Construire une extension

  • Raccourci de la révision : Construire_une_extension
  • Titre de la révision : Construire une extension
  • ID de la révision : 122070
  • Créé :
  • Créateur : JulienA
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  • Commentaire petites corrections

Contenu de la révision

Introduction

Ce tutoriel va vous montrer les étapes requises pour construire une extension très basique, qui ajoute un bouton contenant le texte "Salut, le monde !" à la barre d'état du navigateur Firefox.

Note Ce tutoriel traite de la construction d'extensions pour Firefox 1.5. D'autres tutoriaux existent pour construire des extensions destinées à des versions plus anciennes de Firefox.

Configurer l'environnement de développement

Les extensions sont packagées et distribuées dans des fichiers ZIP avec l'extension <tt>xpi</tt> (prononcé “zippy”). Le contenu d'un fichier XPI s'arrange de la manière suivante :

extension.xpi:
              /chrome/
              /chrome/chromeFiles/
              /chrome/chromeFiles/content/
              /components/
              /defaults/
              /defaults/preferences/
              chrome.manifest
              install.rdf

Par conséquent, il est plus facile de disposer vos fichiers sources avec une méthode similaire, à moins que vous ne vouliez écrire quelque Makefile ou script shell pour packager et zipper tous vos fichiers. Même si savez faire cela, les tests sont plus simples si vous arrangez vos fichiers de cette manière à cause d'une particularité du système d'ajout de Firefox 1.5.

Bien, commençons. Créez une dossier pour votre extension quelque part sur votre disque dur, par exemple <tt>c:\extensions\myExtension\</tt>. Dans celui-ci, créez un autre dossier nommé <tt>chrome</tt>, à l'intérieur du dossier <tt>chrome</tt> créez un dossier nommé <tt>chromeFiles</tt> et dans ce dernier, créez un dossier nommé <tt>content</tt>.

A la racine du dossier de votre extension, au même niveau que le dossier <tt>chrome</tt>, créez deux nouveaux fichiers texte vides, l'un appelé <tt>chrome.manifest</tt> et l'autre appelé <tt>install.rdf</tt>.

Créer le manifeste d'installation

Ouvrez le fichier nommé <tt>install.rdf</tt> que vous avez créé au premier niveau de la hiérarchie de dossiers de votre extension, et placez ceci à l'intérieur :

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<RDF xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
     xmlns:em="http://www.mozilla.org/2004/em-rdf#">

  <Description about="urn:mozilla:install-manifest">
    <em:id>sample@foo.net</em:id>
    <em:version>1.0</em:version>
    <em:type>2</em:type>
   
    <!-- L'application cible de votre extension, 
         avec les versions minimums et maximums supportées. --> 
    <em:targetApplication>
      <Description>
        <em:id>{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384}</em:id>
        <em:minVersion>1.0+</em:minVersion>
        <em:maxVersion>1.5</em:maxVersion>
      </Description>
    </em:targetApplication>
   
    <!-- Front End MetaData -->
    <em:name>Exemple !</em:name>
    <em:description>Une extension test</em:description>
    <em:creator>Votre nom ici</em:creator>
    <em:homepageURL>http://www.foo.com/</em:homepageURL>
  </Description>      
</RDF>

sample@foo.net - L'ID de votre extension. C'est une valeur que vous inventez pour identifier votre extension dans un format d'adresse email. Il faut qu'il soit unique. Vous pouvez également utiliser un GUID.

{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384} - L'ID de l'application Firefox.

1.0+ - la version minimum de Firefox avec laquelle votre extension fonctionnera. C'est la version minimum avec laquelle vous vous engagez à tester et fixer les bogues.

1.5 - La version maximum de Firefox avec laquelle votre extension fonctionnera. Elle ne doit pas être supérieure à la dernière version courante !

Voir les manifestes d'installation pour une liste complète des propriétés requises et optionnelles.

Sauvegardez le fichier.

Modifier le navigateur avec XUL

L'interface utilisateur de Firefox est écrite en XUL et Javascript. le XUL est une grammaire XML qui fournit des éléments d'interface comme des boutons, des menus, des barres d'outils, des arbres, etc. Les actions utilisateur sont liées à des fonctionnalités utilisant Javascript.

