ends in 2-4, excluding 12-14: 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 42, 43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 74, 82, 83, 84, 92, 93, 94, 102, 103, 104, 122, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 152, 153, 154, 162, 163, 164, 172, 173, 174, 182, 183, …
everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67, 68, …

Regra de plural #10 (4 formas)

Families: Slavic (Slovenian, Sorbian)
ends in 01: 1, 101, 201, …
ends in 02: 2, 102, 202, …
ends in 03-04: 3, 4, 103, 104, 203, 204, …
everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, …

Regra de plural #11 (5 formas)

Families: Celtic (Irish Gaelic)
is 1: 1
is 2: 2
is 3-6: 3, 4, 5, 6
is 7-10: 7, 8, 9, 10
everything else: 0, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, …

Regra de plural #12 (6 formas)

Families: Semitic (Arabic)
is 1: 1
is 2: 2
ends in 03-10: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210,
everything else but is 0 and ends in 00-02, excluding 0-2: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, …
ends in 00-02, excluding 0-2: 100, 101, 102, 200, 201, 202, …
is 0: 0

Regra de plural #13 (4 formas)

Families: Semitic (Maltese)
is 1: 1
is 0 or ends in 01-10, excluding 1: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, …
ends in 11-19: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, …
everything else: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, …

Regra de plural #14 (3 formas)

Families: Slavic (Macedonian)
ends in 1: 1, 11, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 111, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
ends in 2: 2, 12, 22, 32, 42, 52, 62, 72, 82, 92, 102, 112, 122, 132, 142, 152, 162, 172, 182, 192, 202, 212, 222, 232, 242, 252, 262, 272, 282, 292, …
everything else: 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, …

Regra de plural #15 (2 formas)

Families: Icelandic
ends in 1, excluding 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
everything else: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, …

Regra de plural #16 (6 formas)

Families: Celtic (Breton)
is 1: 1
ends in 1, excluding 1, 11, 71, 91: 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 81, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 181, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 281, ...
ends in 2, excluding 12, 72, 92: 2, 22, 32, 42, 52, 62, 82, 102, 122, 132, 142, 152, 162, 182, 202, 222, 232, 242, 252, 262, 282, ...
ends in 3, 4 or 9 excluding 13, 14, 19, 73, 74, 79, 93, 94, 99: 3, 4, 9, 23, 24, 29, 33, 34, 39, 43, 44, 49, 53, 54, 59, ...
ends in 1000000: 1000000: 1000000, 2000000, 3000000, 4000000, 5000000, 6000000, 7000000, 8000000, 9000000, 10000000, ...
everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, ...

Examples

The following are some examples for various languages and a brief thought processes.

French

Some French speaking places treat 0 as plural while others treat it as singular. The only other singular is 1 while everything else is plural. So pick either plural rule #1 or #2.

pluralRule=2
seconds=seconde;secondes
minutes=minute;minutes
hours=heure;heures
days=jour;jours

Like many other times when localizing words, gender agreement might force you to rearrange words in a way that the gender is always the same. (seconde vs jour)

Chinese

A word doesn't change if there is a different number in front of it, so all numbers use the same plural form. With just one plural form, it has to be plural rule #0. For each word to localize, it's just like localizing a single word with no semi-colons needed.

pluralRule=0
seconds=秒
minutes=分
hours=時
days=日

Polish

There's a singular form for 1, a plural form for 2-4, and another for 5-21 at which point 22 is the same as 2. Plural rule #7 has a "ends in 2-4, not 12-14" but the singular form includes everything ending in 1 except 11. Plural rule #9 has the correct singular form for only 1.

pluralRule=9
seconds=sekunda;sekundy;sekund
minutes=minuta;minuty;minut
hours=godzina;godziny;godzin
days=dzień;dni;dni

Even though the last 2 plural forms of "day" are the same, both are still needed because there needs to be 3 plural forms for each word.

Sorbian

There are 4 plural forms: nominative singular, nominative dual, nominative plural, genitive plural. These match up with plural rule #10.

pluralRule=10
seconds=sekunda;sekundźe;sekundy;sekundow
minutes=mjeńšina;mjeńšinje;mjeńšiny;mjeńšin
hours=hodźina;hodźinje;hodźiny;hodźin
days=dźeń;dnjej;dny;dnjow

Testing Extension

To help make sure you pick the right plural rule and provide enough plural forms for strings, you should use the pluralForm Checker extension. After installing the extension, it should be available from the Tools menu.

To use it, list off the property files and properties that you want to check and click the button. The extension will load each property and display the plural forms in a table. Selecting a table entry will populate the bottom box with sample uses of the word for some numbers.

Image:pluralForm-checker.0.3.png

Install pluralForm Checker v0.3 extension

Extension input

It would be good to keep this list updated with all the words that need plural forms. People using the extension can then copy/paste this input.

chrome://mozapps/locale/downloads/do...tes,hours,days
chrome://mozapps/locale/downloads/do...dsTitlePercent
chrome://browser/locale/browser.prop...ausedDownloads

Version history

0.1: Initial version with pluralRule check, properties input loading, table generation, sample output display
0.2: Use PluralForm.numForms() to get the number of forms instead of figuring out locally to better support future rules - Requires build from 2007/01/27 or later
0.3: Generate a list of what numbers fall into which plural form to minimize the sample output to at most 3 of each form

Developing with PluralForm

The functionality for getting the correct plural forms is provided by a JavaScript Module, PluralForm.jsm. This module provides a couple methods for localizing to the browser's current locale as well as getting methods to localize to a desired plural rule. The latter ability of specifying a plural rule is useful for extensions because the extension doesn't necessarily have to be localized to the browser's locale.

