Migrate apps from Internet Explorer to Mozilla

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소개

Mozilla 는 넷스케이프가 프로젝트를 시작할 때 부터, 의도적으로 W3C 표준을 지원하도록 결정되었습니다. 그 결과, Mozilla는 Netscape 4.x 이나 Microsoft Internet Explorer 의 코드와 완전한 하위 호환이 되지 않습니다. 예를 들어 Mozilla는 <layer>코드를 지원하지 않습니다. Inetnet Explorer 4와 같이 W3C 표준의 개념이 생기기전에 만들어진 브라우저들은 그들만의 특성을 가지고 있습니다. 이 글에서 저는 Internet Explorer와 기타 브라우저들 과의 경력한 HTML 하위 호환성을 지원하기 위한 Mozilla의 quicks 모드에 대해서 기술할 것입니다.

또한 XMLHttpRequest 나 rich-text 편집과 같은 모질라가 지원하는 비표준 기술(당시엔 해당하는 W3C 규약이 없었음) 에 대해서도 다룰 것입니다. 내용은 다음과 같습니다:

일반 cross-browser 코딩 팁

웹 표준이 있다고 하지만, 서로 다른 브라우저들 간에는 차이점이 존재합니다(사실, 같은 브라우저라 해도 플랫폼에 따라 차이가 발생합니다). 또한 Intetnet Explorer와 같은 많은 브라우저들은 예전 W3C API를 지원하지만, W3C 에서 새롭게 추가한 것들에 대해서는 지원하지 않습니다.

Mozilla 와 Internet Explorer의 차이에 대해서 언급하기 전에, 이후에 나올 새 브라우저를 지원하기 위해서 웹프로그램을 유연하게 만드는 몇가지 간단한 방법에 대해서도 다룰 것입니다.

서로 다른 브라우저는 종종 같은 기능을 다른 API로 사용하기 때문에 여러 브라우저를 지원하는 코드에서는 어렵지 않게 if() else() 블럭을 찾을 수 있습니다. 아래 코드는 Internet Explorer를 위한 블럭을 보여주고 있습니다.

. . . 

var elm; 

if (ns4) 
  elm = document.layers["myID"]; 
else if (ie4) 
  elm = document.all["myID"]

위 코드는 유연하지 않아서, 이후에 새로운 브라우저를 지원하려한다면 웹프로그램 전체를 수정해야할지도 모릅니다.

새 브라우저를 위한 코딩작업을 줄이는 가장 쉬운 방법은 추상화된 함수를 만드는 것입니다. 여러개의 if() else() 블럭보다 공통된 것을 묶고 그들을 지원할 함수를 추상화함으로써 효율성을 증가시킬 수 있습니다. 이런 방법이 코드의 가독성을 높이지는 못하지만, 보다 간단하게 새로운 브라우저를 지원할 수 있습니다.

var elm = getElmById("myID"); 

function getElmById(aID){ 
  var element = null; 

  if (isMozilla || isIE5) 
    element = document.getElementById(aID);
  else if (isNetscape4) 
    element = document.layers[aID];
  else if (isIE4) 
    element = document.all[aID];

  return element; 
} 

위의 코드는 여전히 브라우저 탐지(사용자가 사용하는 브라우저를 알아내는 것)의 문제를 가지고 있는데, 브라우저 탐지는 보통 다음과 같은 사용자 에이전트(useragent)를 통해 이루어집니다.

Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.5) Gecko/20031016 

사용자 에이전트를 이용해서 사용중인 브라우저에 대한 상세한 정보를 탐지할 수 있지만, 새 버전의 브라우저에서는 사용자 에이전트를 다루는 코드가 오동작 할 수도 있으므로 코드를 변경해야 합니다.

만약 브라우저의 종류에 상관없다면(예를 들어 프로그램에 지원안되는 브라우저의 접근 자체를 막아버린다거나 하는 경우), 브라우저에서 지원하는 기능으로 탐지하는 방법이 더 좋습니다. 보통 JavaScript에서 기능을 구현하기 위해 사용했던 아래와 같은 방법 대신,

if (isMozilla || isIE5) 

이렇게 쓰는 게 더 좋습니다.

if (document.getElementById) 

이 방법은 해당 메소드를 지원하는 다른 브라우저(Opera, Safari 와 같은)에서도 코드변경없이 사용할 수 있습니다.

하지만, 사용자 에이전트를 탐지하는 방법은 정확성이 중시되는 상황 - 웹프로그램에서 특정 버전 이상의 브라우저를 요구하거나 버그가 예상되는 상황같은 - 에 적절합니다.

또한, JavaScript는 가독성좋은 3항 조건연산자를 지원하고 있는데,

var foo = (condition) ? conditionIsTrue : conditionIsFalse; 

이걸 이용해서 엘리먼트를 반환하는 코드를 다음과 같이 바꿀 수도 있습니다.

 
function getElement(aID){ 
  return (document.getElementById) ? document.getElementById(aID)
                                   : document.all[aID];
} 

Mozilla 와 Internet Explorer 차이

우선은, Mozilla와 Internet Explorer의 HTML에서의 차이부터 기술합니다.

툴팁

예전의 브라우저는 HTML에서 툴팁을 링크에 집어넣고 alt속성으로 툴팁의 내용을 지정했습니다. 최신 W3C HTML 명세에서는 링크에 대한 상세한 설명을 덧붙일 수 있는 title 속성이 추가되었습니다. 최근의 브라우저들은 툴팁을 표현하기 위해서 title 속성을 사용하며, Mozilla는 alt를 지원하지 않고 title만 툴팁으로서 지원합니다.

엔티티

HTML은 W3C 표준에서 정의된 여러 엔티티들을 포함할 수 있습니다. 엔티티는 숫자나 참조문자열로 사용할 수 있습니다. 예를 들어, 빈 공백을 출력하고 싶다면, 숫자로서는 #160 을 이용해 &#160;을 사용하거나 혹은 참조문자열로 &nbsp;를 사용해서 같은 결과를 얻을 수 있습니다.

Internet Explorer와 같은 몇몇 구식 브라우저들은 ;(세미콜론)을 빼먹어도 인식되는 특성이 있기도 합니다.

&nbsp Foo 
&nbsp&nbsp Foo 

Mozilla는 W3C 명세에 어긋나긴 하지만 위의 &nbsp를 공백으로 처리합니다. 하지만, 만약 아래의 예처럼 다른 문자와 붙어있다면 &nbsp를 엔티티로서 파싱하지 않습니다.

&nbsp12345 

이 코드는 W3C 웹 표준이 아니기 때문에 Mozilla에서 작동하지 않습니다. 브라우저간의 어긋나는 차이를 만들고 싶지않다면, 항상 정확한 형태(&nbsp;)의 엔티티를 사용하시기 바랍니다.

DOM 차이

The Document Object Model (DOM) is the tree structure that contains the document elements. You can manipulate it through JavaScript APIs, which the W3C has standardized. However, prior to W3C standardization, Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 implemented the APIs similarly. Mozilla only implements legacy APIs if they are unachievable with W3C web standards.

Accessing elements

To retrieve an element reference using the cross-browser approach, you use document.getElementById(aID), which works in Internet Explorer 5.0+, Mozilla-based browsers, other W3C-compliant browsers and is part of the DOM Level 1 specification.

Mozilla does not support accessing an element through document.elementName or even through the element's name, which Internet Explorer does (also called global namespace polluting). Mozilla also does not support the Netscape 4 document.layers method and Internet Explorer's document.all. While document.getElementById lets you retrieve one element, you can also use document.layers and document.all to obtain a list of all document elements with a certain tag name, such as all <div> elements.

The W3C DOM Level 1 method gets references to all elements with the same tag name through getElementsByTagName(). The method returns an array in JavaScript, and can be called on the document element or other nodes to search only their subtree. To get an array of all elements in the DOM tree, you can use getElementsByTagName("*").

The DOM Level 1 methods, as shown in Table 1, are commonly used to move an element to a certain position and toggle its visibility (menus, animations). Netscape 4 used the <layer> tag, which Mozilla does not support, as an HTML element that can be positioned anywhere. In Mozilla, you can position any element using the <div> tag, which Internet Explorer uses as well and which you'll find in the HTML specification.

Table 1. Methods used to access elements
Method Description
document.getElementById( aId ) Returns a reference to the element with the specified ID.
document.getElementsByTagName( aTagName ) Returns an array of elements with the specified name in the document.

DOM traverse

Mozilla supports the W3C DOM APIs for traversing the DOM tree through JavaScript (see Table 2). The APIs exist for each node in the document and allow walking the tree in any direction. Internet Explorer supports these APIs as well, but it also supports its legacy APIs for walking a DOM tree, such as the children property.

Table 2. Methods used to traverse the DOM
Property/Method Description
childNodes Returns an array of all child nodes of the element.
firstChild Returns the first child node of the element.
getAttribute( aAttributeName ) Returns the value for the specified attribute.
hasAttribute( aAttributeName ) Returns a boolean stating if the current node has an attribute defined with the specified name.
hasChildNodes() Returns a boolean stating whether the current node has any child nodes.
lastChild Returns the last child node of the element.
nextSibling Returns the node immediately following the current one.
nodeName Returns the name of the current node as a string.
nodeType Returns the type of the current node.
Value Description
1 Element Node
2 Attribute Node
3 Text Node
4 CDATA Section Node
5 Entity Reference Node
6 Entity Node
7 Processing Instruction Node
8 Comment Node
9 Document Node
10 Document Type Node
11 Document Fragment Node
12 Notation Node
nodeValue Returns the value of the current node. For nodes that contain text, such as text and comment nodes, it will return their string value. For attribute nodes, the attribute value is returned. For all other nodes, null is returned.
ownerDocument Returns the document object containing the current node.
parentNode Returns the parent node of the current node.
previousSibling Returns the node immediately preceding the current one.
removeAttribute( aName ) Removes the specified attribute from the current node.
setAttribute( aName, aValue ) Sets the value of the specified attribute with the specified value.

Internet Explorer has a nonstandard quirk, where many of these APIs will skip white space text nodes that are generated, for example, by new line characters. Mozilla will not skip these, so sometimes you need to distinguish these nodes. Every node has a nodeType property specifying the node type. For example, an element node has type 1, while a text node has type 3 and a comment node is type 8. The best way to only process element nodes is to iterate over all child nodes and only process those with a nodeType of 1:

HTML: 
  <div id="foo">
    <span>Test</span>
  </div>

JavaScript: 
  var myDiv = document.getElementById("foo"); 
  var myChildren = myXMLDoc.childNodes; 
  for (var i = 0; i < myChildren.length; i++) { 
    if (myChildren[i].nodeType == 1){ 
      // element node
    };
  };

content 만들고 다루기

Mozilla supports the legacy methods for adding content into the DOM dynamically, such as document.write, document.open and document.close. Mozilla also supports Internet Explorer's innerHTML method, which it can call on almost any node. It does not, however, support outerHTML (which adds markup around an element, and has no standard equivalent) and innerText (which sets the text value of the node, and which you can achieve in Mozilla by using textContent).

Internet Explorer has several content manipulation methods that are nonstandard and unsupported in Mozilla, including retrieving the value, inserting text and inserting elements adjacent to a node, such as getAdjacentElement and insertAdjacentHTML. Table 3 shows how the W3C standard and Mozilla manipulate content, all of which are methods of any DOM node.

Table 3. Methods Mozilla uses to manipulate content
Method Description
appendChild( aNode ) Creates a new child node. Returns a reference to the new child node.
cloneNode( aDeep ) Makes a copy of the node it is called on and returns the copy. If aDeep is true, it copies over the node's entire subtree.
createElement( aTagName ) Creates and returns a new and parentless DOM node of the type specified by aTagName.
createTextNode( aTextValue ) Creates and returns a new and parentless DOM textnode with the data value specified by aTextValue.
insertBefore( aNewNode, aChildNode ) Inserts aNewNode before aChildNode, which must be a child of the current node.
removeChild( aChildNode ) Removes aChildNode and returns a reference to it.
replaceChild( aNewNode, aChildNode ) Replaces aChildNode with aNewNode and returns a reference to the removed node.

Document fragments

For performance reasons, you can create documents in memory, rather than working on the existing document's DOM. DOM Level 1 Core introduced document fragments, which are lightweight documents that contain a subset of a normal document's interfaces. For example, getElementById does not exist, but appendChild does. You can also easily add document fragments to existing documents.

Mozilla creates document fragments through document.createDocumentFragment(), which returns an empty document fragment.