Pour modifier le navigateur, nous remanions des parties de l'interface utilisateur (IU) du navigateur en en ajoutant ou modifiant des éléments. Nous ajoutons des éléments en insérant de nouveaux éléments DOM XUL dans la fenêtre du navigateur, et nous les modifions en utilisant des scripts et en attachant des gestionnaires d'événements.

Le navigateur est implémenté dans un fichier XUL nommé <tt>browser.xul</tt>. Dans browser.xul, nous pouvons trouver la barre d'état, qui ressemble à quelque chose de ce genre :

<statusbar id="status-bar">
 ... <statusbarpanel>s ...
</statusbar>

<tt><statusbar id="status-bar"></tt> est un "point de fusion" pour un overlay XUL.

Les overlays XUL

Les overlays XUL sont un moyen d'attacher d'autres éléments d'IU à un document XUL au moment de l'exécution. Un overlay XUL est un fichier .xul qui spécifie des fragments de XUL à insérer dans des points de fusion spécifiques au sein d'un document "maître". Ces fragments peuvent spécifier des élements d'interface à insérer, supprimer ou modifier.

Exemple de document overlay XUL

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<overlay id="sample" 
         xmlns="http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul">
 <statusbar id="status-bar">
  <statusbarpanel id="my-panel" label="Salut, le monde"/>
 </statusbar>
</overlay>

Le <tt><statusbar></tt> nommé <tt>status-bar</tt> spécifie le "point de fusion" auquel nous voulons nous fixer, au sein de la fenêtre du navigateur.

L'enfant <tt><statusbarpanel></tt> est un nouvel élément d'interface qui nous voulons insérer au sein du point de fusion.

Prenez l'exemple de code ci-dessus et enregistrez le dans un fichier nommé <tt>sample.xul</tt> dans le dossier <tt>chrome/chromeFiles/content</tt> que vous avez créé.

Voir plus bas pour plus d'informations au sujet de la fusion d'éléments d'interface et de la modification d'interface utilisateur en utilisant des overlays.

Chrome URIs

XUL files are part of "Chrome Packages" - bundles of user interface components which are loaded via <tt>chrome://</tt> URIs. Rather than load the browser from disk using a <tt>file://</tt> URI (since the location of Firefox on the system can change from platform to platform and system to system), Mozilla developers came up with a solution for creating URIs to XUL content that the installed application knows about.

The browser is: <tt>chrome://browser/content/browser.xul</tt> Try typing this URL into the location bar in Firefox!

Chrome URIs consist of several components:

  • Firstly, the URI scheme (<tt>chrome</tt>) which tells Firefox's networking library that this is a Chrome URI and that content being loaded from one needs to be handled specially.
  • Secondly, a package name (in the example above, <tt>browser</tt>) which identifies the bundle of user interface components. This should be as unique to your application as possible to avoid collisions between extensions.
  • Thirdly, the type of data being requested. There are three types: <tt>content</tt> (XUL, JavaScript, XML XBL bindings etc that form the structure and behavior of an application UI), <tt>locale</tt> (DTD, .properties files etc that contain strings for the UI's localization), and <tt>skin</tt> (CSS and images that form the theme of the UI)
  • Finally, a file name to load.

So, <tt>chrome://foo/skin/bar.png</tt> loads the file <tt>bar.png</tt> from <tt>foo</tt>'s theme <tt>skin</tt> section.

When you load content using a Chrome URI, Firefox uses the Chrome Registry to translate these URIs into the actual source files on disk (or in JAR packages).

Create a Chrome Manifest

For more information on Chrome Manifests and the properties they support, see the Chrome Manifest Reference.

Open the file called <tt>chrome.manifest</tt> that you created alongside the <tt>chrome</tt> directory at the root of your extension's source folder hierarchy.

Add in this code:

content     sample    chrome/chromeFiles/content/

This specifies the:

  1. type of material within a chrome package
  2. name of the chrome package
  3. location of the chrome packages' files

So, this line says that for a chrome package sample, we can find its content files at the location <tt>chrome/chromeFiles/content</tt> which is a path relative to the location of <tt>chrome.manifest</tt>.

Note that content, locale and skin files must be kept inside folders called content, locale and skin within your <tt>chrome</tt> subdirectory.

Save the file. When you launch Firefox with your extension, this will register the chrome package.

