この翻訳は不完全です。英語から この記事を翻訳 してください。

この記事は、レスポンシブデザインに関する主な点について記述しています。詳細については、必要に応じてリンク先をご参照ください。

現在WebサイトやアプリケーションのUIを、使用しているブラウザや機器によって変化させ、それぞれに応じて最適化された体験を提供することが一般的になってきています。そのための一つの方法として、使用される機器やブラウザに合わせて異なるサイトやアプリを作り、それぞれ異なった結果を出力するという方法がありますが、この方法は非効率的です。ブラウザはエラーを起こす可能性がありますし、何より全てのソースコードを保守するのは骨が折れます。

そこで最近では、ブラウザのサポートしている機能や横幅、使われている機器などを出力時に判別し、それに応じて一つのコードをCSSで調整するという書き方が主流になっています。こうした書き方が異なるアプローチの仕方に応じてレスポンシブデザイン、アダプティブデザインと呼ばれています。それぞれの違いについては、 レスポンシブデザインとアダプティブデザインの違いの記事をご参照ください。

レスポンシブデザインは信頼性があり、保守もしやすいデザインです。レスポンシブデザインを取り入れれば、新しいブラウザや機器が登場するたびに新しい機能、特徴に応じたバージョンを作成する必要がなくなります。

しかし、レスポンシブデザインにも欠点はあります。使用されている機器に応じて異なるコンテンツ、レイアウト、機能面を出力することが必要な場合、レスポンシブデザインは必ずしも良いアプローチとは言えません。また、既存のサイト、特に広大な企業のサイトなどをレスポンシブデザインに変更してタブレットやスマートフォンに適用させようとする場合、モバイル専用のサイトを新しく作成するよりも労力がかかる場合があります。これについてはレスポンシブデザインの利点と欠点の記事をご参照ください。

レスポンシブデザインについての背景知識、基礎についてはレスポンシブデザインの基礎の記事をご参照ください。

フルードグリッド(Fluid grids)

まず第一に、アプリケーションのレイアウトにおける流動的な指定の仕方、つまり幅(width)やピクセルによらず、%とem/remを用いて要素やテキストのサイズを調整する方法から始めます。異なるビューポートの幅に応じてレイアウトを調整できるという面において多くの利点を持ちます。例を挙げてみましょう。

Snapshotというアプリを使って単純ですが面白い例を作りました。ウェブカメラからのビデオストリームをgetUserMedia()を使って抽出し、それを静止画として<canvas>を用いてギャラリーに保存します。画像を見たり消したりすることができます。他の記事では機能面について言及していますが、今回はレイアウトのみに焦点を当てます。

Note: You can find the Snapshot app on Github; check out the code and help improve it. You can also see Snapshot running live. Note that getUserMedia() is an experimental technology, which currently only works in Google Chrome and Firefox desktop. Firefox OS support is currently planned for version 1.3. More functionality and a clean up of the styling of Snapshot are planned for a future date.

Snapshotのレイアウトはカメラビュー。イメージキャプチャ、ギャラリーの3カラムとなっています。

マークアップはとてもシンプルです。:

<x-deck selected-index="0">
  <x-card>
    …
  </x-card>
  <x-card>
    …
  </x-card>
  <x-card>
    …
  </x-card>
</x-deck>

Note: These weird x- elements may be unfamiliar; they are part of of Brick, Mozilla's UI element library for mobile web apps. We have used Brick to create the mobile layout for Snapshot, which you will read more about below.

横方向に並べるため以下のCSSを適用します:

x-card {
  width: 100%;
}

x-card:nth-child(1), x-card:nth-child(2) {
  width: 30%;
  float: left;
  padding: 2rem;
}

x-card:nth-child(3) {
  width: 40%;
  float: left;
  height: 100%;
  overflow: auto;
  padding: 2rem;
}

最初の二つのコラムは幅30%となっており、三つ目は40%となっています。またすべて左にフロートしています。 この方法でサイド・バイ・サイドに落ち着き、その比率はプラウザのウィンドウサイズが変わっても一定です。これは簡単なグリッドの例ですが、必要に応じて、より複雑なグリッドレイアウトに対してこの原理を適用できます。

border-box sizing

padding は、コンテナの全体の幅や高さに影響しません、なぜなら全要素に体して box-sizingborder-box にセットしているためです:

