Cicli e iterazioni

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I cicli offrono un modo semplice e rapido per fare cose ripetutamente. Questo capitolo della guida al JavaScript introduce i diversi metodi di iterazione disponibili in JavaScript.

You can think of a loop as a computerized version of the game where you tell someone to take X steps in one direction then Y steps in another; for example, the idea "Go five steps to the east" could be expressed this way as a loop:

var step;
for (step = 0; step < 5; step++) {
  // Runs 5 times, with values of step 0 through 4.
  console.log('Walking east one step');
}

Ci sono differenti tipi di ciclo, ma sono essenzialmente tutti la stessa cosa: ripetono un'azione o un insieme di azioni un certo numero di volte (è possibile che questo numero sia anche 0).  i diversi meccanismi di ciclo offrono differenti modi di determinare l'inizio e la fine del ciclo. Ci sono casi che si prestano più ad un tipo di ciclo rispetto ad altri.

The statements for loops provided in JavaScript are:

Istruzione for

Il for loop continua finché la condizione valutata non è falsa. Il fir loop JavaScript  è simile a quello del Java e de C.  L'istruzione for è definita come segue:

for ([espressioneIniziale]; [condizione]; [incremento])
  istruzione

When a for loop executes, the following occurs:

  1. The initializing expression initialExpression, if any, is executed. This expression usually initializes one or more loop counters, but the syntax allows an expression of any degree of complexity. This expression can also declare variables.
  2. The condition expression is evaluated. If the value of condition is true, the loop statements execute. If the value of condition is false, the for loop terminates. If the condition expression is omitted entirely, the condition is assumed to be true.
  3. The statement executes. To execute multiple statements, use a block statement ({ ... }) to group those statements.
  4. The update expression incrementExpression, if there is one, executes, and control returns to step 2.

Esempio

Il seguente esempio contiene un ciclo for che conta il numero di opzioni selezionate in una lista a scorrimento (a <select> che permette selezioni multiple). L'istruzione for dichiara una variabile i  e la inizializza a zero. Controlla che i sia minore del numero di opzioni dell'elemento <select> , esegue l'istruzione if e incrementa i  di uno alla fine di ogni ciclo.

<form name="selectForm">
  <p>
    <label for="musicTypes">Choose some music types, then click the button below:</label>
    <select id="musicTypes" name="musicTypes" multiple="multiple">
      <option selected="selected">R&B</option>
      <option>Jazz</option>
      <option>Blues</option>
      <option>New Age</option>
      <option>Classical</option>
      <option>Opera</option>
    </select>
  </p>
  <p><input id="btn" type="button" value="How many are selected?" /></p>
</form>

<script>
function howMany(selectObject) {
  var numberSelected = 0;
  for (var i = 0; i < selectObject.options.length; i++) {
    if (selectObject.options[i].selected) {
      numberSelected++;
    }
  }
  return numberSelected;
}

var btn = document.getElementById("btn");
btn.addEventListener("click", function(){
  alert('Number of options selected: ' + howMany(document.selectForm.musicTypes))
});
</script>

Istruzione do...while

Il do...while ripete finché la condizione non è falsa. Il do...while è definito come segue:

do
  istruzione
while (condizione);

l'istruzione viene eseguita una volta prima che la condizione venga controllata. Per eseguire più istruzioni,  usare l'istruzione blocco ({ ... }) . Se la condizione è vera l'istruzione viene rieseguita. Alla fine di ogni esecuzione la condizione viene controllata. Quando la condizione è falsa l'esecuzione del do..while termina.

Esempio

Nel seguente esempio il ciclo do..while itera almeno una volra e continua finché il valore di i è minore di 5.

var i = 0;
do {
  i += 1;
  console.log(i);
} while (i < 5);

Istruzione while

A while statement executes its statements as long as a specified condition evaluates to true. A while statement looks as follows:

while (condition)
  statement

If the condition becomes false, statement within the loop stops executing and control passes to the statement following the loop.

The condition test occurs before statement in the loop is executed. If the condition returns true, statement is executed and the condition is tested again. If the condition returns false, execution stops and control is passed to the statement following while.

To execute multiple statements, use a block statement ({ ... }) to group those statements.

Example 1

The following while loop iterates as long as n is less than three:

var n = 0;
var x = 0;
while (n < 3) {
  n++;
  x += n;
}

With each iteration, the loop increments n and adds that value to x. Therefore, x and n take on the following values:

  • After the first pass: n = 1 and x = 1
  • After the second pass: n = 2 and x = 3
  • After the third pass: n = 3 and x = 6

After completing the third pass, the condition n < 3 is no longer true, so the loop terminates.

