Los resultados de tu búsqueda

    Localización y Plurales

    Imagen:traduccion-pendiente.png Esta página está traduciéndose a partir del artículo Localization_and Plurals, razón por la cual puede haber algunos errores sintácticos o partes sin traducir. Puedes colaborar continuando con la traducción


    Probablemente estas aquí porque estás localizando un archivo .properties el cual poseía un enlace a esta página. Esta página explica cómo localizar esas cadenas para mostrar la forma plural correcta al usuario. Por ejemplo, "una página" contra "dos páginas".

    Si estás aquí para hacer tu código (por ejemplo, una extensión) localizable para formas plurales, puedes ir directo aDesarrollar con Formas Plurales, pero probablemente necesitarás localizar las cadenas iniciales de tu código, por lo que será bueno que leas al menos hasta la sección Uso inclusive.

    Uso

    Aquí hay un par de términos usados en esta página para ayudar a mantener la claridad:

    • regla plural: Para un lenguaje dado, existe una regla gramatical que determina la forma en que cambiarán las palabras, y ello variará según el número que califique a esa palabra. Lenguajes diferentes pueden tener diferentes reglas.
    • Forma Plural: Para una regla plural en particular, pueden existir múltiples formas de una palabra, tales como "página" y "páginas". Es este caso hay 2 formas, pero otros lenguajes pueden tener una o más.

    Si estas aquí por las <tt>Reglas Plurales</tt> en el archivo <tt>chrome/global/intl.properties</tt> , necesitarás averiguar qué regla plural elegir para tu localización. Esta regla plurall se usa para determinar cuántas formas plurales se necesitan para cada palabra que necesita ser localizada teniendo en cuenta los plurales.

    Para todos los otros archivos de propiedades (properties files) que enlacen a esta página, necesitarás proveer sucifientes formas plurales de la palabra deseada y separarlas con punto y coma (;). Si no sabes cuántas formas plurales necesitas, revisa el número <tt>Regla Plural</tt> en <tt>chrome/global/intl.properties</tt> y búsca la entrada correspondiente en la siguiente lista de reglas plurales.

    Lista de Reglas Plurales

    Esta sección contiene una lista de reglas plurales ordenada por su número de regla plural. Cada entrada indica cuántas formas plurales se necesitan cuando se localiza una palabra. Para cada entrada, existe una lista de familias y lenguajes en esas familias para ayudarte a decidir si esa es la regla que deves elegir como <tt>Regla Plural</tt>. Además, hay una breve descripción de cada forma plural seguida de algunos números de ejemplo que caen dentro de esa forma particular.

    Para una regla plural dada, el orden en que las formas plurales son listadas es el mismo orden que necesitas para localizar una palabra, separado por punto y coma. Por ejemplo el inglés usa la regla plural 1, luego localizar <tt>plurales</tt> requeriría cadenas como "plural;plurales" donde la primer palabra es la forma singulas y la segunda es la forma plural general.

    Plural rule #0 (1 form)

    Families: Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese), Turkic/Altaic (Turkish), Thai
    everything: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, …

    Plural rule #1 (2 forms)

    Families: Germanic (Danish, Dutch, English, Faroese, Frisian, German, Norwegian, Swedish), Finno-Ugric (Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian), Language isolate (Basque), Latin/Greek (Greek), Semitic (Hebrew), Romanic (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan)
    is 1: 1
    everything else: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, …

    Plural rule #2 (2 forms)

    Families: Romanic (French, Brazilian Portuguese)
    is 0 or 1: 0, 1
    everything else: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, …

    Plural rule #3 (3 forms)

    Families: Baltic (Latvian)
    is 0: 0
    ends in 1, not 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
    everything else: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, …

    Plural rule #4 (3 forms)

    Families: Celtic (Scottish Gaelic)
    is 1: 1
    is 2: 2
    everything else: 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, …

    Plural rule #5 (3 forms)

    Families: Romanic (Romanian)
    is 1: 1
    is 0 or ends in 01-19: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, …
    everything else: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, …

    Plural rule #6 (3 forms)

    Families: Baltic (Lithuanian)
    ends in 1, not 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
    ends in 0 or ends in 10-20: 0, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, …
    everything else: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, …

    Plural rule #7 (3 forms)

    Families: Slavic (Croatian, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian)
    ends in 1, not 11: 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
    ends in 2-4, not 12-14: 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 42, 43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 74, 82, 83, 84, 92, 93, 94, 102, 103, 104, 122, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 152, 153, 154, 162, 163, 164, 172, 173, 174, 182, 183, …
    everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, …

    Plural rule #8 (3 forms)

    Families: Slavic (Slovak, Czech)
    is 1: 1
    is 2-4: 2, 3, 4
    everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, …

    Plural rule #9 (3 forms)

    Families: Slavic (Polish)
    is 1: 1
    ends in 2-4, not 12-14: 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 42, 43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 74, 82, 83, 84, 92, 93, 94, 102, 103, 104, 122, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 152, 153, 154, 162, 163, 164, 172, 173, 174, 182, 183, …
    everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67, 68, …