*, *:before, *:after {
  -webkit-box-sizing: border-box;
  -moz-box-sizing: border-box;
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

このことは基本的に、 widthheight では要素の寸法を、中身だけでなくボーダーまでも含めてなんとかセットすることを意味します。なので width: 40% とセットした場合、箱の幅は親の 40% であり、箱の paddingborder 幅は中身の幅に足されるのでなく、中身の幅から減算されます。とても役立ちます! この詳細は Paul Irishによる * { Box-sizing: Border-box } FTW を読んでください。

Flexible replaced elements

Things are working fairly well now, but there are still some issues just waiting to present themselves. For a start, let's have a look at what happens when we include the <video> and <img> elements inside our first two columns, naked and unstyled.

Because the size of replaced elements is dictated by the size of the media inserted into them, and the media is a fixed size, they explode out of their containing elements and make a mess of the layout. This is pretty horrible, but generally this kind of problem is easily fixed with some simple CSS:

img, video {
  max-width: 100%;
}

This tells the replaced elements to remain constrained inside their container's widths, no matter what. However, if they aren't as wide as their containers, they will not stretch to fill them. In the snapshot example, we ended up with slightly different code:

x-card:nth-child(1) video, x-card:nth-child(2) img {
  width: 100%;
    …
}

This is because in our case, we do in fact want the video and image to stretch to always fill their containers no matter what — a subtle but important difference from max-width — and therefore always be the same size. The video always resizes dynamically, but the screen captures taken from it do not, so upon resizing the screen it was possible to end up with a messy layout with different sized elements when using max-width: 100%, such as:

Media queries

Fluid grids are a great start, but you'll notice that at certain points (known as breakpoints) the layout starts to break down. At these points you'll want to change the layout to rectify the layout problem, and this can be done using media queries.

Note: Media queries are a CSS3 feature that allow you to selectively apply CSS depending on the results of media feature tests — for more on the basics, read Media queries.

Typical desktop layout

In our example, we have a desktop layout, as we've already seen. This is created using the CSS rules included at the top of the stylesheet, before any media queries are encountered.

Mid-width layout

We also have a mid-width layout, which is aimed at working well on tablets and narrow laptop screens. This is created by all of the CSS inside the first media query:

@media all and (max-width: 1024px) {
  x-card:nth-child(1), x-card:nth-child(2) {
    width: 50%;
  }

  x-card:nth-child(3) {
    width: 100%;
    clear: left;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(3) img {
    width: 20%;
  }
}

So here we're altering the widths of the columns and removing the float of the third column (and adding clearing to guard against any float funny business). We've also altered the width of the images inside the third container (no longer a column — this is the gallery) so that now you get five per line (it was previously three per line).

Narrow screen/mobile layout

We then have a narrow screen layout, designed to fit the bill for a mobile app/open Web app experience (for example, a Firefox OS app). This is created in multiple parts. First of all, as expected, there is a media query in our main CSS, which is quite weighty, so we'll go through it in parts:

@media all and (max-width: 480px) {  
  x-card:nth-child(1), x-card:nth-child(2), x-card:nth-child(3) {
    width: 100%;
    float: none;
    padding: 0;
  }
 
  button {
    margin-top: 0;
    border-radius: 0;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(1) video, x-card:nth-child(2) img {
    border-radius: 0px;
    border: none;
    padding: 0;
    background-color: 0;
  }

This first block resets a number of different things from the widescreen layouts that were't required for the mobile app.

  x-card:nth-child(1) video, x-card:nth-child(2) img, x-card:nth-child(3) {
    margin-top: 17.5vw;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(1) button, x-card:nth-child(2) button {
    position: absolute;
    bottom: 0;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(2) button:nth-of-type(2) {
    bottom: 5.9rem;
  }
  
  x-card:nth-child(1) button {
    font-size: 7vw;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(2) button {
    font-size: 7vw;
  }