Internet Explorer's implementation of document fragments, however, does not comply with the W3C web standards and simply returns a regular document.

JavaScript 차이

Most differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer are usually blamed on JavaScript. However, the issues usually lie in the APIs that a browser exposes to JavaScript, such as the DOM hooks. The two browsers possess few core JavaScript differences; issues encountered are often timing related.

JavaScript date 차이

Date 차이는 getYear method 뿐이다. ECMAScript 상세 (JavaScript 상세를 따름), method 는 Y2k-compliant 하지 않으며, new Date().getYear() 를 2004 로 실행하면 "104"를 반환할 것이다. ECMAScript 상세에 따라, getYear 는 year 빼기 1900 를 반환하며, 원래 1988에 대해"98"를 반환한다 . getYear 는 in ECMAScript Version 3 에서 반대되었고 getFullYear()로 대치되었다. Internet Explorer는 getYear() 를 바꾸어서 getFullYear() 와 Y2k-compliant 하도록 만들었고, Mozilla 는 표준 양식을 지켰다.

JavaScript 실행 차이

Different browsers execute JavaScript differently. For example, the following code assumes that the div node already exists in the DOM by the time the script block executes:

...
<div id="foo">Loading...</div>

<script> 
  document.getElementById("foo").innerHTML = "Done."; 
</script> 

However, this is not guaranteed. To be sure that all elements exist, you should use the onload event handler on the <body> tag:

<body onload="doFinish();"> 

<div id="foo">Loading...</div> 

<script> 
  function doFinish() { 
    var element = document.getElementById("foo");
    element.innerHTML = "Done."; 
  }
</script> 
... 

Such timing-related issues are also hardware-related -- slower systems can reveal bugs that faster systems hide. One concrete example is window.open, which opens a new window:

<script> 
  function doOpenWindow(){ 
    var myWindow = window.open("about:blank"); 
    myWindow.location.href = "http://www.ibm.com"; 
  }
</script> 

The problem with the code is that window.open is asynchronous -- it does not block the JavaScript execution until the window has finished loading. Therefore, you may execute the line after the window.open line before the new window has finished. You can deal with this by having an onload handler in the new window and then call back into the opener window (using window.opener).

JaveScript가 만드는 HTML 차이

JavaScript can, through document.write, generate HTML on the fly from a string. The main issue here is when JavaScript, embedded inside an HTML document (thus, inside an <script> tag), generates HTML that contains a <script> tag. If the document is in strict rendering mode, it will parse the </script> inside the string as the closing tag for the enclosing <script>. The following code illustrates this best:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> 
... 
<script> 
  document.write("<script type='text\/javascript'>alert('Hello');<\/script>") 
</script> 

Since the page is in strict mode, Mozilla's parser will see the first <script> and parse until it finds a closing tag for it, which would be the first </script>. This is because the parser has no knowledge about JavaScript (or any other language) when in strict mode. In quirks mode, the parser is aware of JavaScript when parsing (which slows it down). Internet Explorer is always in quirks mode, as it does not support true XHTML. To make this work in strict mode in Mozilla, separate the string into two parts:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> 
... 
<script> 
  document.write("<script type='text\/javascript'>alert('Hello');</" + "script>") 
</script> 

JavaScript 디버그

Mozilla provides several ways to debug JavaScript-related issues found in applications created for Internet Explorer. The first tool is the built-in JavaScript console, shown in Figure 1, where errors and warnings are logged. You can access it in Mozilla by going to Tools -> Web Development -> JavaScript Console or in Firefox (the standalone browser product from Mozilla) at Tools -> JavaScript Console.

그림 1. JavaScript 콘솔

Javascript 콘솔

The JavaScript console can show the full log list or just errors, warnings, and messages. The error message in Figure 1 says that at aol.com, line 95 tries to access an undefined variable called is_ns70. Clicking on the link will open Mozilla's internal view source window with the offending line highlighted.

The console also allows you to evaluate JavaScript. To evaluate the entered JavaScript syntax, type in 1+1 into the input field and press Evaluate, as Figure 2 shows.

그림 2. JavaScript console evaluating

JavaScript Console evaluating

Mozilla's JavaScript engine has built-in support for debugging, and thus can provide powerful tools for JavaScript developers. Venkman, shown in Figure 3, is a powerful, cross-platform JavaScript debugger that integrates with Mozilla. It is usually bundled with Mozilla releases; you can find it at Tools -> Web Development -> JavaScript Debugger. For Firefox, the debugger isn't bundled; instead, you can download and install it from the Venkman Project Page. You can also find tutorials at the development page, located at the Venkman Development Page.

그림 3. Mozilla의 JavaScript 디버거

Mozilla의 JavaScript 디버거

The JavaScript debugger can debug JavaScript running in the Mozilla browser window. It supports such standard debugging features as breakpoint management, call stack inspection, and variable/object inspection. All features are accessible through the user interface or through the debugger's interactive console. With the console, you can execute arbitrary JavaScript in the same scope as the JavaScript currently being debugged.

CSS 차이

Mozilla-based products have the strongest support for Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), including most of CSS1, CSS2.1 and parts of CSS3, compared to Internet Explorer as well as all other browsers.

For most issues mentioned below, Mozilla will add an error or warning entry into the JavaScript console. Check the JavaScript console if you encounter CSS-related issues.

Mimetypes (CSS 파일이 적용되지 않았을 때)

The most common CSS-related issue is that CSS definitions inside referenced CSS files are not applied. This is usually due to the server sending the wrong mimetype for the CSS file. The CSS specification states that CSS files should be served with the text/css mimetype. Mozilla will respect this and only load CSS files with that mimetype if the Web page is in strict standards mode. Internet Explorer will always load the CSS file, no matter with which mimetype it is served. Web pages are considered in strict standards mode when they start with a strict doctype. To solve this problem, you can make the server send the right mimetype or remove the doctype. I'll discuss more about doctypes in the next section.

CSS 와 units

Many Web applications do not use units with their CSS, especially when you use JavaScript to set the CSS. Mozilla tolerates this, as long as the page is not rendered in strict mode. Since Internet Explorer does not support true XHTML, it does not care if no units are specified. If the page is in strict standards mode, and no units are used, then Mozilla ignores the style:

<DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" 
  "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd"> 
<html> 
  <head> 
   <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
   <title>CSS and units example</title> 
  </head> 
  <body> 
    // works in strict mode 
    <div style="width: 40px; border: 1px solid black;">
      Text
    </div>

    // will fail in strict mode 
    <div style="width: 40; border: 1px solid black;">
      Text
    </div>
  </body> 
</html> 

Since the above example has a strict doctype, the page is rendered in strict standards mode. The first div will have a width of 40px, since it uses units, but the second div won't get a width, and thus will default to 100% width. The same would apply if the width were set through JavaScript.

JavaScript 와 CSS

Since Mozilla supports the CSS standards, it also supports the CSS DOM standard for setting CSS through JavaScript. You can access, remove, and change an element's CSS rules through the element's style member:

<div id="myDiv" style="border: 1px solid black;">
  Text
</div>

<script>
  var myElm = document.getElementById("myDiv"); 
  myElm.style.width = "40px"; 
</script>

You can reach every CSS attribute that way. Again, if the Web page is in strict mode, you must set a unit or else Mozilla will ignore the command. When you query a value, say through .style.width, in Mozilla and Internet Explorer, the returned value will contain the unit, meaning a string is returned. You can convert the string into a number through parseFloat("40px").

CSS overflow 차이

CSS added the notion of overflow, which allows you to define how to handle overflow; for example, when the contents of a div with a specified height are taller than that height. The CSS standard defines that if no overflow behavior is set in this case, the div contents will overflow. However, Internet Explorer does not comply with this and will expand the div beyond its set height in order to hold the contents. Below is an example that shows this difference:

<div style="height: 100px; border: 1px solid black;">
  <div style="height: 150px; border: 1px solid red; margin: 10px;">
    a
  </div>
</div>

As you can see in Figure 4, Mozilla acts like the W3C standard specifies. The W3C standard says that, in this case, the inner div overflows to the bottom since the inner content is taller than its parent. If you prefer the Internet Explorer behavior, simply do not specify a height on the outer element.

Figure 4. DIV overflow

DIV Overflow

hover 차이

The nonstandard CSS hover behavior in Internet Explorer occurs on quite a few web sites. It usually manifests itself by changing text style when hovered over in Mozilla, but not in Internet Explorer. This is because the a:hover CSS selector in Internet Explorer matches <a href="">...</a> but not <a name="">...</a>, which sets anchors in HTML. The text changes occur because authors encapsulate the areas with the anchor-setting markup:

CSS:
  a:hover {color: green;}

HTML:
  <a href="foo.com">This text should turn green when you hover over it.</a>

  <a name="anchor-name">
    This text should change color when hovered over, but doesn't
    in Internet Explorer.
  </a>

Mozilla follows the CSS specification correctly and will change the color to green in this example. You can use two ways to make Mozilla behave like Internet Explorer and not change the color of the text when hovered over:

  • First, you can change the CSS rule to be a:link:hover {color: green;}, which will only change the color if the element is a link (has an href attribute).
  • Alternatively, you can change the markup and close the opened <a /> before the start of the text -- the anchor will continue to work this way.

Quirks 과 standards 모드

Older legacy browsers, such as Internet Explorer 4, rendered with so-called quirks under certain conditions. While Mozilla aims to be a standards-compliant browser, it has three modes that support older Web pages created with these quirky behaviors. The page's content and delivery determine which mode Mozilla will use. Mozilla will indicate the rendering mode in View -> Page Info (or Ctrl+I) ; Firefox will list the rendering mode in Tools -> Page Info. The mode in which a page is located depends on its doctype.

Doctypes (short for document type declarations) look like this:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

The section in blue is called the public identifier, the green part is the system identifier, which is a URI.

Standards 모드

Standards mode is the strictest rendering mode -- it will render pages per the W3C HTML and CSS specifications and will not support any quirks. Mozilla uses it for the following conditions:

  • If a page is sent with a text/xml mimetype or any other XML or XHTML mimetype
  • For any "DOCTYPE HTML SYSTEM" doctype (for example, <!DOCTYPE HTML SYSTEM "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/strict.dtd">), except for the IBM doctype
  • For unknown doctypes or doctypes without DTDs

Almost standards 모드

Mozilla introduced almost standards mode for one reason: a section in the CSS 2 specification breaks designs based on a precise layout of small images in table cells. Instead of forming one image to the user, each small image ends up with a gap next to it. The old IBM homepage shown in Figure 5 offers an example.

그림 5. 이미지 간격

이미지 간격

Almost standards mode behaves almost exactly as standards mode, except when it comes to an image gap issue. The issue occurs often on standards-compliant pages and causes them to display incorrectly.

Mozilla uses almost standards mode for the following conditions:

  • For any "loose" doctype (for example, <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN">, <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">)
  • For the IBM doctype (<!DOCTYPE html SYSTEM "http://www.ibm.com/data/dtd/v11/ibmxhtml1-transitional.dtd">)

이미지 간격 이슈에서 더 많은 정보를 얻을 수 있습니다.

Quirks 모드

Currently, the Web is full of invalid HTML markup, as well as markup that only functions due to bugs in browsers. The old Netscape browsers, when they were the market leaders, had bugs. When Internet Explorer arrived, it mimicked those bugs in order to work with the content at that time. As newer browsers came to market, most of these original bugs, usually called quirks, were kept for backwards compatibility. Mozilla supports many of these in its quirks rendering mode. Note that due to these quirks, pages will render slower than if they were fully standards-compliant. Most Web pages are rendered under this mode.

Mozilla uses quirks mode for the following conditions:

  • When no doctype is specified
  • For doctypes without a system identifier (for example, <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">)

For further reading, check out: Mozilla Quirks Mode Behavior and Mozilla's DOCTYPE sniffing.

Event 차이

Mozilla and Internet Explorer are almost completely different in the area of events. The Mozilla event model follows the W3C and Netscape model. In Internet Explorer, if a function is called from an event, it can access the event object through window.event. Mozilla passes an event object to event handlers. They must specifically pass the object on to the function called through an argument. A cross-browser event handling example follows:

<div onclick="handleEvent(event);">Click me!</div>

<script>
  function handleEvent(aEvent) { 
    // if aEvent is null, means the Internet Explorer event model, 
    // so get window.event. 
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event; 
  }
</script>

Sometimes this doesn't work because Internet Explorer "catches" the aEvent parameter, identifiying it as not null, making it not use window.event any longer. The solution is to simply test for the window.event property:

<div onclick="handleEvent(event);">Click me!</div>

<script>
  function handleEvent(aEvent) { 
    var myEvent = window.event ? window.event : aEvent;
  }
</script>

The properties and functions that the event object exposes are also often named differently between Mozilla and Internet Explorer, as Table 4 shows.

