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Starting the Debugger
If you don't already have Venkman or would like to upgrade, you can easily get the latest version from Firefox Add-ons. The installation process is two steps. First, from within the browser you want to host the debugger application, visit the Firefox Add-ons page and click on the "install" link for the most recent version. When the download is complete, restart your browser (some Windows users may also need to restart their computer as well). You can then access the debugger via a new, dynamically created menuitem in the Tools menu of that browser, or else restart the browser with a special debugger option.
To see which version of Venkman you have, type
/version in the Interactive Session view. For more information about the latest improvements and versions, see the Venkman Development Page.
There are two ways to start the debugger:
- You can also start the browser with the
-venkmancommand line option, which launches Venkman initially instead of an application front end.
(Note that Venkman displays usage data when it starts up: "Recorded local startup X, global YYY." This data comes from a counter built in to the application. For more information about this counter and the data, see Item 2.2 in the Venkman FAQ.)
The menubar, toolbar, and all of the views can be collapsed or hidden, giving you a lot of control over the debugging environment. The Source Code View is empty until you select a script, and The Interactive Session View starts up with basic startup information.
Each of the views has a label, a float button that lets you display the view in its own window, and a close button that puts the view away until you want to display it again, as seen in Figure 2.
The following section describes these views and their use within the interface as a whole.
Getting Acquainted with Venkman's User Interface
The Continue button to the right of the Stop button dismisses the Stop mode and specifies that scripts should be executed normally, without pausing as each statement is executed.
The Pretty Print button toggles Pretty Print mode. While in Pretty Print mode, the contents of the source view will contain the decompiled source text for the selected function. This is the same text you would get from the
toSource method of the
Function prototype. If the source text you are debugging is poorly formatted, Pretty Print can help make it easier to read by inserting line breaks and whitespace in appropriate places.
When Pretty Print is enabled you will see a green check mark on the toolbar button, and the menu item will be checked as well.
The Loaded Scripts View
The Loaded Scripts View is in the top left portion of the window. When a file is loaded by the browser it will appear in this view, and when unloaded it will be removed. Files are listed in alphabetical order, grouped by file type. File names are displayed after a color coded, single letter icon representing the file extension. Figure 6 shows the table of icon and file types. At the time if this writing, the order and grouping of file names cannot be changed.
|All other files|
Icons in the Script View
The "special" function name
__toplevel__ is displayed for scripts that are not part of an actual function. Clicking on a file name brings you to the top of that file, while clicking on a function name brings you to the start of that function.
The Line column in this view displays the line number that this function starts on. The column picker for this view (the box on the top right) can be used to display a Length column. This column displays the size of functions, in lines. Both the Line and Length column are blank for file names.
If a function has a breakpoint in it, a small red dot will show up in the function icon, as well as the parent's file icon.
The Local Variables View
The Local Variables view is on the left portion of the window, at the bottom. When the debugger is stopped, the Local Variables view displays values for the current function. The
scope object holds all arguments and local variables, and the
this object holds the value of the
|r||Read Only property|
|p||Permanent (cannot be |
|A||Alias to another property|
|a||Argument to a function|
|v||Declared with |
Figure 8. Property flags
Properties of both
this objects are listed alphabetically, grouped by data type. Figure 9 shows which icons represent which data types.
Properties which are of the type
Object are displayed with the name of their constructor function in curly braces as their value. You can locate the source code of the constructor by selecting "Find Constructor" from the property's context menu. You can find the place where the object was instantiated with the "Find Creator" command. By default, properties of type
function are not displayed, in order to conserve space in the view. If you would like to have functions displayed, check the "Include Functions" menu item in the view's context menu. You may need to close and re-open any objects you had open to see the change.
Properties that show up in a bold grey font are defined on an object from the prototype chain, and not on the actual object you are inspecting. If you would like to inspect the object's prototype and parent chains, check the "Include ECMA Properties" menu item in the view's context menu. If a property shows up in a bold red font, an exception occurred when Venkman tried to read the value. The exception object will appear as the value of the property.
|Icon||Data Type||Icon||Data Type|
|Void (undefined) value||Null value|
|Boolean value||String value|
|Integer value||Double value|
|Object value||Function value|
Figure 9. Type Icons
The column picker for this view (the box on the top right) can be used to display Type and Flags columns. The Type column contains a textual description of the type of the object. Flags lists one or more applicable flags for this object. Flags are shown enumerated in Figure 8.
If an item visible in the Local Variables View is modified via the Interactive Session View the modification will be immediately reflected in the Local Variable View.
At the time of this writing, the Local Variables View's default sort order and grouping are not adjustable.
The Call Stack View
The Call Stack View is on the left portion of the window by default, at the bottom. When the debugger is stopped, the Call Stack View displays the list of active functions. The function at the top of the Call Stack View is the one in which the debugger stopped, the function below it is the caller, below that is the caller's caller, and so on. These items are referred to as stack frames.
Double-clicking on a stack frame will change the "current" frame. This will cause the source of function to be displayed in the Source Code view, the Local Variables view will change to display variables local to the selected stack frame, and script evaluated in the Interactive Session view will be relative to the selected frame.