Register an Overlay

You need Firefox to merge your overlay with the browser window whenever it displays one. So add this line to your <tt>chrome.manifest</tt> file:

overlay chrome://browser/content/browser.xul chrome://sample/content/sample.xul

This tells Firefox to merge <tt>sample.xul</tt> into <tt>browser.xul</tt> when <tt>browser.xul</tt> loads.

Test

First, we need to tell Firefox about your extension. In the bad old days of Firefox 1.0 this meant packaging your extension as a XPI and installing it through the user interface, which was a real pain. Now, it's much simpler.

  1. Open your Profile Folder http://kb.mozillazine.org/Profile_folder
  2. Open the extensions folder (create it if it doesn't exists)
  3. Create a new text file, and put the path to your extension folder inside, e.g. <tt>C:\extensions\myExtension\</tt>. Save the file with the id of your extension as its name, e.g. <tt>sample@foo.net</tt>

Now you're ready to test your extension!

Start Firefox. Firefox will detect the text link to your extension directory and install the Extension. When the browser window appears you should see the Hello, World! status bar panel.

You can now go back and make changes to the .xul file, close and restart Firefox and they should appear.

Package

Now that your extension works, you can package it for deployment and installation.

Zip up the contents of your extension's folder, and rename the zip file to have a .xpi extension. In Windows, you can do this easily by selecting all the files and subfolders in your extension folder, right click and choose "Send To -> Compressed (Zipped) Folder". A .zip file will be created for you. Just rename it and you're done!

Now upload the .xpi file to your server, making sure it's served as <tt>application/x-xpinstall</tt>. You can link to it and allow people to download and install it in Firefox.

Using addons.mozilla.org

Mozilla Update is a distribution site where you can host your extension for free. Your extension will be hosted on Mozilla's mirror network to guarantee your download even though it might be very popular. Mozilla's site also provides users easier installation, and will automatically make your newer versions available to users of your existing versions when you upload them. In addition Mozilla Update allows users to comment and provide feedback on your extension. It is highly recommended that you use Mozilla Update to distribute your extensions!

Visit http://addons.mozilla.org/developers/ to create an account and begin distributing your extensions!

Registering Extensions in the Windows Registry

On Windows, information about extensions can be added to the registry, and the extensions will automatically be picked up the next time the applications starts. This allows application installers to easily add integration hooks as extensions. See Adding Extensions using the Windows Registry for more information.

More on XUL Overlays

In addition to appending UI widgets to the merge point, you can use XUL fragments within Overlays to:

  • Modify attributes on the merge point, e.g. <tt><statusbar id="status-bar" hidden="true"/></tt> (hides the status bar)
  • Remove the merge point from the master document, e.g. <tt><statusbar id="status-bar" removeelement="true"/></tt>
  • Control the position of the inserted widgets:
<statusbarpanel position="1" .../>

<statusbarpanel insertbefore="other-id" .../>

<statusbarpanel insertafter="other-id" .../>

Creating New User Interface Components

You can create your own windows and dialog boxes as separate .xul files, provide functionality by implementing user actions in .js files, using DOM methods to manipulate UI widgets. You can use style rules in .css files to attach images, set colors etc.

View the XUL documentation for more resources for XUL developers.

Defaults Files

Defaults files that you use to seed a user's profile with should be placed in <tt>defaults/</tt> under the root of your extension's folder hierarchy. Default preferences .js files should be stored in <tt>defaults/preferences/</tt> - when you place them here they will be automatically loaded by Firefox's preferences system when it starts so that you can access them using the Preferences API.

XPCOM Components

Firefox supports XPCOM components in extensions. You can implement interfaces easily in JavaScript, or in C++ (using the Gecko SDK: http://wiki.mozilla.org/Gecko:SDK ).

Place all of your .js or .dll files in the <tt>components/</tt> directory - they are automatically registered the first time Firefox runs after your extension is installed.

Localization

To support more than one language, you should separate strings from your content using entities and string bundles. It is much easier to do this as you are developing your extension than to come back and do it later!

To create localizable attribute values in XUL, you put the values in a <tt>.ent</tt> (or a <tt>.dtd</tt>) file, which looks like this:

<!ENTITY  button.label     "Click Me!">
<!ENTITY  button.accesskey "C">

And then include it at the top of your XUL document like so:

<!DOCTYPE window SYSTEM "chrome://packagename/locale/filename.ent">

where window is the localName value of the root element of the XUL document, and the value of the <tt>SYSTEM</tt> property is the chrome URI to the entity file.

