animation-timing-function

The animation-timing-function CSS property sets how an animation progresses through the duration of each cycle.

It is often convenient to use the shorthand property animation to set all animation properties at once.

Syntax

/* Keyword values */
animation-timing-function: ease;
animation-timing-function: ease-in;
animation-timing-function: ease-out;
animation-timing-function: ease-in-out;
animation-timing-function: linear;
animation-timing-function: step-start;
animation-timing-function: step-end;

/* Function values */
animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.1, 0.7, 1.0, 0.1);
animation-timing-function: steps(4, end);

/* Steps Function keywords */ 
animation-timing-function: steps(4, jump-start);
animation-timing-function: steps(10, jump-end);
animation-timing-function: steps(20, jump-none);
animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-both);
animation-timing-function: steps(6, start);
animation-timing-function: steps(8, end);

/* Multiple animations */
animation-timing-function: ease, step-start, cubic-bezier(0.1, 0.7, 1.0, 0.1);

/* Global values */
animation-timing-function: inherit;
animation-timing-function: initial;
animation-timing-function: unset;

Timing functions may be specified on individual keyframes in a @keyframes rule. If no animation-timing-function is specified on a keyframe, the corresponding value of animation-timing-function from the element to which the animation is applied is used for that keyframe.

A keyframe's timing function is applied on a property-by-property basis from the keyframe on which it is specified until the next keyframe specifying that property, or until the end of the animation if there is no subsequent keyframe specifying that property. As a result, an animation-timing-function specified on the 100% or to keyframe will never be used.

Values

<timing-function>
The timing function that corresponds to a given animation, as determined by animation-name.


The non-step keyword values (ease, linear, ease-in-out, etc.) each represent cubic Bézier curve with fixed four point values, with the cubic-bezier() function value allowing for a non-predefined value. The step timing functions divides the input time into a specified number of intervals that are equal in length. It is defined by a number of steps and a step position.

ease
Equal to cubic-bezier(0.25, 0.1, 0.25, 1.0), the default value, increases in velocity towards the middle of the animation, slowing back down at the end.
linear
Equal to cubic-bezier(0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0), animates at an even speed.
ease-in
Equal to cubic-bezier(0.42, 0, 1.0, 1.0), starts off slowly, with the speed of the transition of the animating properting increasing until complete.
ease-out
Equal to cubic-bezier(0, 0, 0.58, 1.0), starts quickly, slowing down the animation continues. •
ease-in-out
Equal to cubic-bezier(0.42, 0, 0.58, 1.0), with the animating properties slowly transitioning, speeding up, and then slowing down again.
cubic-bezier(p1, p2, p3, p4)
An author defined cubic-bezier curve, where the p1 and p3 values must be in the range of 0 to 1.
steps(n, <jumpterm>)
Displays an animation iteration along n stops along the transition, displaying each stop for equal lengths of time. For example, if n is 5,  there are 5 steps. Whether the animation holds temporarily at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%, on the 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%, or makes 5 stops between the 0% and 100% along the animation, or makes 5 stops including the 0% and 100% marks (on the 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) depends on which of the following jump terms is used:
jump-start
Denotes a left-continuous function, so that the first jump happens when the animation begins;
jump-end
Denotes a right-continuous function, so that the last jump happens when the animation ends;
jump-none
There is no jump on either end. Instead, holding at both the 0% mark and the 100% mark, each for 1/n of the duration.
jump-both
Includes pauses at both the 0% and 100% marks, effectively adding a step during the animation iteration.
start
Same as jump-start.
end
Same as jump-end.
 
step-start
Equal to steps(1, jump-start)
step-end
Equal to steps(1, jump-end)

Note: When you specify multiple comma-separated values on an animation-* property, they will be assigned to the animations specified in the animation-name property in different ways depending on how many there are. For more information, see Setting multiple animation property values.

Formal syntax

<timing-function>#

where
<timing-function> = linear | <cubic-bezier-timing-function> | <step-timing-function>

where
<cubic-bezier-timing-function> = ease | ease-in | ease-out | ease-in-out | cubic-bezier(<number>, <number>, <number>, <number>)
<step-timing-function> = step-start | step-end | steps(<integer>[, <step-position>]?)

where
<step-position> = jump-start | jump-end | jump-none | jump-both | start | end

Examples

Cubic-Bezier examples

.ease {
   animation-timing-function: ease;
}
.easein {
   animation-timing-function: ease-in;
}
.easeout {
   animation-timing-function: ease-out;
}
.easeinout {
   animation-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.linear {
   animation-timing-function: linear;
}
.cb {
   animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.2,-2,0.8,2);
}

Step examples

.jump-start {
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-start);
}
.jump-end {
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-end);
}
.jump-none {
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-none);
}
.jump-both {
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-both);
}
.start { 
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, start); 
} 
.end { 
   animation-timing-function: steps(5, end); 
}
.step-start {
   animation-timing-function: step-start;
}
.step-end {
   animation-timing-function: step-end;
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Animations
The definition of 'animation-timing-function' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.
Initial valueease
Applies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elements
Inheritedno
Mediavisual
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
animation-timing-functionChrome Full support 43
Full support 43
Full support 3
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Edge Full support 12
Full support 12
Full support 12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Full support 5
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
IE Full support 10Opera Full support 30
Full support 30
Full support 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
No support 12.1 — 15
No support 12 — 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -o-
Safari Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 4
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
WebView Android Full support 43
Full support 43
Full support ≤37
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Chrome Android Full support 43
Full support 43
Full support 18
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Firefox Android Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Full support 5
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
Opera Android Full support 30
Full support 30
Full support 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
No support 12.1 — 14
No support 12 — 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -o-
Safari iOS Full support 9
Full support 9
Full support 3.2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Samsung Internet Android Full support 4.0
Full support 4.0
Full support Yes
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
jump- keywords for steps()Chrome Full support 77Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 65IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android Full support 77Chrome Android Full support 77Firefox Android Full support 65Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.

See also