Object.assign()

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{{JSRef}}

מתודת Object.assign מעתיקה אובייקט על שלל {{jsxref("Object/propertyIsEnumerable", "מאפייניו", "", 1)} {{jsxref("Object/hasOwnProperty", "הקיימים", "", 1)}} לאובייקט אחר וממזגת אותם ביחד. המתודה מחזירה את האובייקט שאליו העתקנו את התכונות החדשות. 

תחביר
Object.assign(target, ...sources)

פרמטרים

target - אובייקט היעד
אובייקט היעד- האובייקט שאליו אנחנו מעתיקים את כל המאפיינים של האובייקט המקורי, כאשר הוא מחזיר את האובייקט אחרי המיזוג.
sources - אובייקט המקור
אובייקט המקור - האובייקט מכיל את המאפיינים שאנחנו רוצים להעתיק לאובייקט נוסף. 

Return value - הנתון התוצאה

The target object - האובייקט שאליו העתקנו את התכונות של האובייקט המקורי.

תיאור

מאפיינים באובייקט היעד ישוכתבו או ידרסו ע"י המאפיינים של אובייקט המקור אם הם חולקים את אותו ה-{{jsxref("Object/keys", "key", "", 1)}}. מאפיינים חדשים שיוגדו על מאפיינים משותפים (properties) בהמשך ידרסו גם באובייקט היעד וגם באופייקט המקור.

The Object.assign() method only copies enumerable and own properties from a source object to a target object. It uses [[Get]] on the source and [[Set]] on the target, so it will invoke getters and setters. Therefore it assigns properties, versus copying or defining new properties. This may make it unsuitable for merging new properties into a prototype if the merge sources contain getters.

For copying property definitions (including their enumerability) into prototypes, use {{jsxref("Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor()")}} and {{jsxref("Object.defineProperty()")}} instead.

Both {{jsxref("String")}} and {{jsxref("Symbol")}} properties are copied.

In case of an error, for example if a property is non-writable, a {{jsxref("TypeError")}} is raised, and the target object is changed if any properties are added before the error is raised.

Note: Object.assign() does not throw on {{jsxref("null")}} or {{jsxref("undefined")}} sources.

Polyfill

This polyfill doesn't support symbol properties, since ES5 doesn't have symbols anyway:

if (typeof Object.assign !== 'function') {
  // Must be writable: true, enumerable: false, configurable: true
  Object.defineProperty(Object, "assign", {
    value: function assign(target, varArgs) { // .length of function is 2
      'use strict';
      if (target === null || target === undefined) {
        throw new TypeError('Cannot convert undefined or null to object');
      }

      var to = Object(target);

      for (var index = 1; index < arguments.length; index++) {
        var nextSource = arguments[index];

        if (nextSource !== null && nextSource !== undefined) { 
          for (var nextKey in nextSource) {
            // Avoid bugs when hasOwnProperty is shadowed
            if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(nextSource, nextKey)) {
              to[nextKey] = nextSource[nextKey];
            }
          }
        }
      }
      return to;
    },
    writable: true,
    configurable: true
  });
}

Examples

Cloning an object

const obj = { a: 1 };
const copy = Object.assign({}, obj);
console.log(copy); // { a: 1 }

Warning for Deep Clone

For deep cloning, we need to use alternatives, because Object.assign() copies property values.

If the source value is a reference to an object, it only copies the reference value.

function test() {
  'use strict';

  let obj1 = { a: 0 , b: { c: 0}};
  let obj2 = Object.assign({}, obj1);
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj2)); // { "a": 0, "b": { "c": 0}}
  
  obj1.a = 1;
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj1)); // { "a": 1, "b": { "c": 0}}
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj2)); // { "a": 0, "b": { "c": 0}}
  
  obj2.a = 2;
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj1)); // { "a": 1, "b": { "c": 0}}
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj2)); // { "a": 2, "b": { "c": 0}}
  
  obj2.b.c = 3;
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj1)); // { "a": 1, "b": { "c": 3}}
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj2)); // { "a": 2, "b": { "c": 3}}
  