To use the entities, modify your XUL to look like this:

<button label="&button.label;" accesskey="&button.accesskey;"/>

The Chrome Registry will make sure the entity file is loaded from the localization bundle corresponding to the selected locale.

For strings that you use in script, create a .properties file, a text file that has a string on each line in this format:

key=value

and then use <tt>nsIStringBundleService</tt>/<tt>nsIStringBundle</tt> or the <tt><stringbundle></tt> tag to load the values into script.

Understanding the Browser

Use the DOM Inspector (not part of the Standard Firefox installation, you must reinstall with the Custom install path and choose Developer Tools if there is not a "DOM Inspector" item in your browser's Tools menu) to inspect the browser window or any other XUL window you want to extend.

Use the point-and-click node finder button at the top left of the DOM Inspector's toolbar to click on a node in the XUL window visually to select it. When you do this the DOM inspector's DOM hierarchy tree view will jump to the node you clicked on.

Use the DOM Inspector's right side panel to discover merge points with ids that you can use to insert your elements from overlays. If you cannot discover an element with an id that you can merge into, you may need to attach a script in your overlay and insert your elements when the <tt>load</tt> event fires on the master XUL window.

Debugging Extensions

Analytical Tools for Debugging

  • The DOM Inspector - inspect attributes, DOM structure, CSS style rules that are in effect (e.g. find out why your style rules don't seem to be working for an element - an invaluable tool!)
  • Venkman - set breakpoints in JavaScript and inspect call stacks
  • arguments.callee.caller in JavaScript - access a function's call stack

printf debugging

  • Run an optimized build of Firefox with <tt>-console</tt> at the command line and use dump("string")
  • Use <tt>nsIConsoleService</tt> to log to the Script console

Advanced debugging

  • Run a debug Firefox build and set breakpoints in Firefox itself, or your C++ components. For the experienced developer, this is often the fastest way to diagnose a problem.
{{ wiki.languages( { "de": "de/Erweiterung_erstellen", "en": "en/Building_an_Extension" } ) }}

Source de la révision

<p>
</p>
<h4 name="Introduction"> Introduction </h4>
<p>Ce tutoriel va vous montrer les étapes requises pour construire une extension très basique, qui ajoute un bouton contenant le texte "Salut, le monde !" à la barre d'état du navigateur Firefox.
</p><p><b>Note</b> Ce tutoriel traite de la construction d'extensions pour Firefox 1.5. D'autres tutoriaux existent pour construire des extensions destinées à des versions plus anciennes de Firefox.
</p>
<h4 name="Configurer_l.27environnement_de_d.C3.A9veloppement"> Configurer l'environnement de développement </h4>
<p>Les extensions sont packagées et distribuées dans des fichiers ZIP avec l'extension <tt>xpi</tt> (<i>prononcé “zippy”</i>). Le contenu d'un fichier XPI s'arrange de la manière suivante :
</p>
<pre class="eval">extension.xpi:
              /chrome/
              /chrome/chromeFiles/
              /chrome/chromeFiles/content/
              /components/
              /defaults/
              /defaults/preferences/
              chrome.manifest
              install.rdf
</pre>
<p>Par conséquent, il est plus facile de disposer vos fichiers sources avec une méthode similaire, à moins que vous ne vouliez écrire quelque Makefile ou script shell pour packager et zipper tous vos fichiers. Même si savez faire cela, les tests sont plus simples si vous arrangez vos fichiers de cette manière à cause d'une particularité du système d'ajout de Firefox 1.5.
</p><p>Bien, commençons. Créez une dossier pour votre extension quelque part sur votre disque dur, par exemple <tt>c:\extensions\myExtension\</tt>. Dans celui-ci, créez un autre dossier nommé <tt>chrome</tt>, à l'intérieur du dossier <tt>chrome</tt> créez un dossier nommé <tt>chromeFiles</tt> et dans ce dernier, créez un dossier nommé <tt>content</tt>. 
</p><p>A la racine du dossier de votre extension, au même niveau que le dossier <tt>chrome</tt>, créez deux nouveaux fichiers texte vides, l'un appelé <tt>chrome.manifest</tt> et l'autre appelé <tt>install.rdf</tt>.
</p>
<h4 name="Cr.C3.A9er_le_manifeste_d.27installation"> Créer le manifeste d'installation </h4>
<p>Ouvrez le fichier nommé <tt><a href="fr/Manifestes_d_installation">install.rdf</a></tt> que vous avez créé au premier niveau de la hiérarchie de dossiers de votre extension, et placez ceci à l'intérieur :
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;

