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The animation-timing-function CSS property specifies how a CSS animation should progress over the duration of each cycle.

/* Keyword values */
animation-timing-function: ease;
animation-timing-function: ease-in;
animation-timing-function: ease-out;
animation-timing-function: ease-in-out;
animation-timing-function: linear;
animation-timing-function: step-start;
animation-timing-function: step-end;

/* Function values */
animation-timing-function: cubic-bezier(0.1, 0.7, 1.0, 0.1);
animation-timing-function: steps(4, end);
animation-timing-function: frames(10);

/* Multiple animations */
animation-timing-function: ease, step-start, cubic-bezier(0.1, 0.7, 1.0, 0.1);

/* Global values */
animation-timing-function: inherit;
animation-timing-function: initial;
animation-timing-function: unset;

It is often convenient to use the shorthand property animation to set all animation properties at once.

Initial valueease
Applies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elements
Inheritedno
Mediavisual
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar

Syntax

For keyframed animations, the timing function applies between keyframes rather than over the entire animation. In other words, the timing function is applied at the start of the keyframe and at the end of the keyframe.

An animation timing function defined within a keyframe block applies to that keyframe. If no timing function is specified for the keyframe, the timing function specified for the overall animation is used.

Values

<timing-function>
The timing function that corresponds to a property to animate, as determined by animation-property.

Note: When you specify multiple comma-separated values on an animation-* property, they will be assigned to the animations specified in the animation-name property in different ways depending on how many there are. For more information, see Setting multiple animation property values.

Formal syntax

<single-timing-function>#

where
<single-timing-function> = linear | <cubic-bezier-timing-function> | <step-timing-function> | <frames-timing-function>

where
<cubic-bezier-timing-function> = ease | ease-in | ease-out | ease-in-out | cubic-bezier(<number>, <number>, <number>, <number>)
<step-timing-function> = step-start | step-end | steps(<integer>[, [ start | end ] ]?)
<frames-timing-function> = frames(<integer>)

Examples

See CSS animations for examples.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Animations
The definition of 'animation-timing-function' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Edge Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support (Yes)-webkit
43.0
(Yes)-webkit
(Yes)
5.0 (5.0)-moz
16.0 (16.0)[1]
10 12 -o
12.10
4.0-webkit
frames() No support[2] ? No support[2] No support No support[2] ?
Feature Android Edge Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile Chrome for Android
Basic support (Yes)-webkit (Yes)-webkit
(Yes)
5.0 (5.0)-moz
16.0 (16.0)[1]
? 12-o (Yes)-webkit ?
frames() ? ? No support[2] No support (Yes) ? (Yes)

[1] In addition to the unprefixed support, Gecko 44.0 (Firefox 44.0 / Thunderbird 44.0 / SeaMonkey 2.41) added support for a -webkit- prefixed version of the property for web compatibility reasons behind the preference layout.css.prefixes.webkit, defaulting to false. Since Gecko 49.0 (Firefox 49.0 / Thunderbird 49.0 / SeaMonkey 2.46) the preference defaults to true.

[2] The name of the frames() timing function is currently under discussion, so it is currently disabled in browser release versions until a final decision is reached. It is currently turned on in Nightly/Canary only.

See also