If you would like to copy the current call stack to the clipboard, select "Dump Stack to Interactive Session" from the context menu, or type
/where in the Interactive Session view. You may then copy the text from the Interactive Session view.
If you would like to keep Venkman from stopping in a particular stack frame in the future, check "Don't Debug" from the stack frame's context menu.
Source Code View
The Source Code View is a read-only file viewer. Files and specific functions within them can be displayed by selecting the appropriate file or function name in the Script View.
When script execution is interrupted by the debugger, the line of the file where the interruption occurred is automatically displayed in the Source Code View. The line in question will be highlighted in yellow to make it easy to spot.
Clicking in the left margin of this view will set a breakpoint at that line. If the breakpoint is successfully set, the margin will show the letter "B" on a red background, and both the Loaded Scripts View and Interactive Session View will provide feedback. The breakpoint can be cleared by clicking in the margin again (on the letter "B"). Breakpoints cannot be set on lines which do not contain executable code, such as blank and comment lines. For these lines, the Interactive Session View will display an error message explaining why the breakpoint could not be set.
Breakpoints can also be set and cleared from the Interactive Session View, with the
fbreak commands. The
break command takes a file pattern and line number. Any loaded file which matches the file pattern, and contains an executable line at the requested line number will have a breakpoint set. If no loaded files match the file pattern or line number, an error message is printed to the console and the command fails. The
fbreak command is identical, with the exception that if no files match the pattern or line, a "future breakpoint" is recorded. The next time a file is loaded that matches the pattern and line, a breakpoint will be set. In this way,
fbreak allows one to set breakpoints in files that are not yet loaded, as well as set breakpoints that are triggered when a file is loaded.
The Interactive Session View
Another basic view in Venkman is the actual Interactive Session View, which allows you to interact with the debugger from a command line.
Commands are entered in the text box, and responses are appended to the end of the output. Type
/commands in the input area (the text box) to list all of the commands available. The
/help command can be used to get additional information about a specific command. You can type
/help next, for example, to see how to use the next command.
The input area supports command history and tab-completion for command names. Command history remembers the last 20 commands entered. The up and down arrows can be used to revisit these previous commands. Tab completion allows the user to type the first portion of a command, and press tab twice to see possible completions. If only one command matches, it will be auto-completed on the first tab.
Venkman offers nearly complete control over the arrangement and display of views within the application. The debugger is built on top of an application framework that allows you to drag and drop, resize, and toggle all the available views, and even to create new views or modules for the debugger if you choose—though this latter is an advanced topic and a subject for a future article.
To remove a view from Venkman, simply click the Close button at the top right of that view. When the view again becomes necessary—for example, when you open a source file from the Loaded Scripts view and want to view the source—the view reappears where it was last positioned. To make a view reappear explicitly, select it from the View->Show/Hide menu of the debugger. You can also make views float in their own separate windows. To make a view float, click the float button in the upper left of that view.
You can access any of the basic views from the Show/Hide submenu of the View menu. The list displayed there includes all of the basic views in Venkman. As you change which views are displayed and where in the UI they appear, your preferences are stored and persisted across sessions.
Loading Scripts into the Debugger
This section provides a brief example of a debugging session in order to familiarize you with some of the basic commands and operations of the debugger.
Launch a browser window and go to http://wp.netscape.com/fishcam/dhtmltank.html.
Note that in Mozilla 1.x and Netscape 7.x, the debugger contains a Window menu like other major components in the application suite. From this menu, you can access the browser, mail, and other applications.
/break Animator-0.03 121in the debugger.
The console command
pausefunction called when the browser starts the DHTML fishcam window.
Alternately, you can select
Animator-0.03.jsfrom the Loaded Scripts view, locate the
pausefunction at line 119, and click in the left margin. Setting breakpoints in this manner is equivalent to using the
/breakcommand in the console. In either case, a red breakpoint icon appears in the Source Code view.
/breakin the debugger.
If you don't provide arguments to the
/breakcommand, all breakpoints are listed in the Interactive Session view.
On the fishcam page, press the "pause" link.
You should hit the breakpoint you just set in Step 3.
In the interactive session, context becomes
Animator-0.03.jsand the scope is the
pausefunction. There will also be "stopped for breakpoint" in red in the interactive session, along with the file name, line number, and snippet source code from where it stopped.
Figure 13. (from Step 5) Stopped at a breakpoint.
In the interactive session's input field, enter
Venkman evaluates the expression, giving you [boolean]
falseback. Press Step Into to follow the steps until you have finished debugging the function, and the fishes have paused.
Click the "pause" link again on the fishcam page to resume the demo.
This starts the DHTML down the other codepath in
start()and makes the fishes start swimming again.
The best way to get to know Venkman, of course, is to play around with it — to set it up in the way that makes the most sense to you, to try loading scripts and setting breakpoints, evaluating expressions in the Interactive Session View, watching the values of variables as they change when scripts are executed, getting profile data.
Although at first glance it might seem that Venkman cannot debug extensions, doing so is in fact fully supported; it's just disabled by default.
To debug your extension with Venkman (XUL files and their attached JS files), you'll have to load browser and extension files into Venkman by unchecking Debug > Exclude Browser Files.
Original Document Information
- Authors: Ian Oeschger, Robert Ginda