Loading PluralForm.jsm

Loading the PluralForm module from JavaScript is simple with Components.utils.import. Just put the following line somewhere that will be evaluated before you want to use PluralForm. At the top of your JavaScript file is fine.

Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");

Methods: get

These methods make use of the browser's current locale specified by chrome://global/locale/intl.properties's pluralRule value.

/**
 * Get the correct plural form of a word based on the number
 *
 * @param aNum
 *        The number to decide which plural form to use
 * @param aWords
 *        A semi-colon (;) separated string of words to pick the plural form
 * @return The appropriate plural form of the word
 */
string pluralForm
get(int aNum, string aWords)

Here is an example of using this method:

// Load PluralForm and for this example, assume English
Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");

// PluralForm.get expects a semi-colon separated list of words
let downloads = "download;downloads";
// Pretend this number came from somewhere else
let num = 10;

// Display the correct plural form for 10 downloads: "You have 10 downloads.")
print("You have " + num + " " + PluralForm.get(num, downloads) + ".");

// Try again with a different value: "You have 1 download."
num = 1;
print("You have " + num + " " + PluralForm.get(num, downloads) + ".")

The above example works, but is still difficult to localize because we're concatenating strings assuming a particular grammatical structure. The following would be better:

Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");

let downloads = "You have one download.;You have #1 downloads.";
let num = 10;

// For English, this would display "You have 10 downloads."
print(PluralForm.get(num, downloads).replace("#1", num);

Notice in the above example that the code can be written to support placeholders or not use placeholders in some forms of the string. Additionally, the localizer has control over where the placeholder is in relation to the rest of the text.

Of course, the strings to be localized will be placed in a separate file such as yourextension.properties instead of being hardcoded in the JavaScript code file.

The following 3 file snippets show how to use PluralForm with your .xul, .properties, .js files.

downloads.xul:

<stringbundleset>
  <stringbundle id="strings" src="chrome://downloads.properties"/>
</stringbundleset>

downloads.properties:

# LOCALIZATION NOTE (downloadsTitleFiles): Semi-colon list of plural forms.
# See: http://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Localization_and_Plurals
# #1 number of files
# example: 111 files - Downloads
downloadsTitleFiles=#1 file - Downloads;#1 files - Downloads

# LOCALIZATION NOTE (timePair): #1 time number; #2 time unit
# example: 1 second; 11 seconds
timePair=#1 #2
seconds=second;seconds
minutes=minute;minutes
hours=hour;hours

downloads.js:

Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");
let getStr = function(string) document.getElementById("strings").getString(string);

// Get the correct plural form for the title
let numDownloads = 3;
let title = PluralForm.get(numDownloads, getStr("downloadsTitleFiles"));
// Put in the correct number of downloads
print(title.replace("#1", numDownloads));

// Get the correct plural form of seconds
let timeLeft = 55;
let seconds = PluralForm.get(timeLeft, getStr("seconds"));
// Print the localized string for "55 seconds"
print(getStr("timePair").replace("#1", timeLeft).replace("#2", seconds));

Method: makeGetter

If you're writing an extension, you'll want to use makeGetter instead of PluralForm.get() or PluralForm.numForms() because someone installing the extension on a different locale will be using the strings provided by your default extension locale. For example, your extension localized for English with plural rule #1, which expects 2 plural forms, is installed on a localized version of Firefox with plural rule #4, which expects 3 forms.

/**
 * Create a pair of plural form functions for the given plural rule number.
 *
 * @param aRuleNum
 *        The plural rule number to create functions
 * @return A pair: [function that gets the right plural form,
 *                  function that returns the number of plural forms]
 */ 
[string pluralForm get(int aNum, string aWords), int numForms numForms()]
makeGetter(int aRuleNum)

Here is an example usage of makeGetter:

Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");

// Let's get Irish (plural rule #11)
let [get, numForms] = PluralForm.makeGetter(11);

// Make up some values to use with "get"
let dummyText = "form 1;form 2;form 3;form 4;form 5";
let dummyNum = 10;

// In the case of Irish, the value 10 uses plural form #4, so "form 4" is printed
print(get(dummyNum, dummyText));

In this example, the Irish plural rule was hardcoded, but this could be a value specified in the .properties file. So for your extension, specify a pluralRule value in the .properties and call PluralForm.makeGetter(pluralRuleFromProperties) making sure to save the 2 returned functions. (You can use destructured assignment in JavaScript 1.7 to keep things clean.) The returned functions act just like PluralForm.get() and PluralForm.numForms() except for the specified plural rule instead of the default plural rule.

Credits

Plural Form code first implemented for bug 394516 - Figure out a remaining-time rounding scheme for minutes -> hours/days
Plural rules and families derived from GNU gettext documentation.

 

 

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 Colaboradores desta página: rafaelff
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