The next rules do some sizing on the buttons inside the first two cards, and give all card contents a top margin so that their content won't be lost under the navigation buttons (see below). This was necessary because Mozilla Brick (also see below) forces its components to be 100% of the screen width and height. We have used vw (viewport width) units for these — 1vw is equivalent to  1% of the viewport width. This makes the dimensions scale up and down nicely along with the viewport width. Last for this section, we absolutely positioned all buttons at the bottom of the cards they are in, so the layout looks OK at different viewport size variations. We then add a rule that postions the second button in any card a button's width higher up the card. When you click on an image in the gallery it brings up options to delete or cancel deletion of the card, and you don't want two buttons on top of one another.

x-card:nth-child(3) img {
  width: 50%;
}

This rule simply changes the width of the gallery images so now there are two per line.

  nav {      
    width: 100%;
    position: absolute;
    z-index: 1000;
     
    display: -webkit-flex;
    display: -moz-flex;
    display: -ms-flexbox;
    display: flex;
  }
 
  nav button {
    font-size: 6.8vw;
    
    -webkit-flex: 1;
    -moz-flex: 1;
    -ms-flex: 1;
    flex: 1;
    
    border-left: 1px solid rgba(100,100,100,0.4);
  }
 
  nav button:first-child {
    border-left: 0;
  }
}

In this last set of rules, we change the display value of the <nav> to flex to make it show (it was set to none in the default CSS at the top of the stylesheet, as it wasn't needed for the other views.) We then use absolute positioning and z-index to make it take up no space in the document flow,  and sit on top of the x-cards (this is why we gave the x-cards that top-margin earlier).

Next up, the font-size of the buttons is set to 6.8vw. Why? Because the top-margin of the x-cards was set to 17vw earlier on. All buttons in the app have been set to have a line-height of 2.5, in the default CSS at the top of the stylesheet (check if you don't believe me.) And 6.8 x 2.5 = 17.

Last, we have used flex: 1; to make the buttons always take up the same proportion of space on the line. Let's have a look at the mobile layout, in the below image.

single column layout for mobile app view, with three buttons to navigate between cards, an image viewer, and a Save Picture button at the button.But there are more tricks up our sleeves for this mobile app layout! As mentioned above, we used Mozilla Brick, a collection of ready-rolled mobile UI components, in the making of the mobile app layout. In particular, we used the deck component for the nice transition effect between cards when the buttons are pressed. For more on using Brick, read Mozilla Brick: ready made UI components.

What's more relevant to this article is that we didn't want the Brick CSS and JavaScript files being applied to the markup unless we were looking at the mobile app view. To achieve this, we applied the Brick CSS to the page using a separate <link> element with a media attribute:

<link href="dist/brick.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" media="all and (max-width: 480px)">

This says that the whole stylesheet will not be linked to the HTML unless the viewport width is 480px or less. Moving on to the JavaScript, <script> elements don't accept media attributes, so I had to do this a different way. Fortunately there is a JavaScript construct called window.matchMedia(), which can conditionally run JavaScript constructs depending on whether a media query returns true or not. We opened up the brick.js file and wrapped the whole lot in the following:

if (window.matchMedia("(max-width: 480px)").matches) {
  // The whole of brick.js goes here!
}

This causes nothing inside the brick.js file to be run unless the viewport width is 480px or less. Problem solved.

Really wide screens

One thing you might notice is that when the viewport gets very wide (such as on a cinema display), the layout stops getting wider, and just centers in the space available. This is pretty simple to achieve. You could use a min-width media query to fix the <body> width at a certain point:

@media all and (min-width: 1400px) {
  body {
    width: 1400px;
    margin: 0 auto;
  }
}

But it's actually easier to just set the following rule instead, and get rid of the media query altogether:

body {
  max-width: 1400px;
  margin: 0 auto;
}

Orientation fail

We also came across some problems with orientation: the mobile-app layout of our example app is designed for portrait orientation, and looks terrible when viewed on a device in landscape orientation. To fix this, we added in a media query that only applies its contents to the markup when device is viewed in landscape orientation:

@media all and (max-width: 480px) and (orientation: landscape) {
  nav {   
    width: auto;
    