&lt;RDF xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
     xmlns:em="http://www.mozilla.org/2004/em-rdf#"&gt;

  &lt;Description about="urn:mozilla:install-manifest"&gt;
    &lt;em:id&gt;<b>sample@foo.net</b>&lt;/em:id&gt;
    &lt;em:version&gt;<b>1.0</b>&lt;/em:version&gt;
    &lt;em:type&gt;2&lt;/em:type&gt;
   
    &lt;!-- L'application cible de votre extension, 
         avec les versions minimums et maximums supportées. --&gt; 
    &lt;em:targetApplication&gt;
      &lt;Description&gt;
        &lt;em:id&gt;<b>{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384}</b>&lt;/em:id&gt;
        &lt;em:minVersion&gt;<b>1.0+</b>&lt;/em:minVersion&gt;
        &lt;em:maxVersion&gt;<b>1.5</b>&lt;/em:maxVersion&gt;
      &lt;/Description&gt;
    &lt;/em:targetApplication&gt;
   
    &lt;!-- Front End MetaData --&gt;
    &lt;em:name&gt;<b>Exemple !</b>&lt;/em:name&gt;
    &lt;em:description&gt;<b>Une extension test</b>&lt;/em:description&gt;
    &lt;em:creator&gt;<b>Votre nom ici</b>&lt;/em:creator&gt;
    &lt;em:homepageURL&gt;<b>http://www.foo.com/</b>&lt;/em:homepageURL&gt;
  &lt;/Description&gt;      
&lt;/RDF&gt;
</pre>
<p><b>sample@foo.net</b> - L'ID de votre extension. C'est une valeur que vous inventez pour identifier votre extension dans un format d'adresse email. Il faut qu'il soit unique. Vous pouvez également utiliser un GUID. 
</p><p><b>{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384}</b> - L'ID de l'application Firefox.
</p><p><b>1.0+</b> - la version minimum de Firefox avec laquelle votre extension fonctionnera. C'est la version minimum avec laquelle vous vous engagez à tester et fixer les bogues.
</p><p><b>1.5</b> - La version maximum de Firefox avec laquelle votre extension fonctionnera. Elle ne doit pas être supérieure à la dernière version courante !
</p><p>Voir <a href="fr/Manifestes_d_installation">les manifestes d'installation</a> pour une liste complète des propriétés requises et optionnelles.
</p><p>Sauvegardez le fichier.
</p>
<h4 name="Modifier_le_navigateur_avec_XUL"> Modifier le navigateur avec XUL </h4>
<p>L'interface utilisateur de Firefox est écrite en XUL et Javascript. le <a href="fr/XUL">XUL</a> est une grammaire XML qui fournit des éléments d'interface comme des boutons, des menus, des barres d'outils, des arbres, etc. Les actions utilisateur sont liées à des fonctionnalités utilisant Javascript.
</p><p>Pour modifier le navigateur, nous remanions des parties de l'interface utilisateur (IU) du navigateur en en ajoutant ou modifiant des éléments. Nous ajoutons des éléments en insérant de nouveaux éléments DOM XUL dans la fenêtre du navigateur, et nous les modifions en utilisant des scripts et en attachant des gestionnaires d'événements.
</p><p>Le navigateur est implémenté dans un fichier XUL nommé <tt>browser.xul</tt>. Dans browser.xul, nous pouvons trouver la barre d'état, qui ressemble à quelque chose de ce genre :
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;statusbar id="status-bar"&gt;
 ... &lt;statusbarpanel&gt;s ...
&lt;/statusbar&gt;
</pre>
<p><tt>&lt;statusbar id="status-bar"&gt;</tt> est un "point de fusion" pour un overlay XUL.
</p>
<h5 name="Les_overlays_XUL"> Les overlays XUL </h5>
<p>Les overlays XUL sont un moyen d'attacher d'autres éléments d'IU à un document XUL au moment de l'exécution. Un overlay XUL est un fichier .xul qui spécifie des fragments de XUL à insérer dans des points de fusion spécifiques au sein d'un document "maître". Ces fragments peuvent spécifier des élements d'interface à insérer, supprimer ou modifier.
</p><p><b>Exemple de document overlay XUL</b>
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;
&lt;overlay id="sample" 
         xmlns="http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul"&gt;
 &lt;statusbar id="<b>status-bar</b>"&gt;