Table 4. Event properties differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer Name Mozilla Name Description
altKey altKey Boolean property that returns whether the alt key was pressed during the event.
cancelBubble stopPropagation() Used to stop the event from bubbling farther up the tree.
clientX clientX The X coordinate of the event, in relation to the element viewport.
clientY clientY The Y coordinate of the event, in relation to the element viewport.
ctrlKey ctrlKey Boolean property that returns whether the Ctrl key was pressed during the event.
fromElement relatedTarget For mouse events, this is the element from which the mouse moved away.
keyCode keyCode For keyboard events, this is a number representing the key that was pressed. It is 0 for mouse events.
returnValue preventDefault() Used to prevent the event's default action from occurring.
screenX screenX The X coordinate of the event, in relation to the screen.
screenY screenY The Y coordinate of the event, in relation to the screen.
shiftKey shiftKey Boolean property that returns whether the Shift key was pressed during the event.
srcElement target The element to which the event was originally dispatched.
toElement currentTarget For mouse events, this is the element to which the mouse moved.
type type Returns the name of the event.

Attach event handlers

Mozilla supports two ways to attach events through JavaScript. The first, supported by all browsers, sets event properties directly on objects. To set a click event handler, a function reference is passed to the object's onclick property:

<div id="myDiv">Click me!</div>

<script>
  function handleEvent(aEvent) {
    // if aEvent is null, means the Internet Explorer event model,
    // so get window.event.
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event;
  }

  function onPageLoad(){
    document.getElementById("myDiv").onclick = handleEvent;
  } 
</script>

Mozilla fully supports the W3C standard way of attaching listeners to DOM nodes. You use the addEventListener() and removeEventListener() methods, and have the benefit of being able to set multiple listeners for the same event type. Both methods require three parameters: the event type, a function reference, and a boolean denoting whether the listener should catch events in their capture phase. If the boolean is set to false, it will only catch bubbling events. W3C events have three phases: capturing, at target, and bubbling. Every event object has an eventPhase attribute indicating the phase numerically (0 indexed). Every time you trigger an event, the event starts at the DOM's outermost element, the element at the top of the DOM tree. It then walks the DOM using the most direct route toward the target, which is the capturing phase. When the event reaches the target, the event is in the target phase. After arriving at the target, it walks up the DOM tree back to the outermost node; this is bubbling. Internet Explorer's event model only has the bubbling phase; therefore, setting the third parameter to false results in Internet Explorer-like behavior:

<div id="myDiv">Click me!</div> 

<script> 

  function handleEvent(aEvent) {
    // if aEvent is null, it is the Internet Explorer event model,
    // so get window.event.
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event;
  }

  function onPageLoad() {
    var element = document.getElementById("myDiv");
    element.addEventListener("click", handleEvent, false);
  }
</script>

One advantage of addEventListener() and removeEventListener() over setting properties is that you can have multiple event listeners for the same event, each calling another function. Thus, to remove an event listener requires all three parameters be the same as the ones you use when adding the listener.

Mozilla does not support Internet Explorer's method of converting <script> tags into event handlers, which extends <script> with for and event attributes (see Table 5). It also does not support the attachEvent and detachEvent methods. Instead, you should use the addEventListener and removeEventListener methods. Internet Explorer does not support the W3C events specification.

Table 5. Event method differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer Method Mozilla Method Description
attachEvent(aEventType, aFunctionReference) addEventListener(aEventType, aFunctionReference, aUseCapture) Adds an event listener to a DOM element.
detachEvent(aEventType, aFunctionReference) removeEventListener(aEventType, aFunctionReference, aUseCapture) Removes an event listener to a DOM element.

Rich text 편집

While Mozilla prides itself with being the most W3C web standards compliant browser, it does support nonstandard functionality, such as innerHTML and rich text editing, if no W3C equivalent exists.

Mozilla 1.3 introduced an implementation of Internet Explorer's designMode feature, which turns an HTML document into a rich text editor field. Once turned into the editor, commands can run on the document through the execCommand command. Mozilla does not support Internet Explorer's contentEditable attribute for making any widget editable. You can use an iframe to add a rich text editor.

Rich text 차이

Mozilla supports the W3C standard of accessing iframe's document object through IFrameElmRef.contentDocument, while Internet Explorer requires you to access it through document.frames{{mediawiki.external('\"IframeName\"')}} and then access the resulting document:

<script>
function getIFrameDocument(aID) {
  var rv = null; 

  // if contentDocument exists, W3C compliant (Mozilla)
  if (document.getElementById(aID).contentDocument){
    rv = document.getElementById(aID).contentDocument;
  } else {
    // IE
    rv = document.frames[aID].document;
  }
  return rv;
}
</script> 

Another difference between Mozilla and Internet Explorer is the HTML that the rich text editor creates. Mozilla defaults to using CSS for the generated markup. However, Mozilla allows you to toggle between HTML and CSS mode using the useCSS execCommand and toggling it between true and false. Internet Explorer always uses HTML markup.

Mozilla (CSS): 
  <span style="color: blue;">Big Blue</span> 

Mozilla (HTML): 
  <font color="blue">Big Blue</font> 

Internet Explorer: 
  <FONT color="blue">Big Blue</FONT> 

Below is a list of commands that execCommand in Mozilla supports:

Table 6. Rich text editing commands
Command Name Description Argument
bold Toggles the selection's bold attribute. ---
createlink Generates an HTML link from the selected text. The URL to use for the link
delete Deletes the selection. ---
fontname Changes the font used in the selected text. The font name to use (Arial, for example)
fontsize Changes the font size used in the selected text. The font size to use
fontcolor Changes the font color used in the selected text. The color to use
indent Indents the block where the caret is. ---
inserthorizontalrule Inserts an <hr> element at the cursor's position. ---
insertimage Inserts an image at the cursor's position. URL of the image to use
insertorderedlist Inserts an ordered list (<ol>) element at the cursor's position. ---
insertunorderedlist Inserts an unordered list (<ul>) element at the cursor's position. ---
italic Toggles the selection's italicize attribute. ---
justifycenter Centers the content at the current line. ---
justifyleft Justifies the content at the current line to the left. ---
justifyright Justifies the content at the current line to the right. ---
outdent Outdents the block where the caret is. ---
redo Redoes the previous undo command. ---
removeformat Removes all formatting from the selection. ---
selectall Selects everything in the rich text editor. ---
strikethrough Toggles the strikethrough of the selected text. ---
subscript Converts the current selection into subscript. ---
superscript Converts the current selection into superscript. ---
underline Toggles the underline of the selected text. ---
undo Undoes the last executed command. ---
unlink Removes all link information from the selection. ---
useCSS Toggles the usage of CSS in the generated markup. Boolean value

For more information, visit Rich-Text Editing in Mozilla.

XML 차이

Mozilla has strong support for XML and XML-related technologies, such as XSLT and Web services. It also supports some nonstandard Internet Explorer extensions, such as XMLHttpRequest.

How to handle XML

As with standard HTML, Mozilla supports the W3C XML DOM specification, which allows you to manipulate almost any aspect of an XML document. Differences between Internet Explorer's XML DOM and Mozilla are usually caused by Internet Explorer's nonstandard behaviors. Probably the most common difference is how they handle white space text nodes. Often when XML generates, it contains white spaces between XML nodes. Internet Explorer, when using XMLNode.childNodes[], will not contain these white space nodes. In Mozilla, those nodes will be in the array.

XML: 
  <?xml version="1.0"?> 
  <myXMLdoc xmlns:myns="http://myfoo.com"> 
    <myns:foo>bar</myns:foo> 
  </myXMLdoc>

JavaScript:
  var myXMLDoc = getXMLDocument().documentElement; 
  alert(myXMLDoc.childNodes.length); 

The first line of JavaScript loads the XML document and accesses the root element (myXMLDoc) by retrieving the documentElement. The second line simply alerts the number of child nodes. Per the W3C specification, the white spaces and new lines merge into one text node if they follow each other. For Mozilla, the myXMLdoc node has three children: a text node containing a new line and two spaces; the myns:foo node; and another text node with a new line. Internet Explorer, however, does not abide by this and will return "1" for the above code, namely only the myns:foo node. Therefore, to walk the child nodes and disregard text nodes, you must distinguish such nodes.

As mentioned earlier, every node has a nodeType attribute representing the node type. For example, an element node has type 1, while a document node has type 9. To disregard text nodes, you must check for types 3 (text node) and 8 (comment node).

XML:
  <?xml version="1.0"?>   
  <myXMLdoc xmlns:myns="http://myfoo.com"> 
    <myns:foo>bar</myns:foo> 
  </myXMLdoc>

JavaScript: 
  var myXMLDoc = getXMLDocument().documentElement; 
  var myChildren = myXMLDoc.childNodes; 

  for (var run = 0; run < myChildren.length; run++){ 
    if ( (myChildren[run].nodeType != 3) &&
          myChildren[run].nodeType != 8) ){ 
      // not a text or comment node 
    };
  };

XML data islands

Internet Explorer has a nonstandard feature called XML data islands, which allow you to embed XML inside an HTML document using the nonstandard HTML tag <xml>. Mozilla does not support XML data islands and handles them as unknown HTML tags. You can achieve the same functionality using XHTML; however, because Internet Explorer's support for XHTML is weak, this is usually not an option.

One cross-browser solution is to use DOM parsers, which parse a string that contains a serialized XML document and generates the document for the parsed XML. Mozilla uses the DOMParser class, which takes the serialized string and creates an XML document out of it. In Internet Explorer, you can achieve the same functionality using ActiveX. A new Microsoft.XMLDOM generates and has a loadXML method that can take in a string and generate a document from it. The following code shows you how:

IE XML data island: 
  .. 
  <xml id="xmldataisland"> 
    <foo>bar</foo> 
  </xml>

Cross-browser solution: 
  var xmlString = "<xml id=\"xmldataisland\"><foo>bar</foo></xml>"; 

  var myDocument; 

  if (document.implementation.createDocument){ 
    // Mozilla, create a new DOMParser 
    var parser = new DOMParser(); 
    myDocument = parser.parseFromString(xmlString, "text/xml"); 
  } else if (window.ActiveXObject){ 
    // Internet Explorer, create a new XML document using ActiveX 
    // and use loadXML as a DOM parser. 
    myDocument = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM"); 
    myDocument.async="false"; 

    myDocument.loadXML(xmlString);
  }

XML HTTP request

Internet Explorer allows you to send and retrieve XML files using MSXML's XMLHTTP class, which is instantiated through ActiveX using new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP") or new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"). Since there is no standard method of doing this, Mozilla provides the same functionality in the global JavaScript XMLHttpRequest object. The object generates asynchronous requests by default.

After instantiating the object using new XMLHttpRequest(), you can use the open method to specify what type of request (GET or POST) you use, which file you load, and if it is asynchronous or not. If the call is asynchronous, then give the onload member a function reference, which is called once the request has completed.

Synchronous request:

  var myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
  myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "data.xml", false); 

  myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

  var myXMLDocument = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 

Asynchronous request:

  var myXMLHTTPRequest; 

  function xmlLoaded() { 
    var myXMLDocument = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 
  }

  function loadXML(){ 
    myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest();

    myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "data.xml", true);

    myXMLHTTPRequest.onload = xmlLoaded; 

    myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 
  }

Table 7 features a list of available methods and properties for Mozilla's XMLHttpRequest.

Table 7. XMLHttpRequest methods and properties
Name Description
void abort() Stops the request if it is still running.
string getAllResponseHeaders() Returns all response headers as one string.
string getResponseHeader(string headerName) Returns the value of the specified header.
functionRef onerror If set, the references function will be called whenever an error occurs during the request.
functionRef onload If set, the references function will be called when the request completes successfully and the response has been received. Use when an asynchronous request is used.
void open (string HTTP_Method, string URL)

void open (string HTTP_Method, string URL, boolean async, string userName, string password)
Initializes the request for the specified URL, using either GET or POST as the HTTP method. To send the request, call the send() method after initialization. If async is false, the request is synchronous, else it defaults to asynchronous. Optionally, you can specify a username and password for the given URL needed.
int readyState State of the request. Possible values:
Value Description
0 UNINITIALIZED - open() has not been called yet.
1 LOADING - send() has not been called yet.
2 LOADED - send() has been called, headers and status are available.
3 INTERACTIVE - Downloading, responseText holds the partial data.
4 COMPLETED - Finished with all operations.
string responseText String containing the response.
DOMDocument responseXML DOM Document containing the response.
void send(variant body) Initiates the request. If body is defined, it issent as the body of the POST request. body can be an XML document or a string serialized XML document.
void setRequestHeader (string headerName, string headerValue) Sets an HTTP request header for use in the HTTP request. Has to be called after open() is called.
string status The status code of the HTTP response.

