writing-mode

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The writing-mode attribute specifies whether the initial inline-progression-direction for a <text> element shall be left-to-right, right-to-left, or top-to-bottom. The writing-mode attribute applies only to <text> elements; the attribute is ignored for <tspan>, <tref>, <altGlyph> and <textPath> sub-elements. (Note that the inline-progression-direction can change within a <text> element due to the Unicode bidirectional algorithm and properties direction and unicode-bidi.

Note: As a presentation attribute, writing-mode can be used as a CSS property. See the css writing-mode property for more information.

As a presentation attribute, it can be applied to any element but it has effect only on the following five elements: <altGlyph>, <text>, <textPath>, <tref>, and <tspan>

Usage notes

Default value horizontal-tb
Value horizontal-tb | vertical-rl | vertical-lr
Animatable Yes
horizontal-tb
This value defines a top-to-bottom block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are horizontal.
vertical-rl
This value defines a right-to-left block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are vertical.
vertical-lr
This value defines a left-to-right block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are vertical.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3
The definition of 'writing-mode' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Definition in CSS Writing Modes 3
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2
The definition of 'writing-mode' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Mainly refers to the definition in CSS Writing Modes 3 and defines a mapping between the deprecated SVG 1.1 values and the new values.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition)
The definition of 'writing-mode' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
writing-modeChrome ? Edge ? Firefox ? IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown

See also