    -webkit-flex-direction: column;
    -moz-flex-direction: column;
    -ms-flex-direction: column;
    flex-direction: column;
  }
 
  nav button {
    font-size: 6.8vh;
  }
 
  nav button {
    border-left: 0;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(1) video, x-card:nth-child(2) img, x-card:nth-child(3) {
    margin-top: 0;
  }
 
  x-card:nth-child(1) button, x-card:nth-child(2) button {
    font-size: 2rem;
  }
}

This does the following:

  • Adjusts the nav buttons, changing the direction the flexbox is laid out in, and altering the font size and borders so they sit vertically instead of horizontally.
  • Removes the top margin from the x-card contents so you don't end up with an unsightly gap at the top of the screen in landscape mode.
  • Changes the sizing of the control buttons (e.g. Take Picture, Delete Photo) so they don't look too big and sit properly on the screen.

This results in the following layout:

Note: Another solution with respect to orientation might be to just lock the orientation of your app, to portrait or landscape. If you are working on a Firefox OS/installed app, you can easily do this with the orientation manifest field. If you want a solution that works across general web apps, you could use the Screen orientation API, and/or provide a message asking the user to rotate their screen if they are using the wrong orientation (for example, if window.innerWidth is larger than window.innerHeight, assume the
game is landscape mode and show a "please rotate" message.)

Viewport

One last problem to mention for our example app is concerned with mobile browsers and media queries. If we viewed my example in a mobile browser in its current state, we wouldn't see our nice mobile layout. Instead, we'd see the below image.

I'm sure you'll agree that this really isn't what we wanted — why is this happening? In short, mobile browsers lie. They don't render web pages at their true viewport width. Instead, they render pages at a higher assumed viewport width (something approaching a laptop screen), and then shrink the result down to fit inside the mobile screen. This is a sensible defensive mechanism — most old school sites that don't have media queries would look terrible when rendered at say, 320px or 480px wide. But this doesn't help us responsible web developers, who have written small screen layouts into our CSS using media queries and want mobile devices to display those!

There is a way to override this mobile rendering behavior — viewport, which is inserted into our HTML pages in the form of a <meta> tag. In my example, let's add the following into our HTML <head>:

<meta name="viewport" content="width=480">

This causes our browser to render our mobile app layout properly — width=480 tells the browser "render this markup at 480 pixels wide", hence the media queries kick in appropriately. There are many more options available in the viewport meta tag, which you can read about in Using the viewport meta tag to control layout on mobile browsers.

Note: There is a spec called device adaptation, which defines the same functionality but in CSS, using a @viewport at-rule. This is probably a more logical place to put such information, but the spec is not as well supported as the viewport meta tag, therefore you should stick with that for now.

Responsive images/video

Another problem that comes up more and more these days is making image/video weight (size in KB) responsive as well as the dimensions of the image on screen. Yes, you want the images to be contained inside the app UI whether you are using it on desktop or mobile, but you should also consider that mobile apps have much smaller viewport dimensions available than desktop apps, so you should try to give mobile devices a smaller image to download. Mobiles in general (more commonly in some parts of the world than others) are on lower bandwidth connections and have less memory available than desktop devices, so yes, those extra kilobytes really do count.

Another challenge is dealing with high resolution screens — raster graphics designed for low resolutions are in danger of appearing tiny when displayed on a high resolution screen, so devices often apply a default zoom factor to rendered pages to avoid this. The trouble with this, then, is that raster images are zoomed in and as a result can start to look pixellated.

CSS background images

For CSS background images this is a fairly easy problem to solve. If you use the mobile first methodology, you will be creating your mobile layout inside your default CSS, before any media queries have been applied. The media queries then supply CSS that is only applied to the markup when the viewport is above a certain width. Let's look at a quick example:

header {
  height: 300px;
  width: 100%;
  background: url(images/small-header.jpg) center;
}

@media all and (min-width: 480px) {
  header {
    background: url(images/large-header.jpg) center;
  }
}

This means that mobile browsers only download the mobile background image asset — not the desktop mobile assets — because they fail the media query tests and therefore ignore the media queries. You can also serve a larger graphic to a higher resolution device using a resolution media query, like so:

button {
  background: url(images/low-res-header.jpg) 1rem center ;
}

@media only screen and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),
       only screen and ( min-resolution: 192dpi),
       only screen and ( min-resolution: 2dppx) { 
  button {
    background: url(images/high-res-header.jpg) 1rem center ;
  } 
}

This looks rather complicated, but really it's not — we are providing a number of media query options, as at this time different browsers support different resolution media query types and even units. Brett Jankord has a good explanation at Cross Browser Retina/High Resolution Media Queries.