XSLT 차이

Mozilla supports XSL Transformations (XSLT) 1.0. It also allows JavaScript to perform XSLT transformations and allows running XPATH on a document.

Mozilla requires that you send the XML and XSLT file holding the stylesheet with an XML mimetype (text/xml or application/xml). This is the most common reason why XSLT won't run in Mozilla but will in Internet Explorer. Mozilla is strict in that way.

Internet Explorer 5.0 and 5.5 supported XSLT's working draft, which is substantially different than the final 1.0 recommendation. The easiest way to distinguish what version an XSLT file was written against is to look at the namespace. The namespace for the 1.0 recommendation is http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform, while the working draft's namespace is http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xsl. Internet Explorer 6 supports the working draft for backwards compatibility, but Mozilla does not support the working draft, only the final recommendation.

If XSLT requires you to distinguish the browser, you can query the "xsl:vendor" system property. Mozilla's XSLT engine will report itself as "Transformiix" and Internet Explorer will return "Microsoft."

<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:vendor') = 'Transformiix'"> 
  <!-- Mozilla specific markup --> 
</xsl:if> 
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:vendor') = 'Microsoft'"> 
  <!-- Internet Explorer specific markup --> 
</xsl:if> 

Mozilla also provides JavaScript interfaces for XSLT, allowing a Web site to complete XSLT transformations in memory. You can do this using the global XSLTProcessor JavaScript object. XSLTProcessor requires you to load the XML and XSLT files, because it needs their DOM documents. The XSLT document, imported by the XSLTProcessor, allows you to manipulate XSLT parameters. XSLTProcessor can generate a standalone document using transformToDocument(), or it can create a document fragment using transformToFragment(), which you can easily append into another DOM document. Below is an example:

var xslStylesheet; 
var xsltProcessor = new XSLTProcessor(); 

// load the xslt file, example1.xsl 
var myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "example1.xsl", false); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

// get the XML document and import it 
xslStylesheet = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 

xsltProcessor.importStylesheet(xslStylesheet); 

// load the xml file, example1.xml 
myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "example1.xml", false); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

var xmlSource = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 

var resultDocument = xsltProcessor.transformToDocument(xmlSource); 

After creating an XSLTProcessor, you load the XSLT file using XMLHttpRequest. The XMLHttpRequest's responseXML member contains the XML document of the XSLT file, which is passed to importStylesheet. You then use the XMLHttpRequest again to load the source XML document that must be transformed; that document is then passed to the transformToDocument method of XSLTProcessor. Table 8 features a list of XSLTProcessor methods.

Table 8. XSLTProcessor methods
Method Description
void importStylesheet(Node styleSheet) Imports the XSLT stylesheet. The styleSheet argument is the root node of an XSLT stylesheet's DOM document.
DocumentFragment transformToFragment(Node source, Document owner) Transforms the Node source by applying the stylesheet imported using the importStylesheet method and generates a DocumentFragment. owner specifies what DOM document the DocumentFragment should belong to, making it appendable to that DOM document.
Document transformToDocument(Node source) Transforms the Node source by applying the stylesheet imported using the importStylesheet method and returns a standalone DOM document.
void setParameter(String namespaceURI, String localName, Variant value) Sets a parameter in the imported XSLT stylesheet.
Variant getParameter(String namespaceURI, String localName) Gets the value of a parameter in the imported XSLT stylesheet.
void removeParameter(String namespaceURI, String localName) Removes all set parameters from the imported XSLT stylesheet and makes them default to the XSLT-defined defaults.
void clearParameters() Removes all set parameters and sets them to defaults specified in the XSLT stylesheet.
void reset() Removes all parameters and stylesheets.

원래 문서 정보

  • Author(s): Doron Rosenberg, IBM Corporation
  • Published: 26 Jul 2005
  • Link: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-ie2mozgd/
{{ wiki.languages( { "en": "en/Migrate_apps_from_Internet_Explorer_to_Mozilla" } ) }}

리비전 소스

<h3 name=".EC.86.8C.EA.B0.9C">소개</h3>
<p>Mozilla 는 넷스케이프가 프로젝트를 시작할 때 부터, 의도적으로 W3C 표준을 지원하도록 결정되었습니다. 그 결과, Mozilla는 Netscape 4.x 이나 Microsoft Internet Explorer 의 코드와 완전한 하위 호환이 되지 않습니다. 예를 들어 Mozilla는 <code>&lt;layer&gt;</code>코드를 지원하지 않습니다. Inetnet Explorer 4와 같이 W3C 표준의 개념이 생기기전에 만들어진 브라우저들은 그들만의 특성을 가지고 있습니다. 이 글에서 저는 Internet Explorer와 기타 브라우저들 과의 경력한 HTML 하위 호환성을 지원하기 위한 Mozilla의 quicks 모드에 대해서 기술할 것입니다.
</p><p>또한 XMLHttpRequest 나 rich-text 편집과 같은 모질라가 지원하는 비표준 기술(당시엔 해당하는 W3C 규약이 없었음) 에 대해서도 다룰 것입니다. 내용은 다음과 같습니다:
</p>
<ul><li><a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/">HTML 4.01</a>, <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">XHTML 1.0</a> and <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/">XHTML 1.1</a>
</li><li>Cascade Style Sheets (CSS): <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1">CSS Level 1</a>, <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/">CSS Level 2.1</a> and parts of <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/current-work.html">CSS Level 3</a>
</li><li>Document Object Model (DOM): <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-DOM-Level-1-20000929/">DOM Level 1</a>, <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/DOM/DOMTR#dom2">DOM Level 2</a> and parts of <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/DOM/DOMTR#dom3">DOM Level 3</a>
</li><li>Mathematical Markup Language: <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/Math/">MathML Version 2.0</a>
</li><li>Extensible Markup Language (XML): <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml">XML 1.0</a>, <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/">Namespaces in XML</a>, <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-stylesheet/">Associating Style Sheets with XML Documents 1.0</a>, <a class="external" href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-xml-linking-comments/2001AprJ%20un/att-0074/01-NOTE-FIXptr-20010425.htm">Fragment Identifier for XML</a>
</li><li>XSL Transformations: <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt">XSLT 1.0</a>
</li><li>XML Path Language: <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath">XPath 1.0</a>
</li><li>Resource Description Framework: <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/RDF/">RDF</a>
</li><li>Simple Object Access Protocol: <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/soap">SOAP 1.1</a>
</li><li>ECMA-262, revision 3 (JavaScript 1.5): <a class="external" href="http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm">ECMA-262</a>
</li></ul>
<h3 name=".EC.9D.BC.EB.B0.98_cross-browser_.EC.BD.94.EB.94.A9_.ED.8C.81">일반 cross-browser 코딩 팁</h3>
<p>웹 표준이 있다고 하지만, 서로 다른 브라우저들 간에는 차이점이 존재합니다(사실, 같은 브라우저라 해도 플랫폼에 따라 차이가 발생합니다). 또한 Intetnet Explorer와 같은 많은 브라우저들은 예전 W3C API를 지원하지만, W3C 에서 새롭게 추가한 것들에 대해서는 지원하지 않습니다.
</p><p>Mozilla 와 Internet Explorer의 차이에 대해서 언급하기 전에, 이후에 나올 새 브라우저를 지원하기 위해서 웹프로그램을 유연하게 만드는 몇가지 간단한 방법에 대해서도 다룰 것입니다.
</p><p>서로 다른 브라우저는 종종 같은 기능을 다른 API로 사용하기 때문에 여러 브라우저를 지원하는 코드에서는 어렵지 않게 <code>if() else()</code> 블럭을 찾을 수 있습니다. 아래 코드는 Internet Explorer를 위한 블럭을 보여주고 있습니다.
</p>
<pre>. . . 

var elm; 

if (ns4) 
  elm = document.layers["myID"]; 
else if (ie4) 
  elm = document.all["myID"]
</pre>
<p>위 코드는 유연하지 않아서, 이후에 새로운 브라우저를 지원하려한다면 웹프로그램 전체를 수정해야할지도 모릅니다.
</p><p>새 브라우저를 위한 코딩작업을 줄이는 가장 쉬운 방법은 추상화된 함수를 만드는 것입니다. 여러개의 <code>if() else()</code> 블럭보다 공통된 것을 묶고 그들을 지원할 함수를 추상화함으로써 효율성을 증가시킬 수 있습니다. 이런 방법이 코드의 가독성을 높이지는 못하지만, 보다 간단하게 새로운 브라우저를 지원할 수 있습니다.
</p>
<pre>var elm = getElmById("myID"); 

function getElmById(aID){ 
  var element = null; 

  if (isMozilla || isIE5) 
    element = document.getElementById(aID);
  else if (isNetscape4) 
    element = document.layers[aID];
  else if (isIE4) 
    element = document.all[aID];