  &lt;statusbarpanel id="my-panel" label="Salut, le monde"/&gt;
 &lt;/statusbar&gt;
&lt;/overlay&gt;
</pre>
<p>Le <tt>&lt;statusbar&gt;</tt> nommé <tt><b>status-bar</b></tt> spécifie le "point de fusion" auquel nous voulons nous fixer, au sein de la fenêtre du navigateur.
</p><p>L'enfant <tt>&lt;statusbarpanel&gt;</tt> est un nouvel élément d'interface qui nous voulons insérer au sein du point de fusion.
</p><p>Prenez l'exemple de code ci-dessus et enregistrez le dans un fichier nommé  <tt><b>sample.xul</b></tt> dans le dossier <tt>chrome/chromeFiles/content</tt> que vous avez créé.
</p><p>Voir plus bas pour plus d'informations au sujet de la fusion d'éléments d'interface et de la modification d'interface utilisateur en utilisant des overlays.
</p>
<h4 name="Chrome_URIs"> Chrome URIs </h4>
<p>XUL files are part of "Chrome Packages" - bundles of user interface components which are loaded via <tt>chrome://</tt> URIs. Rather than load the browser from disk using a <tt>file://</tt> URI (since the location of Firefox on the system can change from platform to platform and system to system), Mozilla developers came up with a solution for creating URIs to XUL content that the installed application knows about. 
</p><p>The browser is: <tt>chrome://browser/content/browser.xul</tt> Try typing this URL into the location bar in Firefox!
</p><p>Chrome URIs consist of several components:
</p>
<ul><li> Firstly, the <b>URI scheme</b> (<tt>chrome</tt>) which tells Firefox's networking library that this is a Chrome URI and that content being loaded from one needs to be handled specially. 
</li><li> Secondly, a package name (in the example above, <tt><b>browser</b></tt>) which identifies the bundle of user interface components. This should be as unique to your application as possible to avoid collisions between extensions. 
</li><li> Thirdly, the type of data being requested. There are three types: <tt>content</tt> (XUL, JavaScript, XML XBL bindings etc that form the structure and behavior of an application UI), <tt>locale</tt> (DTD, .properties files etc that contain strings for the UI's localization), and <tt>skin</tt> (CSS and images that form the theme of the UI)
</li><li> Finally, a file name to load. 
</li></ul>
<p>So, <tt>chrome://foo/skin/bar.png</tt> loads the file <tt>bar.png</tt> from <tt>foo</tt>'s theme <tt>skin</tt> section. 
</p><p>When you load content using a Chrome URI, Firefox uses the Chrome Registry to translate these URIs into the actual source files on disk (or in JAR packages).
</p>
<h4 name="Create_a_Chrome_Manifest"> Create a Chrome Manifest </h4>
<p>For more information on Chrome Manifests and the properties they support, see the <a href="fr/Chrome_Manifest">Chrome Manifest</a> Reference.
</p><p>Open the file called <tt><b>chrome.manifest</b></tt> that you created alongside the <tt>chrome</tt> directory at the root of your extension's source folder hierarchy. 
</p><p>Add in this code:
</p>
<pre class="eval">content     sample    chrome/chromeFiles/content/
</pre>
<p>This specifies the:
</p>
<ol><li> type of material within a chrome package
</li><li> name of the chrome package
</li><li> location of the chrome packages' files
</li></ol>
<p>So, this line says that for a chrome package <b>sample</b>, we can find its <b>content</b> files at the location <tt>chrome/chromeFiles/content</tt> which is a path relative to the location of <tt>chrome.manifest</tt>. 
</p><p>Note that content, locale and skin files must be kept inside folders called content, locale and skin within your <tt>chrome</tt> subdirectory.
</p><p>Save the file. When you launch Firefox with your extension, this will register the chrome package.
</p>
<h4 name="Register_an_Overlay"> Register an Overlay </h4>
