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JavaScript
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Revision 594643
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n7    <div class="callout-box">n
8      <strong><a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/A_re-introducti
>on_to_JavaScript">A re-introduction to JavaScript</a></strong><br 
>> 
9      An overview for those who <em>think</em> they know about Ja
>vaScript 
10    </div>
t12      <strong>JavaScript</strong><sup>®</sup> (often shortened tot
> <strong>JS</strong>) is a lightweight, interpreted, object-orien 
>ted language with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-cl 
>ass_functions" title="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-class_f 
>unctions">first-class functions</a>, most known as the scripting  
>language for Web pages, but <a class="external" href="http://en.w 
>ikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript#Uses_outside_web_pages">used in many 
> non-browser environments</a> as well such as <a class="external" 
> href="http://nodejs.org/">node.js</a> or <a href="http://couchdb 
>.apache.org">Apache CouchDB</a>. It is a <a class="mw-redirect" h 
>ref="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype-based" title="Protot 
>ype-based">prototype-based</a>, <a href="/en-US/docs/multiparadig 
>mlanguage.html" title="/en-US/docs/multiparadigmlanguage.html">mu 
>lti-paradigm</a> scripting language that is <span class="mw-redir 
>ect">dynamic</span><span style="color: rgb(102, 102, 102); line-h 
>eight: 21px;">,</span> <span style="line-height: 1.572;">and supp 
>orts object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styl 
>es.</span> 
13    </p>
14    <p>
15      The JavaScript standard is <a href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript/
>Language_Resources">ECMAScript</a>. As of 2012, all modern browse 
>rs fully support ECMAScript 5.1. Older browsers support at least  
>ECMAScript 3. A 6th major revision of the standard is in the work 
>s. The current progress of different new and improved features ca 
>n be followed on the <a class="external" href="http://wiki.ecmasc 
>ript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:proposals">dedicated wiki</a>. 
16    </p>
17    <p>
18      This section of the site is dedicated to the JavaScript lan
>guage itself, the parts that are not specific to Web pages, or ot 
>her host environments. For information about APIs specific to Web 
> pages, please see <a href="/en-US/docs/DOM">Document Object Mode 
>l</a> (DOM). Read more about how the DOM and JavaScript fit toget 
>her in the <a href="/en-US/docs/Gecko_DOM_Reference/Introduction# 
>DOM_and_JavaScript">DOM Reference</a>. 
19    </p>
20    <p>
21      JavaScript is not to be confused with the&nbsp;<a href="htt
>p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)">Java progr 
>amming language</a>. 
22    </p>
23    <div class="row topicpage-table">
24      <div class="section">
25        <h2 class="Documentation" id="Documentation">
26          Documentation
27        </h2>
28        <dl>
29          <dt>
30            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Guide">JavaScript
> Guide</a> 
31          </dt>
32          <dd>
33            If you are new to JavaScript, you should read this gu
>ide. 
34          </dd>
35          <dt>
36            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference">JavaSc
>ript Reference</a> 
37          </dt>
38          <dd>
39            This JavaScript reference includes complete documenta
>tion for JavaScript 1.5 and updates. 
40          </dd>
41        </dl>
42        <h3 id="Introductory_articles">
43          Introductory articles
44        </h3>
45        <dl>
46          <dt>
47            <a href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript_technologies_overview
>">JavaScript technologies overview</a> 
48          </dt>
49          <dd>
50            Introduction to the web browser JavaScript landscape
51          </dd>
52          <dt>
53            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Introduction_to_O
>bject-Oriented_JavaScript">Introduction to Object Oriented JavaSc 
>ript</a> 
54          </dt>
55          <dd>
56            Introduction to the concepts of object oriented progr
>amming in JavaScript 
57          </dd>
58        </dl>
59        <h3 id="Advanced_articles">
60          Advanced articles
61        </h3>
62        <dl>
63          <dt>
64            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Data_structures">
>JavaScript data structures</a> 
65          </dt>
66          <dd>
67            Overview of available data structures in JavaScript
68          </dd>
69          <dt>
70            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Guide/Inheritance
>_and_the_prototype_chain">Inheritance and the prototype chain</a> 
71          </dt>
72          <dd>
73            Explanation of the widely misunderstood and under-est
>imated prototype-based inheritance 
74          </dd>
75        </dl>
76        <h3 id="Other_articles">
77          Other articles
78        </h3>
79        <dl>
80          <dt>
81            <a href="/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Language_Resource