  return element; 
} 
</pre>
<p>위의 코드는 여전히 <i>브라우저 탐지</i>(사용자가 사용하는 브라우저를 알아내는 것)의 문제를 가지고 있는데, 브라우저 탐지는 보통 다음과 같은 사용자 에이전트(useragent)를 통해 이루어집니다.
</p>
<pre>Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.5) Gecko/20031016 
</pre>  
<p>사용자 에이전트를 이용해서 사용중인 브라우저에 대한 상세한 정보를 탐지할 수 있지만, 새 버전의 브라우저에서는 사용자 에이전트를 다루는 코드가 오동작 할 수도 있으므로 코드를 변경해야 합니다.
</p><p>만약 브라우저의 종류에 상관없다면(예를 들어 프로그램에 지원안되는 브라우저의 접근 자체를 막아버린다거나 하는 경우), 브라우저에서 지원하는 기능으로 탐지하는 방법이 더 좋습니다. 보통 JavaScript에서 기능을 구현하기 위해 사용했던 아래와 같은 방법 대신,
</p>
<pre>if (isMozilla || isIE5) 
</pre> 
<p>이렇게 쓰는 게 더 좋습니다.
</p>
<pre>if (document.getElementById) 
</pre> 
<p>이 방법은 해당 메소드를 지원하는 다른 브라우저(Opera, Safari 와 같은)에서도 코드변경없이 사용할 수 있습니다.
</p><p>하지만, 사용자 에이전트를 탐지하는 방법은 정확성이 중시되는 상황 - 웹프로그램에서 특정 버전 이상의 브라우저를 요구하거나 버그가 예상되는 상황같은 - 에 적절합니다.
</p><p>또한, JavaScript는 가독성좋은 3항 조건연산자를 지원하고 있는데,
</p>
<pre>var foo = (condition) ? conditionIsTrue : conditionIsFalse; 
</pre> 
<p>이걸 이용해서 엘리먼트를 반환하는 코드를 다음과 같이 바꿀 수도 있습니다.
</p>
<pre> 
function getElement(aID){ 
  return (document.getElementById) ? document.getElementById(aID)
                                   : document.all[aID];
} 
</pre>
<h3 name="Mozilla_.EC.99.80_Internet_Explorer_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">Mozilla 와 Internet Explorer 차이</h3>
<p>우선은, Mozilla와 Internet Explorer의 HTML에서의 차이부터 기술합니다.
</p>
<h4 name=".ED.88.B4.ED.8C.81">툴팁</h4>
<p>예전의 브라우저는 HTML에서 툴팁을 링크에 집어넣고 <code>alt</code>속성으로 툴팁의 내용을 지정했습니다. 최신 W3C HTML 명세에서는 링크에 대한 상세한 설명을 덧붙일 수 있는 <code>title</code> 속성이 추가되었습니다. 최근의 브라우저들은 툴팁을 표현하기 위해서 <code>title </code>속성을 사용하며, Mozilla는 <code>alt</code>를 지원하지 않고 <code>title</code>만 툴팁으로서 지원합니다.
</p>
<h4 name=".EC.97.94.ED.8B.B0.ED.8B.B0">엔티티</h4>
<p>HTML은 <a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/entities.html">W3C 표준</a>에서 정의된 여러 엔티티들을 포함할 수 있습니다. 엔티티는 숫자나 참조문자열로 사용할 수 있습니다. 예를 들어, 빈 공백을 출력하고 싶다면, 숫자로서는 #160 을 이용해 <code>&amp;#160;</code>을 사용하거나 혹은 참조문자열로 <code>&amp;nbsp;</code>를 사용해서 같은 결과를 얻을 수 있습니다.
</p><p>Internet Explorer와 같은 몇몇 구식 브라우저들은 <code>;</code>(세미콜론)을 빼먹어도 인식되는 특성이 있기도 합니다.
</p>
<pre>&amp;nbsp Foo 
&amp;nbsp&amp;nbsp Foo 
</pre>
<p>Mozilla는 W3C 명세에 어긋나긴 하지만 위의 <code>&amp;nbsp</code>를 공백으로 처리합니다. 하지만, 만약 아래의 예처럼 다른 문자와 붙어있다면 <code>&amp;nbsp</code>를 엔티티로서 파싱하지 않습니다.
</p>
<pre>&amp;nbsp12345 
</pre>
<p>이 코드는 W3C 웹 표준이 아니기 때문에 Mozilla에서 작동하지 않습니다. 브라우저간의 어긋나는 차이를 만들고 싶지않다면, 항상 정확한 형태(<code>&amp;nbsp;</code>)의 엔티티를 사용하시기 바랍니다.
</p>
<h3 name="DOM_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">DOM 차이</h3>
<p>The Document Object Model (DOM) is <b>the tree structure that contains the document elements</b>. You can manipulate it through JavaScript APIs, which the W3C has standardized. However, prior to W3C standardization, Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 implemented the APIs similarly. Mozilla only implements legacy APIs if they are unachievable with W3C web standards.
</p>
<h4 name="Accessing_elements">Accessing elements</h4>
<p>To retrieve an element reference using the cross-browser approach, you use <code>document.getElementById(aID)</code>, which 
works in Internet Explorer 5.0+, Mozilla-based browsers, other W3C-compliant browsers and is part of the DOM Level 1 specification.
</p><p>Mozilla does not support accessing an element through <code>document.elementName</code> or even through the element's name, 
which Internet Explorer does (also called <em>global namespace polluting</em>). Mozilla also does not support the Netscape 4 <code>document.layers</code> method and Internet Explorer's <code>document.all</code>. While <code>document.getElementById</code> lets you retrieve one element, you can also use <code>document.layers</code> and <code>document.all</code> to obtain a list of all document elements with a certain tag name, such as all <code>&lt;div&gt;</code> elements.
</p><p>The W3C DOM Level 1 method gets references to all elements with the same tag name through <code>getElementsByTagName()</code>. The method returns an array in JavaScript, and can be called on the <code>document</code> element or other nodes to search only their subtree. To get an array of all elements in the DOM tree, you can use <code>getElementsByTagName("*")</code>.
</p><p>The DOM Level 1 methods, as shown in Table 1, are commonly used to move an element to a certain position and toggle its visibility (menus, animations). Netscape 4 used the <code>&lt;layer&gt;</code> tag, which Mozilla does not support, as an HTML element that can be positioned anywhere. In Mozilla, you can position any element using the <code>&lt;div&gt;</code> tag, which Internet Explorer uses as well and which you'll find in the HTML specification.
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 1. Methods used to access elements
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Method </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> document.getElementById( aId ) </td><td> Returns a reference to the element with the specified ID.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> document.getElementsByTagName( aTagName ) </td><td> Returns an array of elements with the specified name in the document.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h4 name="DOM_traverse">DOM traverse</h4>
<p>Mozilla supports the W3C DOM APIs for traversing the DOM tree through 
JavaScript (see Table 2). The APIs exist for each node in the document and 
allow walking the tree in any direction. Internet Explorer supports these 
APIs as well, but it also supports its legacy APIs for walking a DOM tree, 
such as the <code>children</code> property.
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 2. Methods used to traverse the DOM
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Property/Method </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> childNodes </td><td> Returns an array of all child nodes of the element.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> firstChild </td><td> Returns the first child node of the element.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> getAttribute( aAttributeName ) </td><td> Returns the value for the specified attribute.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> hasAttribute( aAttributeName ) </td><td> Returns a boolean stating if the current node has an attribute defined with the specified name.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> hasChildNodes() </td><td> Returns a boolean stating whether the current node has any child nodes.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> lastChild </td><td> Returns the last child node of the element.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> nextSibling </td><td> Returns the node immediately following the current one.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> nodeName </td><td> Returns the name of the current node as a string.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> nodeType </td><td> Returns the type of the current node.
<table>
<tbody><tr>
<th> Value </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> 1 </td><td> Element Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 2 </td><td> Attribute Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 3 </td><td> Text Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 4 </td><td> CDATA Section Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 5 </td><td> Entity Reference Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 6 </td><td> Entity Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 7 </td><td> Processing Instruction Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 8 </td><td> Comment Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 9 </td><td> Document Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 10 </td><td> Document Type Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 11 </td><td> Document Fragment Node
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> 12 </td><td> Notation Node
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> nodeValue </td><td> Returns the value of the current node. For nodes that contain text, such as text and comment nodes, it will return their string value. For attribute nodes, the attribute value is returned. For all other nodes, <code>null</code> is returned.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> ownerDocument </td><td> Returns the <code>document</code> object containing the current node.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> parentNode </td><td> Returns the parent node of the current node.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> previousSibling </td><td> Returns the node immediately preceding the current one.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> removeAttribute( aName ) </td><td> Removes the specified attribute from the current node.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> setAttribute( aName, aValue ) </td><td> Sets the value of the specified attribute with the specified value.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>Internet Explorer has a nonstandard quirk, where many of these APIs will skip white space text nodes that are generated, for example, by new 
line characters. Mozilla will not skip these, so sometimes you need to distinguish these nodes. Every node has a <code>nodeType</code> property
specifying the node type. For example, an element node has type 1,  while a text node has type 3 and a comment node is type 8.
The best way to only process element nodes is to iterate over all child nodes and only process those with a nodeType of 1:
</p>
<pre>HTML: 
  &lt;div id="foo"&gt;
    &lt;span&gt;Test&lt;/span&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;

JavaScript: 
  var myDiv = document.getElementById("foo"); 
  var myChildren = myXMLDoc.childNodes; 
  for (var i = 0; i &lt; myChildren.length; i++) { 
    if (myChildren[i].nodeType == 1){ 
      // element node
    };
  };
</pre>
<h4 name="content_.EB.A7.8C.EB.93.A4.EA.B3.A0_.EB.8B.A4.EB.A3.A8.EA.B8.B0">content 만들고 다루기</h4>
<p>Mozilla supports the legacy methods for adding content into the DOM dynamically, such as <code>document.write</code>, <code>document.open</code> and <code>document.close</code>. Mozilla also supports Internet 
Explorer's <code>innerHTML</code> method, which it can call on almost any node. It does not, however, support <code>outerHTML</code> (which adds markup around an element, and has no standard equivalent) and <code>innerText</code> (which sets the text value of the node, and which you can achieve in Mozilla by using <code>textContent</code>). 
</p><p>Internet Explorer has several content manipulation methods that are nonstandard and unsupported in Mozilla, including retrieving the value, inserting text and inserting elements adjacent to a node, such as <code>getAdjacentElement</code> and <code>insertAdjacentHTML</code>. Table 3 shows how the W3C 
standard and Mozilla manipulate content, all of which are methods of any DOM node.
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 3. Methods Mozilla uses to manipulate content
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Method </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> appendChild( aNode ) </td><td> Creates a new child node. Returns a reference to the new child node.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> cloneNode( aDeep ) </td><td> Makes a copy of the node it is called on and returns the copy. If aDeep is true, it copies over the node's entire subtree.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> createElement( aTagName ) </td><td> Creates and returns a new and parentless DOM node of the type specified by aTagName.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> createTextNode( aTextValue ) </td><td> Creates and returns a new and parentless DOM textnode with the data value specified by aTextValue.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> insertBefore( aNewNode, aChildNode ) </td><td> Inserts aNewNode before aChildNode, which must be a child of the current node.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> removeChild( aChildNode ) </td><td> Removes aChildNode and returns a reference to it.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> replaceChild( aNewNode, aChildNode ) </td><td> Replaces aChildNode with aNewNode and returns a reference to the removed node.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h4 name="Document_fragments">Document fragments</h4>
<p>For performance reasons, you can create documents in memory, rather than working on the existing document's DOM. DOM Level 1 Core introduced document fragments, which are lightweight documents that contain a subset of a normal document's interfaces. For example, <code>getElementById</code> does not exist, but <code>appendChild</code> does. You can also easily add document fragments to existing documents.
</p><p>Mozilla creates document fragments through <code>document.createDocumentFragment()</code>, which returns an 
empty document fragment.
</p><p>Internet Explorer's implementation of document fragments, however, does
not comply with the W3C web standards and simply returns a regular document.
</p>
<h3 name="JavaScript_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">JavaScript 차이</h3>
<p>Most differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer are usually 
blamed on JavaScript. However, the issues usually lie in the APIs that a 
browser exposes to JavaScript, such as the DOM hooks. The two browsers 
possess few core JavaScript differences; issues encountered are often 
timing related.
</p>
<h4 name="JavaScript_date_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">JavaScript date 차이</h4>
<p><code>Date</code> 차이는 <code>getYear</code> method 뿐이다. ECMAScript 상세 (JavaScript 상세를 따름), method 는 Y2k-compliant 하지 않으며, <code>new Date().getYear()</code> 를 2004 로 실행하면 "104"를 반환할 것이다.  ECMAScript 상세에 따라, <code>getYear</code> 는 year 빼기 1900 를 반환하며, 원래 
1988에 대해"98"를 반환한다 . <code>getYear</code> 는 in ECMAScript Version 3 에서 반대되었고 <code>getFullYear()</code>로 대치되었다. Internet Explorer는 <code>getYear()</code> 를 바꾸어서 <code>getFullYear()</code> 와 Y2k-compliant 하도록 만들었고, Mozilla 는 표준 양식을 지켰다.
</p>
<h4 name="JavaScript_.EC.8B.A4.ED.96.89_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">JavaScript 실행 차이</h4>
<p>Different browsers execute JavaScript differently. For example, the 
following code assumes that the <code>div</code> node 
already exists in the DOM by the time the <code>script</code> block executes: 
</p>
<pre>...
&lt;div id="foo"&gt;Loading...&lt;/div&gt;

&lt;script&gt; 
  document.getElementById("foo").innerHTML = "Done."; 
&lt;/script&gt; 
</pre>
<p>However, this is not guaranteed. To be sure that all elements exist, 
you should use the <code>onload</code> event handler on the <code>&lt;body&gt;</code> tag:
</p>
<pre>&lt;body onload="doFinish();"&gt; 

&lt;div id="foo"&gt;Loading...&lt;/div&gt; 