<p>You need Firefox to merge your overlay with the browser window whenever it displays one. So add this line to your <tt>chrome.manifest</tt> file:
</p>
<pre class="eval">overlay chrome://browser/content/browser.xul chrome://sample/content/sample.xul
</pre>
<p>This tells Firefox to merge <tt>sample.xul</tt> into <tt>browser.xul</tt> when <tt>browser.xul</tt> loads.
</p>
<h4 name="Test"> Test </h4>
<p>First, we need to tell Firefox about your extension. In the bad old days of Firefox 1.0 this meant packaging your extension as a XPI and installing it through the user interface, which was a real pain. Now, it's much simpler. 
</p>
<ol><li> Open your Profile Folder http://kb.mozillazine.org/Profile_folder
</li><li> Open the <b>extensions</b> folder (create it if it doesn't exists)
</li><li> Create a new text file, and put the path to your extension folder inside, e.g. <tt>C:\extensions\myExtension\</tt>. Save the file with the id of your extension as its name, e.g. <tt>sample@foo.net</tt>
</li></ol>
<p>Now you're ready to test your extension!
</p><p>Start Firefox. Firefox will detect the text link to your extension directory and install the Extension. When the browser window appears you should see the Hello, World! status bar panel. 
</p><p>You can now go back and make changes to the .xul file, close and restart Firefox and they should appear.
</p>
<h4 name="Package"> Package </h4>
<p>Now that your extension works, you can package it for deployment and installation. 
</p><p>Zip up the contents of your extension's folder, and rename the zip file to have a .xpi extension. In Windows, you can do this easily by selecting all the files and subfolders in your extension folder, right click and choose "Send To -&gt; Compressed (Zipped) Folder". A .zip file will be created for you. Just rename it and you're done!
</p><p>Now upload the .xpi file to your server, making sure it's served as <tt>application/x-xpinstall</tt>. You can link to it and allow people to download and install it in Firefox. 
</p>
<h5 name="Using_addons.mozilla.org"> Using addons.mozilla.org </h5>
<p>Mozilla Update is a distribution site where you can host your extension for free. Your extension will be hosted on Mozilla's mirror network to guarantee your download even though it might be very popular. Mozilla's site also provides users easier installation, and will automatically make your newer versions available to users of your existing versions when you upload them. In addition Mozilla Update allows users to comment and provide feedback on your extension. It is highly recommended that you use Mozilla Update to distribute your extensions!
</p><p>Visit http://addons.mozilla.org/developers/ to create an account and begin distributing your extensions!
</p>
<h5 name="Registering_Extensions_in_the_Windows_Registry"> Registering Extensions in the Windows Registry </h5>
<p>On Windows, information about extensions can be added to the registry, and the extensions will automatically be picked up the next time the applications starts. This allows application installers to easily add integration hooks as extensions. See <a href="fr/Adding_Extensions_using_the_Windows_Registry">Adding Extensions using the Windows Registry</a> for more information.
</p>
<h4 name="More_on_XUL_Overlays"> More on XUL Overlays </h4>
<p>In addition to appending UI widgets to the merge point, you can use XUL fragments within Overlays to:
</p>
<ul><li> Modify attributes on the merge point, e.g. <tt>&lt;statusbar id="status-bar" hidden="true"/&gt;</tt> (hides the status bar)
</li><li> Remove the merge point from the master document, e.g. <tt>&lt;statusbar id="status-bar" removeelement="true"/&gt;</tt>
</li><li> Control the position of the inserted widgets:
</li></ul>
<pre class="eval">&lt;statusbarpanel position="1" .../&gt;