Example 2

Avoid infinite loops. Make sure the condition in a loop eventually becomes false; otherwise, the loop will never terminate. The statements in the following while loop execute forever because the condition never becomes false:

while (true) {
  console.log("Hello, world");
}

labeled statement

A label provides a statement with an identifier that lets you refer to it elsewhere in your program. For example, you can use a label to identify a loop, and then use the break or continue statements to indicate whether a program should interrupt the loop or continue its execution.

The syntax of the labeled statement looks like the following:

label :
   statement

The value of label may be any JavaScript identifier that is not a reserved word. The statement that you identify with a label may be any statement.

Example

In this example, the label markLoop identifies a while loop.

markLoop:
while (theMark == true) {
   doSomething();
}

break statement

Use the break statement to terminate a loop, switch, or in conjunction with a labeled statement.

  • When you use break without a label, it terminates the innermost enclosing while, do-while, for, or switch immediately and transfers control to the following statement.
  • When you use break with a label, it terminates the specified labeled statement.

The syntax of the break statement looks like this:

break [label];

The first form of the syntax terminates the innermost enclosing loop or switch; the second form of the syntax terminates the specified enclosing labeled statement.

Example 1

The following example iterates through the elements in an array until it finds the index of an element whose value is theValue:

for (var i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
  if (a[i] == theValue) {
    break;
  }
}

Example 2: Breaking to a label

var x = 0;
var z = 0;
labelCancelLoops: while (true) {
  console.log("Outer loops: " + x);
  x += 1;
  z = 1;
  while (true) {
    console.log("Inner loops: " + z);
    z += 1;
    if (z === 10 && x === 10) {
      break labelCancelLoops;
    } else if (z === 10) {
      break;
    }
  }
}

continue statement

The continue statement can be used to restart a while, do-while, for, or label statement.

  • When you use continue without a label, it terminates the current iteration of the innermost enclosing while, do-while, or for statement and continues execution of the loop with the next iteration. In contrast to the break statement, continue does not terminate the execution of the loop entirely. In a while loop, it jumps back to the condition. In a for loop, it jumps to the increment-expression.
  • When you use continue with a label, it applies to the looping statement identified with that label.

The syntax of the continue statement looks like the following:

continue [label];

Example 1

The following example shows a while loop with a continue statement that executes when the value of i is three. Thus, n takes on the values one, three, seven, and twelve.

var i = 0;
var n = 0;
while (i < 5) {
  i++;
  if (i == 3) {
    continue;
  }
  n += i;
}

Example 2

A statement labeled checkiandj contains a statement labeled checkj. If continue is encountered, the program terminates the current iteration of checkj and begins the next iteration. Each time continue is encountered, checkj reiterates until its condition returns false. When false is returned, the remainder of the checkiandj statement is completed, and checkiandj reiterates until its condition returns false. When false is returned, the program continues at the statement following checkiandj.

If continue had a label of checkiandj, the program would continue at the top of the checkiandj statement.

checkiandj:
  while (i < 4) {
    console.log(i);
    i += 1;
    checkj:
      while (j > 4) {
        console.log(j);
        j -= 1;
        if ((j % 2) == 0) {
          continue checkj;
        }
        console.log(j + " is odd.");
      }
      console.log("i = " + i);
      console.log("j = " + j);
  }

for...in statement

The for...in statement iterates a specified variable over all the enumerable properties of an object. For each distinct property, JavaScript executes the specified statements. A for...in statement looks as follows:

for (variable in object) {
  statements
}

Example

The following function takes as its argument an object and the object's name. It then iterates over all the object's properties and returns a string that lists the property names and their values.

function dump_props(obj, obj_name) {
  var result = "";
  for (var i in obj) {
    result += obj_name + "." + i + " = " + obj[i] + "<br>";
  }
  result += "<hr>";
  return result;
}

For an object car with properties make and model, result would be:

car.make = Ford
car.model = Mustang

Arrays

Although it may be tempting to use this as a way to iterate over Array elements, the for...in statement will return the name of your user-defined properties in addition to the numeric indexes. Thus it is better to use a traditional for loop with a numeric index when iterating over arrays, because the for...in statement iterates over user-defined properties in addition to the array elements, if you modify the Array object, such as adding custom properties or methods.

for...of statement

The for...of statement creates a loop Iterating over iterable objects (including ArrayMap, Set, arguments object and so on), invoking a custom iteration hook with statements to be executed for the value of each distinct property.

for (variable of object) {
  statement
}

The following example shows the difference between a for...of loop and a for...in loop. While for...in iterates over property names, for...of iterates over property values:

let arr = [3, 5, 7];
arr.foo = "hello";

for (let i in arr) {
   console.log(i); // logs "0", "1", "2", "foo"
}

for (let i of arr) {
   console.log(i); // logs "3", "5", "7"
}

Tag del documento e collaboratori

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 Ultima modifica di: Cereal84,