    Plural rule #10 (4 forms)

    Families: Slavic (Slovenian, Sorbian)
    ends in 01: 1, 101, 201, …
    ends in 02: 2, 102, 202, …
    ends in 03-04: 3, 4, 103, 104, 203, 204, …
    everything else: 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, …

    Plural rule #11 (5 forms)

    Families: Celtic (Irish Gaeilge)
    is 1: 1
    is 2: 2
    is 3-6: 3, 4, 5, 6
    is 7-10: 7, 8, 9, 10
    everything else: 0, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, …

    Plural rule #12 (4 forms)

    Families: Semitic (Arabic)
    is 1: 1
    is 2: 2
    is 0 or 3-10: 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
    everything else: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, …

    Plural rule #13 (4 forms)

    Families: Semitic (Maltese)
    is 1: 1
    is 0 or ends in 01-10: 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, …
    ends in 11-19: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, …
    everything else: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, …

    Plural rule #14 (3 forms)

    Families: Slavic (Macedonian)
    ends in 1: 1, 11, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, 101, 111, 121, 131, 141, 151, 161, 171, 181, 191, 201, 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 271, 281, 291, …
    ends in 2: 2, 12, 22, 32, 42, 52, 62, 72, 82, 92, 102, 112, 122, 132, 142, 152, 162, 172, 182, 192, 202, 212, 222, 232, 242, 252, 262, 272, 282, 292, …
    everything else: 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, …

    Examples

    The following are some examples for various languages and a brief thought processes.

    French

    Some French speaking places treat 0 as plural while others treat it as singular. The only other singular is 1 while everything else is plural. So pick either plural rule #1 or #2.

    pluralRule=2
    seconds=seconde;secondes
    minutes=minute;minutes
    hours=heure;heures
    days=jour;jours

    Like many other times when localizing words, gender agreement might force you to rearrange words in a way that the gender is always the same. (seconde vs jour)

    Chinese

    A word doesn't change if there is a different number in front of it, so all numbers use the same plural form. With just one plural form, it has to be plural rule #0. For each word to localize, it's just like localizing a single word with no semi-colons needed.

    pluralRule=0
    seconds=?
    minutes=?
    hours=?
    days=?

    Polish

    There's a singular form for 1, a plural form for 2-4, and another for 5-21 at which point 22 is the same as 2. Plural rule #7 has a "ends in 2-4, not 12-14" but the singular form includes everything ending in 1 except 11. Plural rule #9 has the correct singular form for only 1.

    pluralRule=9
    seconds=sekunda;sekundy;sekund
    minutes=minuta;minuty;minut
    hours=godzina;godziny;godzin
    days=dzien;dni;dni

    Even though the last 2 plural forms of "day" are the same, both are still needed because there needs to be 3 plural forms for each word.

    Sorbian

    There are 4 plural forms: nominative singular, nominative dual, nominative plural, genitive plural. These match up with plural rule #10.

    pluralRule=10
    seconds=sekunda;sekundze;sekundy;sekundow
    minutes=mjenšina;mjenšinje;mjenšiny;mjenšin
    hours=hodzina;hodzinje;hodziny;hodzin
    days=dzen;dnjej;dny;dnjow

    Testing Extension

    To help make sure you pick the right plural rule and provide enough plural forms for strings, you should use the pluralForm Checker extension. After installing the extension, it should be available from the Tools menu.

    To use it, list off the property files and properties that you want to check and click the button. The extension will load each property and display the plural forms in a table. Selecting a table entry will populate the bottom box with sample uses of the word for some numbers.

    Image:pluralForm-checker.0.3.png

    Install pluralForm Checker v0.3 extension

    Extension input

    It would be good to keep this list updated with all the words that need plural forms. People using the extension can then copy/paste this input.

    chrome://mozapps/locale/downloads/do...tes,hours,days
    chrome://mozapps/locale/downloads/do...dsTitlePercent
    chrome://browser/locale/browser.prop...ausedDownloads

    Version history

    0.1: Initial version with pluralRule check, properties input loading, table generation, sample output display
    0.2: Use PluralForm.numForms() to get the number of forms instead of figuring out locally to better support future rules - Requires build from 2007/01/27 or later
    0.3: Generate a list of what numbers fall into which plural form to minimize the sample output to at most 3 of each form

    Desarrollar con Formas Plurales

    The functionality for getting the correct plural forms is provided by a JavaScript Module, <tt>PluralForm.jsm</tt>. This module provides a couple methods for localizing to the browser's current locale as well as getting methods to localize to a desired plural rule. The latter ability of specifying a plural rule is useful for extensions because the extension doesn't necessarily have to be localized to the browser's locale.

    Loading <tt>PluralForm.jsm</tt>

    Loading the PluralForm module from JavaScript is simple with Components.utils.import. Just put the following line somewhere that will be evaluated before you want to use PluralForm. At the top of your JavaScript file is fine.

    Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");

    Methods: <tt>get</tt> and <tt>numForms</tt>

    These methods make use of the browser's current locale specified by <tt>chrome://global/locale/intl.properties</tt>'s <tt>pluralRule</tt> value.