&lt;script&gt; 
  function doFinish() { 
    var element = document.getElementById("foo");
    element.innerHTML = "Done."; 
  }
&lt;/script&gt; 
... 
</pre>
<p>Such timing-related issues are also hardware-related -- slower systems 
can reveal bugs that faster systems hide. One concrete example is <code>window.open</code>, which opens a new window:
</p>
<pre>&lt;script&gt; 
  function doOpenWindow(){ 
    var myWindow = window.open("about:blank"); 
    myWindow.location.href = "http://www.ibm.com"; 
  }
&lt;/script&gt; 
</pre>
<p>The problem with the code is that <code>window.open</code> is asynchronous -- it does not block the JavaScript execution until the window has finished loading. Therefore, you may execute the line after the <code>window.open</code> line 
before the new window has finished. You can deal with this by having an 
<code>onload</code> handler in the new window and then call 
back into the opener window (using <code>window.opener</code>).
</p>
<h4 name="JaveScript.EA.B0.80_.EB.A7.8C.EB.93.9C.EB.8A.94_HTML_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4"> JaveScript가 만드는 HTML 차이</h4>
<p>JavaScript can, through <code>document.write</code>, generate 
HTML on the fly from a string. The main issue here is when JavaScript, 
embedded inside an HTML document (thus, inside an <code>&lt;script&gt;</code> tag), generates HTML that contains a 
<code>&lt;script&gt;</code> tag. If the document is in strict rendering mode, it will parse the <code>&lt;/script&gt;</code> inside the string as the closing tag 
for the enclosing <code>&lt;script&gt;</code>. The following 
code illustrates this best:
</p>
<pre>&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"&gt; 
... 
&lt;script&gt; 
  document.write("&lt;script type='text\/javascript'&gt;alert('Hello');&lt;\/script&gt;") 
&lt;/script&gt; 
</pre>
<p>Since the page is in strict mode, Mozilla's parser will see the first <code>&lt;script&gt;</code> and parse until it finds a closing tag for it, which would be the first <code>&lt;/script&gt;</code>. This is because the parser has no knowledge about JavaScript (or any other language) when in strict mode. In quirks mode, the parser is aware of JavaScript when parsing (which slows it down). Internet Explorer is always in quirks mode, as it does not support true XHTML. To make this work in strict mode in Mozilla, separate the string into two parts: 
</p>
<pre>&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"&gt; 
... 
&lt;script&gt; 
  document.write("&lt;script type='text\/javascript'&gt;alert('Hello');&lt;/" + "script&gt;") 
&lt;/script&gt; 
</pre>
<h4 name="JavaScript_.EB.94.94.EB.B2.84.EA.B7.B8">JavaScript 디버그</h4>
<p>Mozilla provides several ways to debug JavaScript-related issues found 
in applications created for Internet Explorer. The first tool is the 
built-in JavaScript console, shown in Figure 1, where errors and warnings 
are logged. You can access it in Mozilla by going to <b>Tools -&gt; Web Development -&gt; JavaScript Console</b> or in Firefox (the standalone browser product from Mozilla) at <b>Tools -&gt; JavaScript Console</b>. 
</p><p>그림 1. JavaScript 콘솔
</p><p><img alt="Javascript 콘솔" src="File:ko/Media_Gallery/Migrationguide-jsconsole.jpg">
</p><p>The JavaScript console can show the full log list or just 
errors, warnings, and messages. The error message in Figure 1 says that at 
aol.com, line 95 tries to access an undefined variable called is_ns70. 
Clicking on the link will open Mozilla's internal view source window with 
the offending line highlighted.
</p><p>The console also allows you to evaluate JavaScript. To evaluate the entered JavaScript syntax, type in <code>1+1</code> into the input field and press <b>Evaluate</b>, as Figure 2 shows.
</p><p>그림 2. JavaScript console evaluating
</p><p><img alt="JavaScript Console evaluating" src="File:ko/Media_Gallery/Migrationguide-jsconsole-eval.jpg">
</p><p>Mozilla's JavaScript engine has built-in support for debugging, and 
thus can provide powerful tools for JavaScript developers. Venkman, shown 
in Figure 3, is a powerful, cross-platform JavaScript debugger that 
integrates with Mozilla. It is usually bundled with Mozilla releases; you 
can find it at <b>Tools -&gt; Web Development -&gt; JavaScript 
Debugger</b>. For Firefox, the debugger isn't bundled; instead, you can 
download and install it from the <a class="external" href="http://www.mozilla.org/projects/venkman/">Venkman Project Page</a>. You can also find 
tutorials at the development page, located at the <a class="external" href="http://www.hacksrus.com/%7Eginda/venkman/">Venkman Development Page</a>.
</p><p>그림 3. Mozilla의 JavaScript 디버거
</p><p><img alt="Mozilla의 JavaScript 디버거" src="File:ko/Media_Gallery/Migrationguide-venkman.jpg">
</p><p>The JavaScript debugger can debug JavaScript running in the Mozilla 
browser window. It supports such standard debugging features as breakpoint 
management, call stack inspection, and variable/object inspection. All 
features are accessible through the user interface or through the debugger's 
interactive console. With the console, you can execute arbitrary 
JavaScript in the same scope as the JavaScript currently being debugged.
</p>
<h3 name="CSS_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">CSS 차이</h3>
<p>Mozilla-based products have the strongest support for Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), including most of CSS1, CSS2.1 and parts of CSS3, compared to Internet Explorer as well as all other browsers. 
</p><p>For most issues mentioned below, Mozilla will add an error or warning 
entry into the JavaScript console. Check the JavaScript console if you encounter CSS-related issues. 
</p>
<h4 name="Mimetypes_.28CSS_.ED.8C.8C.EC.9D.BC.EC.9D.B4_.EC.A0.81.EC.9A.A9.EB.90.98.EC.A7.80_.EC.95.8A.EC.95.98.EC.9D.84_.EB.95.8C.29">Mimetypes (CSS 파일이 적용되지 않았을 때)</h4>
<p>The most common CSS-related issue is that CSS definitions inside 
referenced CSS files are not applied. This is usually due to the server 
sending the wrong mimetype for the CSS file. The CSS specification states 
that CSS files should be served with the <code>text/css</code> mimetype. Mozilla will respect this and only load CSS files with that mimetype if the Web page is in strict standards mode. Internet Explorer will always load the CSS file, no matter with 
which mimetype it is served. Web pages are considered in strict standards 
mode when they start with a strict doctype. To solve this problem, you can 
make the server send the right mimetype or remove the doctype. I'll 
discuss more about doctypes in the next section. 
</p>
<h4 name="CSS_.EC.99.80_units">CSS 와 units</h4>
<p>Many Web applications do not use units with their CSS, especially when 
you use JavaScript to set the CSS. Mozilla tolerates this, as long as the 
page is not rendered in strict mode. Since Internet Explorer does not 
support true XHTML, it does not care if no units are specified. If the 
page is in strict standards mode, and no units are used, then Mozilla 
ignores the style:  
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" 
  "<span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd</span>"&gt; 
&lt;html&gt; 
  &lt;head&gt; 
   &lt;meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"&gt;
   &lt;title&gt;CSS and units example&lt;/title&gt; 
  &lt;/head&gt; 
  &lt;body&gt; 
    // works in strict mode 
    &lt;div style="width: 40<span class="boldcode">px</span>; border: 1px solid black;"&gt;
      Text
    &lt;/div&gt;

    // will fail in strict mode 
    &lt;div style="width: 40; border: 1px solid black;"&gt;
      Text
    &lt;/div&gt;
  &lt;/body&gt; 
&lt;/html&gt; 
</pre>
<p>Since the above example has a strict doctype, the page is rendered in 
strict standards mode. The first div will have a width of 40px, since it 
uses units, but the second div won't get a width, and thus will default to 
100% width. The same would apply if the width were set through JavaScript.
</p>
<h4 name="JavaScript_.EC.99.80_CSS">JavaScript 와 CSS</h4>
<p>Since Mozilla supports the CSS standards, it also supports the CSS DOM 
standard for setting CSS through JavaScript. You can access, remove, and 
change an element's CSS rules through the element's <code>style</code> member:  
</p>
<pre>&lt;div id="myDiv" style="border: 1px solid black;"&gt;
  Text
&lt;/div&gt;

&lt;script&gt;
  var myElm = document.getElementById("myDiv"); 
  myElm.style.width = "40px"; 
&lt;/script&gt;
</pre>
<p>You can reach every CSS attribute that way. Again, if the Web page is in strict mode, you must set a unit or else Mozilla will ignore the command. When you query a value, say through <code>.style.width</code>, in Mozilla and Internet Explorer, the returned value will contain the unit, meaning a string is returned. You can convert the string into a number through <code>parseFloat("40px")</code>.
</p>
<h4 name="CSS_overflow_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">CSS overflow 차이</h4>
<p>CSS added the notion of overflow, which allows you to define how to 
handle overflow; for example, when the contents of a <code>div</code> with a specified height are taller than that height. The CSS standard defines that if no overflow behavior is set in this case, the <code>div</code> contents will overflow. 
However, Internet Explorer does not comply with this and will expand the 
<code>div</code> beyond its set height in order to hold the 
contents. Below is an example that shows this difference: 
</p>
<pre>&lt;div style="height: 100px; border: 1px solid black;"&gt;
  &lt;div style="height: 150px; border: 1px solid red; margin: 10px;"&gt;
    a
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
</pre> 
<p>As you can see in Figure 4, Mozilla acts like the W3C standard specifies. 
The W3C standard says that, in this case, the inner <code>div</code> overflows to the bottom since the inner content is taller than its parent. If you prefer the Internet Explorer behavior, simply do not specify a height on the outer element. 
</p><p>Figure 4. DIV overflow
</p><p><img alt="DIV Overflow" src="File:ko/Media_Gallery/Migrationguide-overflow.jpg">
</p>
<h4 name="hover_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">hover 차이</h4>
<p>The nonstandard CSS hover behavior in Internet Explorer occurs on quite 
a few web sites. It usually manifests itself by changing text style 
when hovered over in Mozilla, but not in Internet Explorer. This is because the <code>a:hover</code> CSS selector in Internet Explorer matches 
<code>&lt;a href=""&gt;...&lt;/a&gt;</code> but not <code>&lt;a name=""&gt;...&lt;/a&gt;</code>, which sets anchors in HTML. The 
text changes occur because authors encapsulate the areas with the 
anchor-setting markup: 
</p>
<pre>CSS:
  a:hover {color: green;}

HTML:
  &lt;a href="foo.com"&gt;This text should turn green when you hover over it.&lt;/a&gt;

  &lt;a name="anchor-name"&gt;
    This text should change color when hovered over, but doesn't
    in Internet Explorer.
  &lt;/a&gt;
</pre>
<p>Mozilla follows the CSS specification correctly and will change the 
color to green in this example. You can use two ways to make Mozilla behave 
like Internet Explorer and not change the color of the text when hovered 
over:
</p>
<ul><li>First, you can change the CSS rule to be <code>a:link:hover {color: green;}</code>, which will only change the color if the element is a link (has an <code>href</code> attribute).
</li><li>Alternatively, you can change the markup and close the opened <code>&lt;a /&gt;</code> before the start of the text -- the anchor will continue to work this way.
</li></ul>
<h3 name="Quirks_.EA.B3.BC_standards_.EB.AA.A8.EB.93.9C">Quirks 과 standards 모드</h3>
<p>Older legacy browsers, such as Internet Explorer 4, rendered with so-called quirks 
under certain conditions. While Mozilla aims to be a standards-compliant 
browser, it has three modes that support older Web pages created with 
these quirky behaviors. The page's content and delivery determine which 
mode Mozilla will use. Mozilla will indicate the rendering mode in <b>View -&gt; Page Info</b> (or <kbd>Ctrl+I</kbd>) ; Firefox will list the rendering mode in <b>Tools -&gt; Page Info</b>. The mode in which a page is located depends on its doctype. 
</p><p>Doctypes (short for document type declarations) look like this: 
</p><p><code>&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC <span style="color: blue;">"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"</span> <span style="color: green;">"<span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd</span>"</span>&gt;</code>
</p><p>The section in blue is called the public identifier, the green part is 
the system identifier, which is a URI. 
</p>
<h4 name="Standards_.EB.AA.A8.EB.93.9C">Standards 모드</h4>
<p>Standards mode is the strictest rendering mode -- it will render pages 
per the W3C HTML and CSS specifications and will not support any quirks. 
Mozilla uses it for the following conditions: 
</p>
<ul><li>If a page is sent with a <code>text/xml</code> mimetype or any other XML or XHTML mimetype
</li><li>For any "DOCTYPE HTML SYSTEM" doctype (for example, <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML SYSTEM "<span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/strict.dtd</span>"&gt;</code>), except for the IBM doctype
</li><li>For unknown doctypes or doctypes without DTDs
</li></ul>
<h4 name="Almost_standards_.EB.AA.A8.EB.93.9C">Almost standards 모드</h4>
<p>Mozilla introduced almost standards mode for one reason: a section in 
the CSS 2 specification breaks designs based on a precise layout of small 
images in table cells. Instead of forming one image to the user, each 
small image ends up with a gap next to it. The old IBM homepage shown in 
Figure 5 offers an example. 
</p><p>그림 5. 이미지 간격
</p><p><img alt="이미지 간격" src="File:ko/Media_Gallery/Migrationguide-imagegap.jpg">
</p><p>Almost standards mode behaves almost exactly as standards mode, except 
when it comes to an image gap issue. The issue occurs often on 
standards-compliant pages and causes them to display incorrectly.
</p><p>Mozilla uses almost standards mode for the following conditions:
</p>
<ul><li>For any "loose" doctype (for example, <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "<span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd</span>"&gt;</code>)
</li><li>For the IBM doctype (<code>&lt;!DOCTYPE html SYSTEM "<span class="plain">http://www.ibm.com/data/dtd/v11/ibmxhtml1-transitional.dtd</span>"&gt;</code>)
</li></ul>
<p><a href="ko/Images%2c_Tables%2c_and_Mysterious_Gaps">이미지 간격 이슈</a>에서 더 많은 정보를 얻을 수 있습니다.
</p>
<h4 name="Quirks_.EB.AA.A8.EB.93.9C">Quirks 모드</h4>
<p>Currently, the Web is full of invalid HTML markup, as well as markup 
that only functions due to bugs in browsers. The old Netscape browsers, 
when they were the market leaders, had bugs. When Internet Explorer 
arrived, it mimicked those bugs in order to work with the content at that 
time. As newer browsers came to market, most of these original bugs, 
usually called <b>quirks</b>, were kept for backwards compatibility. 
Mozilla supports many of these in its quirks rendering mode. Note that due 
to these quirks, pages will render slower than if they were fully 
standards-compliant. Most Web pages are rendered under this mode. 
</p><p>Mozilla uses quirks mode for the following conditions:
</p>
<ul><li>When no doctype is specified
</li><li>For doctypes without a system identifier (for example, <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"&gt;</code>)
</li></ul>
<p>For further reading, check out: <a href="ko/Mozilla_Quirks_Mode_Behavior">Mozilla Quirks Mode Behavior</a> and <a href="ko/Mozilla's_DOCTYPE_sniffing">Mozilla's DOCTYPE sniffing</a>.
</p>
<h3 name="Event_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">Event 차이</h3>
<p>Mozilla and Internet Explorer are almost completely different in the 
area of events. The Mozilla event model follows the W3C and Netscape 
model. In Internet Explorer, if a function is called from an event, it can 
access the <code>event</code> object through <code>window.event</code>. Mozilla passes an <code>event</code> object to event handlers. They must specifically pass 
the object on to the function called through an argument. A cross-browser 
event handling example follows: 
</p>
<pre>&lt;div onclick="handleEvent(event);"&gt;Click me!&lt;/div&gt;