&lt;statusbarpanel insertbefore="other-id" .../&gt;

&lt;statusbarpanel insertafter="other-id" .../&gt;
</pre>
<h4 name="Creating_New_User_Interface_Components"> Creating New User Interface Components </h4>
<p>You can create your own windows and dialog boxes as separate .xul files, provide functionality by implementing user actions in .js files, using DOM methods to manipulate UI widgets. You can use style rules in .css files to attach images, set colors etc.
</p><p>View the <a href="fr/XUL">XUL</a> documentation for more resources for XUL developers.
</p>
<h4 name="Defaults_Files"> Defaults Files </h4>
<p>Defaults files that you use to seed a user's profile with should be placed in <tt>defaults/</tt> under the root of your extension's folder hierarchy. Default preferences .js files should be stored in <tt>defaults/preferences/</tt> - when you place them here they will be automatically loaded by Firefox's preferences system when it starts so that you can access them using the Preferences API.
</p>
<h4 name="XPCOM_Components"> XPCOM Components </h4>
<p>Firefox supports <a href="fr/XPCOM">XPCOM</a> components in extensions. You can implement interfaces easily in JavaScript, or in C++ (using the Gecko SDK: http://wiki.mozilla.org/Gecko:SDK ). 
</p><p>Place all of your .js or .dll files in the <tt>components/</tt> directory - they are automatically registered the first time Firefox runs after your extension is installed.
</p>
<h4 name="Localization"> Localization </h4>
<p>To support more than one language, you should separate strings from your content using entities and string bundles. It is much easier to do this as you are developing your extension than to come back and do it later!
</p><p>To create localizable attribute values in XUL, you put the values in a <tt>.ent</tt> (or a <tt>.dtd</tt>) file, which looks like this:
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;!ENTITY  button.label     "Click Me!"&gt;
&lt;!ENTITY  button.accesskey "C"&gt;
</pre>
<p>And then include it at the top of your XUL document like so:
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;!DOCTYPE <b>window</b> SYSTEM "chrome://packagename/locale/filename.ent"&gt;
</pre>
<p>where <code><b>window</b></code> is the <code><a href="fr/DOM/element.localName">localName</a></code> value of the root element of the XUL document, and the value of the <tt>SYSTEM</tt> property is the chrome URI to the entity file. 
</p><p>To use the entities, modify your XUL to look like this:
</p>
<pre class="eval">&lt;button label="&amp;button.label;" accesskey="&amp;button.accesskey;"/&gt;
</pre>
<p>The Chrome Registry will make sure the entity file is loaded from the localization bundle corresponding to the selected locale. 
</p><p>For strings that you use in script, create a .properties file, a text file that has a string on each line in this format:
</p>
<pre class="eval">key=value
</pre>
<p>and then use <tt>nsIStringBundleService</tt>/<tt>nsIStringBundle</tt> or the <tt>&lt;stringbundle&gt;</tt> tag to load the values into script.
</p>
<h4 name="Understanding_the_Browser"> Understanding the Browser </h4>
<p>Use the DOM Inspector (not part of the <b>Standard</b> Firefox installation, you must reinstall with the Custom install path and choose <b>Developer Tools</b> if there is not a "DOM Inspector" item in your browser's Tools menu) to inspect the browser window or any other XUL window you want to extend. 
</p><p>Use the point-and-click node finder button at the top left of the DOM Inspector's toolbar to click on a node in the XUL window visually to select it. When you do this the DOM inspector's DOM hierarchy tree view will jump to the node you clicked on. 
</p><p>Use the DOM Inspector's right side panel to discover merge points with ids that you can use to insert your elements from overlays. If you cannot discover an element with an id that you can merge into, you may need to attach a script in your overlay and insert your elements when the <tt>load</tt> event fires on the master XUL window.
</p>
<h4 name="Debugging_Extensions"> Debugging Extensions </h4>
<p><b>Analytical Tools for Debugging</b>
</p>
<ul><li> The <a href="fr/DOM_Inspector">DOM Inspector</a> - inspect attributes, DOM structure, CSS style rules that are in effect (e.g. find out why your style rules don't seem to be working for an element - an invaluable tool!)
</li><li> <a href="fr/Venkman">Venkman</a> - set breakpoints in JavaScript and inspect call stacks
</li><li> <code><a href="fr/Core_JavaScript_1.5_Reference/Objects/Function/arguments/callee">arguments.callee</a>.<a href="fr/Core_JavaScript_1.5_Reference/Objects/Function/caller">caller</a></code> in JavaScript - access a function's call stack
</li></ul>
<p><b>printf debugging</b>
</p>
<ul><li> Run an optimized build of Firefox with <tt>-console</tt> at the command line and use <code><a href="fr/Window.dump">dump</a>("string")</code>
</li><li> Use <tt><a href="fr/NsIConsoleService">nsIConsoleService</a></tt> to log to the Script console
</li></ul>
<p><b>Advanced debugging</b>
</p>
<ul><li> Run a debug Firefox build and set breakpoints in Firefox itself, or your C++ components. For the experienced developer, this is often the fastest way to diagnose a problem.
</li></ul>
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