<video>

HTML5 video is fairly well catered for in terms of responsive capabilities. If you wish, you can point to multiple video files via <source> attributes, each with their own source and MIME type:

<video controls>
  <source src="videos/720/crystal720.mp4" type="video/mp4">
  <source src="videos/720/crystal720.webm" type="video/webm">
</video>

But you can go one step further. You can include media attributes on the <source> element containing media queries — the video loaded in the browser will depend on both the format the browser supports, and the results of the media tests. So for example:

<video controls>
  <source src="videos/320/crystal320.mp4" type="video/mp4" media="all and (max-width: 480px)">
  <source src="videos/320/crystal320.webm" type="video/webm" media="all and (max-width: 480px)">
  <source src="videos/720/crystal720.mp4" type="video/mp4" media="all and (min-width: 481px)">
  <source src="videos/720/crystal720.webm" type="video/webm" media="all and (min-width: 481px)">
</video>

This allows your site to serve different video files based on the available space, in order to optimize the user's experience.

<img>

HTML images are a more difficult proposition. There is no mechanism inherent in HTML images for serving different image files dependent on viewport size, and, due to a number of irksome browser behavior realities, solutions are more difficult to hack together than you would imagine. There are currently some standards proposals in the works that would provide this — the W3C responsive images community group discussed this problem for ages and arrived at the <picture> element, which provides a similar markup structure to <video>, with <source> alternatives selectable via media query results. Another proposal, srcset, was put forward by Apple and takes a slightly different approach, instead providing a new srcset attribute for <img> inside which image references are placed along with "hints" that the browser can use to work out which image is most suitable to display given its viewport size, resolution, etc. These are not intended to be mutually exclusive.

This all sounds good. But those solutions are definitely not ready for production yet — both are in a very early stage of standardization, and have no support across browsers. Currently we have to rely on various polyfills and other solutions, none of which are perfect for all situations, so you need to decide which one is right for your particular situation. Some available solutions are as follows:

HiSRC
A jQuery plugin that allows you to create small, medium, and large versions of an image, and then serves the appropriate one according to the browser's resolution and available network speed.
Mobify.js capturing
A very clever technique from Mozilla that allows you to capture the source of the page before it's parsed. This way, you can swap out image src values with JavaScript depending on browser features, circumventing browser preloading issues. This is promising, but doesn't work very well across older browsers.
Picturefill
A JavaScript-based polyfill for <picture>, which works nicely, but it does require a lot of custom markup.
Adaptive images
A server-side solution, which records the viewport size in a cookie, then resizes images via a combination of PHP and .htaccess to a more appropriate size, if appropriate. This doesn't require markup or scripting, but has a number of limitations.

SVG and other vector graphics

For some image requirements (not photographs, but icons and user interface elements are a good fit), a good solution is to use vector graphics. Because vector images are calculated based on mathematical algorithms rather than containing separate data on every pixel in the image, they tend to be smaller in file size, and are infinitely scalable when zoomed or viewed on high resolution devices (at least, in theory). Some ideas follow, which also help to keep the number of HTTP requests down — another key factor in mobile app performance:

  • You should try to use CSS3 features to programmatically generate graphical effects where possible, rather than relying on image files. these include rounded corners, gradients, and drop shadows. These will scale as the resolution changes or the browser zooms, and although they are not supported very well on older browsers such as Internet Explorer 6-8, this is not too much of a concern when you are creating an interface aimed at modern devices such as Firefox OS, and they also tend to gracefully degrade.
  • You could also try using SVG to create interface elements. SVG produces vector graphics and is supported well across modern browsers, with polyfills available for older browser support.
  • Using Web fonts for displaying icons is an effective technique for keeping file size and HTTP requests down, and this is supported well across modern and older browsers.

See also

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 このページの貢献者: Uemmra3, stephaniehobson, TEDkaishi
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