    /**
     * Get the correct plural form of a word based on the number
     *
     * @param aNum
     *        The number to decide which plural form to use
     * @param aWords
     *        A semi-colon (;) separated string of words to pick the plural form
     * @return The appropriate plural form of the word
     */
    string pluralForm
    get(int aNum, string aWords)
    /**
     * Get the number of forms for the current plural rule
     *
     * @return The number of forms
     */
    int numForms
    numForms()

    Here is an example of using these methods:

    // Load PluralForm and for this example, assume English
    Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");
    
    // PluralForm.get expects a semi-colon separated list of words
    let forms = "form;forms";
    // We're going to pick the correct plural form based on the following number
    let numForms = PluralForm.numForms();
    
    // Display the correct plural form for "forms"
    print("This locale has " + numForms + " " + PluralForm.get(numForms, forms) + ".");
    

    The above example works, but is still difficult to localize because we're concatenating strings assuming a particular grammatical structure. The following would be better:

    Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");
    
    let forms = "This locale has one form.;This locale has #1 forms.";
    let numForms = PluralForm.numForms();
    
    // For English, this would display "This locale has 2 forms."
    print(PluralForm.get(numForms, forms).replace("#1", numForms);

    Notice in the above example that the code can be written to support placeholders or not use placeholders in some forms of the string. Additionally, the localizer has control over where the placeholder is in relation to the rest of the text.

    Of course, the strings to be localized will be placed in a separate file such as yourextension.properties instead of being hardcoded in the JavaScript code file.

    The following 3 file snippets show how to use PluralForm with your <tt>.xul</tt>, <tt>.properties</tt>, <tt>.js</tt> files.

    <tt>downloads.xul</tt>:

    <stringbundleset>
      <stringbundle id="strings" src="chrome://downloads.properties"/>
    </stringbundleset>

    <tt>downloads.properties</tt>:

    # LOCALIZATION NOTE (downloadsTitleFiles): Semi-colon list of plural forms.
    # See: http://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Localization_and_Plurals
    # #1 number of files
    # example: 111 files - Downloads
    downloadsTitleFiles=#1 file - Downloads;#1 files - Downloads
    
    # LOCALIZATION NOTE (timePair): #1 time number; #2 time unit
    # example: 1 second; 11 seconds
    timePair=#1 #2
    seconds=second;seconds

    <tt>downloads.js</tt>:

    Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");
    let getStr = function(string) document.getElementById("strings").getString(string);
    
    // Get the correct plural form for the title
    let numDownloads = 3;
    let title = PluralForm.get(numDownloads, getStr("downloadsTitleFiles"));
    // Put in the correct number of downloads
    print(title.replace("#1", numDownloads));
    
    // Get the correct plural form of seconds
    let timeLeft = 55;
    let seconds = PluralForm.get(timeLeft, getStr("seconds"));
    // Print the localized string for "55 seconds"
    print(getStr("timePair").replace("#1", timeLeft).replace("#2", seconds));

    Method: <tt>makeGetter</tt>

    If you're writing an extension, you'll want to use <tt>makeGetter</tt> instead of <tt>PluralForm.get()</tt> or <tt>PluralForm.numForms()</tt> because someone installing the extension on a different locale will be using the strings provided by your default extension locale. For example, your extension localized for English with plural rule #1, which expects 2 plural forms, is installed on a localized version of Firefox with plural rule #4, which expects 3 forms.

    /**
     * Create a pair of plural form functions for the given plural rule number.
     *
     * @param aRuleNum
     *        The plural rule number to create functions
     * @return A pair: [function that gets the right plural form,
     *                  function that returns the number of plural forms]
     */ 
    [string pluralForm get(int aNum, string aWords), int numForms numForms()]
    makeGetter(int aRuleNum)

    Here is an example usage of <tt>makeGetter</tt>:

    Components.utils.import("resource://gre/modules/PluralForm.jsm");
    
    // Let's get Irish (plural rule #11)
    let [get, numForms] = PluralForm.makeGetter(11);
    
    // Make up some values to use with "get"
    let dummyText = "form 1;form 2;form 3;form 4;form 5";
    let dummyNum = 10;
    
    // In the case of Irish, the value 10 uses plural form #4, so "form 4" is printed
    print(get(dummyNum, dummyText));

    In this example, the Irish plural rule was hardcoded, but this could be a value specified in the .properties file. So for your extension, specify a pluralRule value in the .properties and call <tt>PluralForm.makeGetter(pluralRuleFromProperties)</tt> making sure to save the 2 returned functions. (You can use destructured assignment in JavaScript 1.7 to keep things clean.) The returned functions act just like <tt>PluralForm.get()</tt> and <tt>PluralForm.numForms()</tt> except for the specified plural rule instead of the default plural rule.

    Credits

    Plural Form code first implemented for bug 394516 - Figure out a remaining-time rounding scheme for minutes -> hours/days
    Plural rules and families derived from GNU <tt>gettext</tt> documentation.


    Etiquetas y colaboradores del documento

    Colaboradores de esta página: Mariano, Mgjbot
    Última actualización por: Mgjbot,