  // Deep Clone
  obj1 = { a: 0 , b: { c: 0}};
  let obj3 = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj1));
  obj1.a = 4;
  obj1.b.c = 4;
  console.log(JSON.stringify(obj3)); // { "a": 0, "b": { "c": 0}}
}

test();

Merging objects

const o1 = { a: 1 };
const o2 = { b: 2 };
const o3 = { c: 3 };

const obj = Object.assign(o1, o2, o3);
console.log(obj); // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }
console.log(o1);  // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }, target object itself is changed.

Merging objects with same properties

const o1 = { a: 1, b: 1, c: 1 };
const o2 = { b: 2, c: 2 };
const o3 = { c: 3 };

const obj = Object.assign({}, o1, o2, o3);
console.log(obj); // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }

The properties are overwritten by other objects that have the same properties later in the parameters order.

Copying symbol-typed properties

const o1 = { a: 1 };
const o2 = { [Symbol('foo')]: 2 };

const obj = Object.assign({}, o1, o2);
console.log(obj); // { a : 1, [Symbol("foo")]: 2 } (cf. bug 1207182 on Firefox)
Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(obj); // [Symbol(foo)]

Properties on the prototype chain and non-enumerable properties cannot be copied

const obj = Object.create({ foo: 1 }, { // foo is on obj's prototype chain.
  bar: {
    value: 2  // bar is a non-enumerable property.
  },
  baz: {
    value: 3,
    enumerable: true  // baz is an own enumerable property.
  }
});

const copy = Object.assign({}, obj);
console.log(copy); // { baz: 3 }

Primitives will be wrapped to objects

const v1 = 'abc';
const v2 = true;
const v3 = 10;
const v4 = Symbol('foo');

const obj = Object.assign({}, v1, null, v2, undefined, v3, v4); 
// Primitives will be wrapped, null and undefined will be ignored.
// Note, only string wrappers can have own enumerable properties.
console.log(obj); // { "0": "a", "1": "b", "2": "c" }

Exceptions will interrupt the ongoing copying task

const target = Object.defineProperty({}, 'foo', {
  value: 1,
  writable: false
}); // target.foo is a read-only property

Object.assign(target, { bar: 2 }, { foo2: 3, foo: 3, foo3: 3 }, { baz: 4 });
// TypeError: "foo" is read-only
// The Exception is thrown when assigning target.foo

console.log(target.bar);  // 2, the first source was copied successfully.
console.log(target.foo2); // 3, the first property of the second source was copied successfully.
console.log(target.foo);  // 1, exception is thrown here.
console.log(target.foo3); // undefined, assign method has finished, foo3 will not be copied.
console.log(target.baz);  // undefined, the third source will not be copied either.

Copying accessors

const obj = {
  foo: 1,
  get bar() {
    return 2;
  }
};

let copy = Object.assign({}, obj); 
console.log(copy); 
// { foo: 1, bar: 2 }
// The value of copy.bar is obj.bar's getter's return value.

// This is an assign function that copies full descriptors
function completeAssign(target, ...sources) {
  sources.forEach(source => {
    let descriptors = Object.keys(source).reduce((descriptors, key) => {
      descriptors[key] = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(source, key);
      return descriptors;
    }, {});
    
    // By default, Object.assign copies enumerable Symbols, too
    Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(source).forEach(sym => {
      let descriptor = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(source, sym);
      if (descriptor.enumerable) {
        descriptors[sym] = descriptor;
      }
    });
    Object.defineProperties(target, descriptors);
  });
  return target;
}

copy = completeAssign({}, obj);
console.log(copy);
// { foo:1, get bar() { return 2 } }

Specifications

Specification
{{SpecName('ESDraft', '#sec-object.assign', 'Object.assign')}}

Browser compatibility

{{Compat("javascript.builtins.Object.assign")}}

See also