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Thunderbird 拡張機能のビルド その5: XUL

Thunderbird のユーザインタフェースは XUL JavaScript で記述されています。 XUL はボタン、メニュー、ツールバー、ツリーなどのようなユーザーインタフェースウィジェットを提供する XML です。私たちは新しい XUL DOM 要素をアプリケーションウィンドウに挿入するか、スクリプトを使用する、もしくはイベントハンドラをアタッチしてそれらを変更することによって、ウィジェットを追加します。 While XUL provides the elements of the user interface, actions are written in JavaScript.

私たちの最初の拡張機能で、 Thunderbird のステータスバーにいくつかのテキストを追加します。ステータスバーは messenger.xul の中で実装されています。 To view this XUL file use the DOM Inspector extension or look inside the omni.jar archive. messenger.xul の中で、以下のようなステータスバーの記述を見つけるでしょう。

<statusbar id="status-bar">
 ... <statusbarpanel>s ...

<statusbar id="status-bar"> is a "merge point" for a XUL overlay. XUL Overlays are a way of attaching other UI widgets to a XUL document at run time. A XUL Overlay is a .xul file that specifies XUL fragments to insert at specific merge points within a "master" document. These fragments can specify widgets to be inserted, removed or modified.

In this example you are adding a line to the indented statusbar. Therefore it becomes an item owned by the id called "status-bar". This shows how the Thunderbird architecture allows extensions to modify the user experience without modifying the installation files. This also enables version independence between Thunderbird and Thunderbird extensions.

Example XUL Overlay Document

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<overlay id="sample" 
 <script type="application/javascript" src="chrome://myfirstext/content/overlay.js"/><!-- A reference to your JavaScript file -->
 <statusbar id="status-bar">
  <statusbarpanel id="my-panel" label="Date"/>

The <statusbar> widget named status-bar specifies the merge point within the application window that we want to attach to. When parsing our overlay file, the XUL engine will take all child elements of the <statusbar> tag and merge them with the original XUL document's <statusbar> tag. In the example above we have defined a new <statusbarpanel> item (that can be referred to as my-panel) which will create a new instance of this widget type and add it at the end of the statusbar. In Thunderbird it will appear as a label at the right side of Thunderbird's statusbar and display "Date".  We have also added a <script> tag that contains a reference to the JavaScript file overlay.js. In the next section you will learn how to use JavaScript to modify your label so that it shows the current date.

Take the sample code from above and save it into a new file called myhelloworld.xul within the content folder you created earlier.

The overlay.js file will be created in a later section and your add-on will still work if the file is missing. For now you can ignore this line, but remember that this is how you reference a JavaScript file.


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