&lt;script&gt;
  function handleEvent(aEvent) { 
    // if aEvent is null, means the Internet Explorer event model, 
    // so get window.event. 
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event; 
  }
&lt;/script&gt;
</pre>
<p>Sometimes this doesn't work because Internet Explorer "catches" the aEvent parameter, identifiying it as not null, making it not use window.event any longer. The solution is to simply test for the window.event property:
</p>
<pre>&lt;div onclick="handleEvent(event);"&gt;Click me!&lt;/div&gt;

&lt;script&gt;
  function handleEvent(aEvent) { 
    var myEvent = window.event ? window.event : aEvent;
  }
&lt;/script&gt;
</pre>
<p>The properties and functions that the event object exposes are also 
often named differently between Mozilla and Internet Explorer, as Table 4 shows. 
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 4. Event properties differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Internet Explorer Name </th><th> Mozilla Name </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> altKey </td><td> altKey
</td><td> Boolean property that returns whether the alt key was pressed during the event.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> cancelBubble </td><td> stopPropagation()
</td><td> Used to stop the event from bubbling farther up the tree.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> clientX </td><td> clientX
</td><td> The X coordinate of the event, in relation to the element viewport.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> clientY </td><td> clientY
</td><td> The Y coordinate of the event, in relation to the element viewport.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> ctrlKey </td><td> ctrlKey
</td><td> Boolean property that returns whether the Ctrl key was pressed during the event.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> fromElement </td><td> relatedTarget
</td><td> For mouse events, this is the element from which the mouse moved away.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> keyCode </td><td> keyCode
</td><td> For keyboard events, this is a number representing the key that was pressed. It is 0 for mouse events.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> returnValue </td><td> preventDefault()
</td><td> Used to prevent the event's default action from occurring.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> screenX </td><td> screenX
</td><td> The X coordinate of the event, in relation to the screen.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> screenY </td><td> screenY
</td><td> The Y coordinate of the event, in relation to the screen.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> shiftKey </td><td> shiftKey
</td><td> Boolean property that returns whether the Shift key was pressed during the event.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> srcElement </td><td> target
</td><td> The element to which the event was originally dispatched.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> toElement </td><td> currentTarget
</td><td> For mouse events, this is the element to which the mouse moved.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> type </td><td> type
</td><td> Returns the name of the event.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h4 name="Attach_event_handlers">Attach event handlers</h4>
<p>Mozilla supports two ways to attach events through JavaScript. The first,
supported by all browsers, sets event properties directly on objects. To
set a <code>click</code> event handler, a function reference
is passed to the object's <code>onclick</code> property:
</p>
<pre>&lt;div id="myDiv"&gt;Click me!&lt;/div&gt;

&lt;script&gt;
  function handleEvent(aEvent) {
    // if aEvent is null, means the Internet Explorer event model,
    // so get window.event.
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event;
  }

  function onPageLoad(){
    document.getElementById("myDiv").onclick = handleEvent;
  } 
&lt;/script&gt;
</pre>
<p>Mozilla fully supports the W3C standard way of attaching listeners to 
DOM nodes. You use the <code>addEventListener()</code> and 
<code>removeEventListener()</code> methods, and have the 
benefit of being able to set multiple listeners for the same event type. 
Both methods require three parameters: the event type, a function 
reference, and a boolean denoting whether the listener should catch events in 
their capture phase. If the boolean is set to false, it will only catch 
bubbling events. W3C events have three phases: capturing, at target, and 
bubbling. Every event object has an <code>eventPhase</code> attribute indicating the phase numerically (0 indexed). Every time you 
trigger an event, the event starts at the DOM's outermost element, the 
element at the top of the DOM tree. It then walks the DOM using the most 
direct route toward the target, which is the capturing phase. When the 
event reaches the target, the event is in the target phase. After 
arriving at the target, it walks up the DOM tree back to the outermost 
node; this is <b>bubbling</b>. Internet Explorer's event model only has 
the bubbling phase; therefore, setting the third parameter to false 
results in Internet Explorer-like behavior:
</p>
<pre>&lt;div id="myDiv"&gt;Click me!&lt;/div&gt; 

&lt;script&gt; 

  function handleEvent(aEvent) {
    // if aEvent is null, it is the Internet Explorer event model,
    // so get window.event.
    var myEvent = aEvent ? aEvent : window.event;
  }

  function onPageLoad() {
    var element = document.getElementById("myDiv");
    element.addEventListener("click", handleEvent, false);
  }
&lt;/script&gt;
</pre>
<p>One advantage of <code>addEventListener()</code> and 
<code>removeEventListener()</code> over setting properties 
is that you can have multiple event listeners for the same event, each 
calling another function. Thus, to remove an event listener requires 
all three parameters be the same as the ones you use when adding the 
listener. 
</p><p>Mozilla does not support Internet Explorer's method of converting &lt;script&gt; tags into event handlers, which extends &lt;script&gt; with 
<code>for</code> and <code>event</code> attributes (see Table 5). It also does not support the <code>attachEvent</code> and <code>detachEvent</code> methods.
Instead, you should use the <code>addEventListener</code> and <code>removeEventListener</code> methods. Internet Explorer does not support the W3C events specification. 
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 5. Event method differences between Mozilla and Internet Explorer
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Internet Explorer Method </th><th> Mozilla Method </th><th> Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> attachEvent(aEventType, aFunctionReference)
</td><td> addEventListener(aEventType, aFunctionReference, aUseCapture)
</td><td> Adds an event listener to a DOM element.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> detachEvent(aEventType, aFunctionReference)
</td><td> removeEventListener(aEventType, aFunctionReference, aUseCapture)
</td><td> Removes an event listener to a DOM element.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h3 name="Rich_text_.ED.8E.B8.EC.A7.91">Rich text 편집</h3>
<p>While Mozilla prides itself with being the most W3C web standards compliant 
browser, it does support nonstandard functionality, such as <code>innerHTML</code> and <a href="ko/Midas">rich text editing</a>, if no W3C equivalent exists.
</p><p>Mozilla 1.3 introduced an implementation of Internet Explorer's 
<a href="ko/Rich-Text_Editing_in_Mozilla/Class_xbDesignMode">designMode</a> feature, which turns an HTML document into a rich text editor 
field. Once turned into the editor, commands can run on the document through 
the <code>execCommand</code> command. Mozilla does not 
support Internet Explorer's <code>contentEditable</code> attribute for 
making any widget editable. You can use an iframe to add a rich text 
editor.
</p>
<h4 name="Rich_text_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">Rich text 차이</h4>
<p>Mozilla supports the W3C standard of accessing iframe's document object 
through <code>IFrameElmRef.contentDocument</code>, while Internet Explorer 
requires you to access it through <code>document.frames{{mediawiki.external('\"IframeName\"')}}</code> and then access the resulting <code>document</code>:
</p>
<pre>&lt;script&gt;
function getIFrameDocument(aID) {
  var rv = null; 

  // if contentDocument exists, W3C compliant (Mozilla)
  if (document.getElementById(aID).contentDocument){
    rv = document.getElementById(aID).contentDocument;
  } else {
    // IE
    rv = document.frames[aID].document;
  }
  return rv;
}
&lt;/script&gt; 
</pre>
<p>Another difference between Mozilla and Internet Explorer is the HTML 
that the rich text editor creates. Mozilla defaults to using CSS for the 
generated markup. However, Mozilla allows you to toggle between HTML and 
CSS mode using the <code>useCSS</code> execCommand and 
toggling it between true and false. Internet Explorer always uses HTML 
markup.
</p>
<pre>Mozilla (CSS): 
  &lt;span style="color: blue;"&gt;Big Blue&lt;/span&gt; 

Mozilla (HTML): 
  &lt;font color="blue"&gt;Big Blue&lt;/font&gt; 

Internet Explorer: 
  &lt;FONT color="blue"&gt;Big Blue&lt;/FONT&gt; 
</pre> 
<p>Below is a list of commands that execCommand in Mozilla supports: 
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption> Table 6. Rich text editing commands
</caption><tbody><tr>
<th> Command Name </th><th> Description </th><th> Argument
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td> bold </td><td> Toggles the selection's bold attribute. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> createlink </td><td> Generates an HTML link from the selected text. </td><td> The URL to use for the link
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> delete </td><td> Deletes the selection. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> fontname </td><td> Changes the font used in the selected text. </td><td> The font name to use (Arial, for example)
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> fontsize </td><td> Changes the font size used in the selected text. </td><td> The font size to use
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> fontcolor </td><td> Changes the font color used in the selected text. </td><td> The color to use
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> indent </td><td> Indents the block where the caret is. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> inserthorizontalrule </td><td> Inserts an &lt;hr&gt; element at the cursor's position. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> insertimage </td><td> Inserts an image at the cursor's position. </td><td> URL of the image to use
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> insertorderedlist </td><td> Inserts an ordered list (&lt;ol&gt;) element at the cursor's position. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> insertunorderedlist </td><td> Inserts an unordered list (&lt;ul&gt;) element at the cursor's position. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> italic </td><td> Toggles the selection's italicize attribute. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> justifycenter </td><td> Centers the content at the current line. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> justifyleft </td><td> Justifies the content at the current line to the left. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> justifyright </td><td> Justifies the content at the current line to the right. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> outdent </td><td> Outdents the block where the caret is. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> redo </td><td> Redoes the previous undo command. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> removeformat </td><td> Removes all formatting from the selection. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> selectall </td><td> Selects everything in the rich text editor. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> strikethrough </td><td> Toggles the strikethrough of the selected text. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> subscript </td><td> Converts the current selection into subscript. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> superscript </td><td> Converts the current selection into superscript. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> underline </td><td> Toggles the underline of the selected text. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> undo </td><td> Undoes the last executed command. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> unlink </td><td> Removes all link information from the selection. </td><td> ---
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td> useCSS </td><td> Toggles the usage of CSS in the generated markup. </td><td> Boolean value
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>For more information, visit <a href="ko/Rich-Text_Editing_in_Mozilla">Rich-Text Editing in Mozilla</a>.
</p>
<h3 name="XML_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">XML 차이</h3>
<p>Mozilla has strong support for XML and XML-related technologies, such 
as XSLT and Web services. It also supports some nonstandard Internet 
Explorer extensions, such as XMLHttpRequest. 
</p>
<h4 name="How_to_handle_XML">How to handle XML</h4>
<p>As with standard HTML, Mozilla supports the W3C XML DOM specification, 
which allows you to manipulate almost any aspect of an XML document. 
Differences between Internet Explorer's XML DOM and Mozilla are usually caused by Internet Explorer's nonstandard behaviors. Probably the most common difference is how they handle white space text nodes. Often when XML generates, it contains white 
spaces between XML nodes. Internet Explorer, when using <code>XMLNode.childNodes[]</code>, will not contain these white 
space nodes. In Mozilla, those nodes will be in the array. 
</p>
<pre>XML: 
  &lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt; 
  &lt;myXMLdoc xmlns:myns="http://myfoo.com"&gt; 
    &lt;myns:foo&gt;bar&lt;/myns:foo&gt; 
  &lt;/myXMLdoc&gt;

