Mobile devices have quite different hardware characteristics compared with desktop or laptop computers. Their screens are usually smaller, obviously, but they also usually automatically switch the screen orientation between portrait and landscape mode as the user rotates the device. They usually have touch screens for user input. APIs like geolocation or orientation are either not supported on desktops or are much less useful, and these APIs give mobile users new ways to interact with your site.
Responsive Web Design is a term for a set of techniques that enables your web site to adapt its layout as its viewing environment — most obviously, the size and orientation of the screen — changes. It includes techniques such as:
- fluid CSS layouts, to make the page adapt smoothly as the browser window size changes
- the use of media queries to conditionally include CSS rules appropriate for the device screen width and height
The viewport meta tag instructs the browser to display your site at the appropriate scale for the user's device.
터치 스크린을 사용하려면 당신은 DOM 터치 이벤트에 대해서 배워야 합니다. You won't be able to use the CSS :hover pseudo-class, and will need to design clickable items like buttons to respect the fact that fingers are fatter than mouse pointers. See this article on designing for touch screens.
-moz-touch-enabled 미디어 쿼리를 이용해 터치를 사용할 수 있는 기기에서 다른 CSS 파일을 불러들일 수도 있습니다.
다양한 모바일 브라우저에서 잘 작동하는 웹 사이트를 만들기 위해서는 다음 내용을 알아두셔야 합니다. :
- 벤더별 접두어(vendor-prefix)가 사용된 CSS 프로퍼티 등 특정 브라우저에서만 작동하는 기능 사용을 배제할 것.
- 그러한 특정 기능을 사용해야 하는 경우, 다른 브라우저에서도 그러한 기능이 구현되어 있는지 확인할 것. 그러한 기능이 있다면, 그 브라우저에 대한 지원도 목표로 할 것.
- 다른 브라우저에서 그러한 특정 기능이 지원되지 않는다면, 그런 브라우저들을 위해 납득 가능한 대체재(fallback)를 만들어 둘 것.
For example, if you set a gradient as a background for some text using a vendor-prefixed property like
-webkit-linear-gradient, it's best to include the other vendor-prefixed versions of the linear-gradient property. If you don't do that, at least make sure that the default background contrasts with the text: that way, the page will at least be usable in a browser which is not targeted by your
It's preferable for web sites to detect specific device features such as screen size and touch screens using the techniques listed above, and adapt themselves accordingly. But sometimes this is impractical, and web sites resort to parsing the browser's user agent string to try to distinguish between desktops, tablets, and phones, to serve different content to each type of device.
If you do this, make sure your algorithm is correct, and you aren't serving the wrong type of content to a device because you don't understand a particular browser's user agent string. See this guide to using the user agent string to determine device type.
Test your web site on multiple browsers. This means testing on multiple platforms — at least iOS and Android.
- test mobile Safari on the iPhone using the iOS simulator
- test Opera and Firefox using the Android SDK. See these additional instructions for running Firefox for Android using the Android emulator.