JavaScript:
  var myXMLDoc = getXMLDocument().documentElement; 
  alert(myXMLDoc.childNodes.length); 
</pre>
<p>The first line of JavaScript loads the XML document and accesses the 
root element (<code>myXMLDoc</code>) by retrieving the <code>documentElement</code>. The second line simply alerts the number of child nodes. Per the W3C specification, the white spaces and new lines merge into one text node if they follow each other. For Mozilla, the <code>myXMLdoc</code> node has three children: a text node 
containing a new line and two spaces; the <code>myns:foo</code> node; and another text node with a new line. Internet Explorer, however, does not abide by this and will return "1" for the above code, namely only the <code>myns:foo</code> node. 
Therefore, to walk the child nodes and disregard text nodes, you must 
distinguish such nodes. 
</p><p>As mentioned earlier, every node has a <code>nodeType</code> attribute representing the node type. For example, an element node has type 1, while a document node has type 9. To disregard text nodes, you must check for types 3 (text node) and 8 
(comment node). 
</p>
<pre>XML:
  &lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;   
  &lt;myXMLdoc xmlns:myns="http://myfoo.com"&gt; 
    &lt;myns:foo&gt;bar&lt;/myns:foo&gt; 
  &lt;/myXMLdoc&gt;

JavaScript: 
  var myXMLDoc = getXMLDocument().documentElement; 
  var myChildren = myXMLDoc.childNodes; 

  for (var run = 0; run &lt; myChildren.length; run++){ 
    if ( (myChildren[run].nodeType != 3) &amp;&amp;
          myChildren[run].nodeType != 8) ){ 
      // not a text or comment node 
    };
  };
</pre>
<h4 name="XML_data_islands">XML data islands</h4>
<p>Internet Explorer has a nonstandard feature called <em>XML data 
islands</em>, which allow you to embed XML inside an HTML document using 
the nonstandard HTML tag <code>&lt;xml&gt;</code>. Mozilla does 
not support XML data islands and handles them as unknown HTML tags. You 
can achieve the same functionality using XHTML; however, because Internet 
Explorer's support for XHTML is weak, this is usually not an option. 
</p><p>One cross-browser solution is to use DOM parsers, which parse a 
string that contains a serialized XML document and generates the document 
for the parsed XML. Mozilla uses the <code>DOMParser</code> 
class, which takes the serialized string and creates an XML document out 
of it. In Internet Explorer, you can achieve the same functionality using 
ActiveX. A new <code>Microsoft.XMLDOM</code> generates and 
has a <code>loadXML</code> method that can take in a string 
and generate a document from it. The following code shows you how:  
</p>
<pre>IE XML data island: 
  .. 
  &lt;xml id="xmldataisland"&gt; 
    &lt;foo&gt;bar&lt;/foo&gt; 
  &lt;/xml&gt;

Cross-browser solution: 
  var xmlString = "&lt;xml id=\"xmldataisland\"&gt;&lt;foo&gt;bar&lt;/foo&gt;&lt;/xml&gt;"; 

  var myDocument; 

  if (document.implementation.createDocument){ 
    // Mozilla, create a new DOMParser 
    var parser = new DOMParser(); 
    myDocument = parser.parseFromString(xmlString, "text/xml"); 
  } else if (window.ActiveXObject){ 
    // Internet Explorer, create a new XML document using ActiveX 
    // and use loadXML as a DOM parser. 
    myDocument = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM"); 
    myDocument.async="false"; 

    myDocument.loadXML(xmlString);
  }
</pre>
<h4 name="XML_HTTP_request">XML HTTP request</h4>
<p>Internet Explorer allows you to send and retrieve XML files using 
MSXML's <code>XMLHTTP</code> class, which is instantiated 
through ActiveX using <code>new 
ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP")</code> or <code>new 
ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")</code>. Since there is no standard 
method of doing this, Mozilla provides the same functionality in the 
global JavaScript <code>XMLHttpRequest</code> object. The 
object generates asynchronous requests by default.
</p><p>After instantiating the object using <code>new 
XMLHttpRequest()</code>, you can use the <code>open</code> 
method to specify what type of request (GET or POST) you use, which 
file you load, and if it is asynchronous or not. If the call 
is asynchronous, then give the <code>onload</code> member a function 
reference, which is called once the request has completed. 
</p><p>Synchronous request:
</p>
<pre class="eval">  var myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
  myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "data.xml", false); 

  myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

  var myXMLDocument = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 
</pre>
<p>Asynchronous request: 
</p>
<pre class="eval">  var myXMLHTTPRequest; 

  function <span class="boldcode">xmlLoaded</span>() { 
    var myXMLDocument = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 
  }

  function loadXML(){ 
    myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest();

    myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "data.xml", true);

    myXMLHTTPRequest.onload = <span class="boldcode">xmlLoaded</span>; 

    myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 
  }
</pre>
<p>Table 7 features a list of available methods and properties for 
Mozilla's <code>XMLHttpRequest</code>. 
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption>Table 7. XMLHttpRequest methods and properties</caption> 
  <tbody><tr>
    <th>Name</th>
    <th>Description</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void abort()</td>
    <td>Stops the request if it is still running.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>string getAllResponseHeaders()</td>
    <td>Returns all response headers as one string.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>string getResponseHeader(string headerName)</td>
    <td>Returns the value of the specified header.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>functionRef onerror</td>
    <td>If set, the references function will be called whenever an error occurs during the request.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>functionRef onload</td>
    <td>If set, the references function will be called when the request completes successfully and the response has been received. Use when an asynchronous request is used.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void open (string HTTP_Method, string URL)<br> <br> void open (string HTTP_Method, string URL, boolean async, string userName, string password)</td>
    <td>Initializes the request for the specified URL, using either GET or POST as the HTTP method. To send the request, call the <code>send()</code> method after initialization. If <code>async</code> is false, the request is synchronous, else it defaults to asynchronous. Optionally, you can specify a username and password for the given URL needed.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>int readyState</td>
    <td>State of the request. Possible values: 
      <table>
        <tbody><tr>
          <th>Value</th>
          <th>Description</th>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>0</td>
          <td>UNINITIALIZED - open() has not been called yet.</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>1</td>
          <td>LOADING - send() has not been called yet.</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>2</td>
          <td>LOADED - send() has been called, headers and status are available.</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>3</td>
          <td>INTERACTIVE - Downloading, responseText holds the partial data.</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>4</td>
          <td>COMPLETED - Finished with all operations.</td>
        </tr>
      </tbody></table></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>string responseText</td>
    <td>String containing the response.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>DOMDocument responseXML</td>
    <td>DOM Document containing the response.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void send(variant body)</td>
    <td>Initiates the request. If <code>body</code> is defined, it issent as the body of the POST request. <code>body</code> can be an XML document or a string serialized XML document.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void setRequestHeader (string headerName, string headerValue)</td>
    <td>Sets an HTTP request header for use in the HTTP request. Has to be called after <code>open()</code> is called.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>string status</td>
    <td>The status code of the HTTP response.</td>
  </tr>
</tbody></table>
<h4 name="XSLT_.EC.B0.A8.EC.9D.B4">XSLT 차이</h4>
<p>Mozilla supports XSL Transformations (XSLT) 1.0. It also allows 
JavaScript to perform XSLT transformations and allows running XPATH on a 
document. 
</p><p>Mozilla requires that you send the XML and XSLT file holding the 
stylesheet with an XML mimetype (<code>text/xml</code> or 
<code>application/xml</code>). This is the most common 
reason why XSLT won't run in Mozilla but will in Internet Explorer. 
Mozilla is strict in that way.  
</p><p>Internet Explorer 5.0 and 5.5 supported XSLT's working draft, which is 
substantially different than the final 1.0 recommendation. The easiest way 
to distinguish what version an XSLT file was written against is to look at 
the namespace. The namespace for the 1.0 recommendation is <code><span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform</span></code>, while the 
working draft's namespace is <code><span class="plain">http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xsl</span></code>. Internet Explorer 6 
supports the working draft for backwards compatibility, but Mozilla does 
not support the working draft, only the final recommendation.
</p><p>If XSLT requires you to distinguish the browser, you can query the 
"xsl:vendor" system property. Mozilla's XSLT engine will report itself as 
"Transformiix" and Internet Explorer will return "Microsoft."
</p>
<pre>&lt;xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:vendor') = 'Transformiix'"&gt; 
  &lt;!-- Mozilla specific markup --&gt; 
&lt;/xsl:if&gt; 
&lt;xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:vendor') = 'Microsoft'"&gt; 
  &lt;!-- Internet Explorer specific markup --&gt; 
&lt;/xsl:if&gt; 
</pre>
<p>Mozilla also provides JavaScript interfaces for XSLT, allowing a 
Web site to complete XSLT transformations in memory. You can do this using 
the global <code>XSLTProcessor</code> JavaScript object. 
<code>XSLTProcessor</code> requires you to load the XML and 
XSLT files, because it needs their DOM documents. The XSLT document, 
imported by the <code>XSLTProcessor</code>, allows you to 
manipulate XSLT parameters. <code>XSLTProcessor</code> can 
generate a standalone document using <code>transformToDocument()</code>, or it can create a document fragment using <code>transformToFragment()</code>, which you 
can easily append into another DOM document. Below is an example: 
</p>
<pre>var xslStylesheet; 
var xsltProcessor = new XSLTProcessor(); 

// load the xslt file, example1.xsl 
var myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "example1.xsl", false); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

// get the XML document and import it 
xslStylesheet = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 

xsltProcessor.importStylesheet(xslStylesheet); 

// load the xml file, example1.xml 
myXMLHTTPRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.open("GET", "example1.xml", false); 
myXMLHTTPRequest.send(null); 

var xmlSource = myXMLHTTPRequest.responseXML; 

var resultDocument = xsltProcessor.transformToDocument(xmlSource); 
</pre>
<p>After creating an <code>XSLTProcessor</code>, you load the XSLT file using <code>XMLHttpRequest</code>. The XMLHttpRequest's <code>responseXML</code> member contains the XML document of the XSLT file, which is passed to <code>importStylesheet</code>. You then use the <code>XMLHttpRequest</code> again to load the source XML document that must be transformed; that document is then passed to the <code>transformToDocument</code> method of <code>XSLTProcessor</code>. Table 8 features a list of <code>XSLTProcessor</code> methods.  
</p>
<table class="standard-table">
<caption>Table 8. XSLTProcessor methods</caption>
  <tbody><tr>
    <th>Method</th>
    <th>Description</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void importStylesheet(Node styleSheet)</td>
    <td>Imports the XSLT stylesheet. The <code>styleSheet</code> argument is the root node of an XSLT stylesheet's DOM document.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>DocumentFragment transformToFragment(Node source, Document owner)</td>
    <td>Transforms the Node <code>source</code> by applying the stylesheet imported using the <code>importStylesheet</code> method and generates a DocumentFragment. <code>owner</code> specifies what DOM document the DocumentFragment should belong to, making it appendable to that DOM document.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Document transformToDocument(Node source)</td>
    <td>Transforms the Node <code>source</code> by applying the stylesheet imported using the <code>importStylesheet</code> method and returns a standalone DOM document.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void setParameter(String namespaceURI, String
      localName, Variant value)</td>
    <td>Sets a parameter in the imported XSLT stylesheet.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Variant getParameter(String namespaceURI, String localName)</td>
    <td>Gets the value of a parameter in the imported XSLT stylesheet.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void removeParameter(String namespaceURI, String localName)</td>
    <td>Removes all set parameters from the imported XSLT
      stylesheet and makes them default to the XSLT-defined defaults.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void clearParameters()</td>
    <td>Removes all set parameters and sets them to defaults specified in the XSLT stylesheet.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>void reset()</td>
    <td>Removes all parameters and stylesheets.</td>
  </tr>
</tbody></table>
<div class="originaldocinfo">
<h3 name=".EC.9B.90.EB.9E.98_.EB.AC.B8.EC.84.9C_.EC.A0.95.EB.B3.B4"> 원래 문서 정보 </h3>
<ul><li> Author(s): Doron Rosenberg, IBM Corporation
</li><li> Published: 26 Jul 2005
</li><li> Link: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-ie2mozgd/
</li></ul>
</div>
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