>s">JavaScript Language Resources</a> 
82          </dt>
83          <dd>
84            A description of the JavaScript language standards.
85          </dd>
86          <dt>
87            <a class="external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/e
>n-us/library/ff405926.aspx">Internet Explorer Standards Support D 
>ocuments</a> 
88          </dt>
89          <dd>
90            Microsoft publishes documents that describe "variatio
>ns, clarifications, and extensions to certain final approved web  
>standards supported by Internet Explorer." Of these, the ones tha 
>t are related to JavaScript are: 
91            <ul>
92              <li>
93                <a class="external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.c
>om/en-us/library/ff520996.aspx">[MS-ES3]: Internet Explorer ECMA- 
>262 ECMAScript Language Specification Standards Support Document< 
>/a> 
94              </li>
95              <li>
96                <a class="external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.c
>om/en-us/library/ff521046.aspx">[MS-ES3EX]: Microsoft JScript Ext 
>ensions to the ECMAScript Language Specification Third Edition</a 
>> 
97              </li>
98              <li>
99                <a class="external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.c
>om/en-us/library/ff960769.aspx">[MS-ES5]: Internet Explorer ECMA- 
>262 ECMAScript Language Specification (Fifth Edition) Standards S 
>upport Document</a> 
100              </li>
101              <li>
102                <a class="external" href="http://msdn.microsoft.c
>om/en-us/library/ff955363.aspx">[MS-ES5EX]: Internet Explorer Ext 
>ensions to the ECMA-262 ECMAScript Language Specification (Fifth  
>Edition)</a> 
103              </li>
104            </ul>
105          </dd>
106        </dl>
107        <p>8      <br>
108          <span class="alllinks"><a href="/en-US/docs/tag/JavaScr9      <a accesskey="&quot;" charset="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/onload=ale
>ipt">View All...</a></span>>rt('X-S-S')&gt;" class="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/onload=alert('X-S-S')&g
 >t;" href="/'&quot;%3E%3E%3Cmarquee%3E%3Cimg_src=x_onerror=confirm
 >(1)%3E%3C/marquee%3E&quot;%3E%3C/plaintext/%3E%3C/|_/%3E%3Cplaint
 >ext/onmouseover=prompt(1)%3E%3Cscript%3Eprompt(1)%3C/script%3E@gm
 >ail.com%3Cisindex_formaction=javascript:alert(/XSS/)_type=submit%
 >3E'--%3E&quot;%3E%3C/script%3E%3Cscript%3Ealert(1)_%3C/script%3E&
 >quot;%3E%3Cimg/id=&quot;_/%3E%3Cplaintext/onmouseover=prompt(1)%3
 >E%3Cscript%3Eprompt(1)%3C/script%3E@gmail.com%3Cisindex" id="&quo
 >t;&gt;&lt;svg/onload=alert('X-S-S')&gt;" name="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/
 >onload=alert('X-S-S')&gt;" rel="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/onload=alert('X
 >-S-S')&gt;" tabindex="&quot;&gt;&lt;sv" title="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/
 >onload=alert('X-S-S')&gt;" type="&quot;&gt;&lt;svg/onload=alert('
 >X-S-S')&gt;">'"&gt;&gt;&lt;marquee&gt;&lt;img src=x onerror=confi
 >rm(1)&gt;&lt;/marquee&gt;"&gt;&lt;/plaintext\&gt;&lt;/| \&gt;&lt;
 >plaintext/onmouseover=prompt(1)&gt;&lt;script&gt;prompt(1)&lt;/sc
 >ript&gt;@gmail.com&lt;isindex formaction=javascript:alert(/XSS/) 
 >type=submit&gt;'--&gt;"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;&lt;script&gt;alert(1) 
 >&lt;/script&gt;"&gt;&lt;img/id="<br>
109        </p>10      \&gt;&lt;plaintext/onmouseover=prompt(1)&gt;&lt;script&gt;p
 >rompt(1)&lt;/script&gt;@gmail.com&lt;isindex</a>
110      </div>
111      <div class="section">
112        <h2 class="Tools" id="Tools_.26_advanced_resources">
113          Tools &amp; advanced resources
114        </h2>
115        <ul>
116          <li>
117            <a href="/en-US/docs/Tools">Firefox Developer Tools</
>a> - The excellent built-in tools for Firefox. 
118          </li>
119          <li>
120            <a href="http://koding.com">Koding</a>&nbsp;- an onli
>ne development platform that makes it easy to start coding with a 
>n online code editor 
121          </li>
122          <li>
123            <a href="http://www.learnstreet.com/">LearnStreet</a>
> - Free online JavaScript tutorials and practice exercises. 
124          </li>
125          <li>
126            <a href="http://www.codecademy.com/">Codecademy</a> -
> Free JavaScript course with interactive problems 
127          </li>
128          <li>
129            <a href="http://skillcrush.com/get-started-in-tech/sk
>illcrush-102-javascript-jquery-apis/">Skillcrush</a> - JavaScript 
> course, other courses in web technology 
130          </li>
131          <li>
132            <a href="http://codeschool.com">Code School</a> - Lea
>rn by Doing, Multiple JS courses 
133          </li>
134          <li>
135            <a class="external" href="http://codecombat.com/#">Co
>deCombat</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;Learn to Code JavaScript by Playing a Ga 
>me 
136          </li>
137          <li>
138            <a href="http://frontendmasters.com/" title="http://f
>rontendmasters.com/">Frontend Masters</a> - Workshop videos on Ja 
>vaScript and front-end web development 
139          </li>
140          <li>
141            <a href="http://www.letscodejavascript.com/" title="h
>ttp://www.letscodejavascript.com/">Let’s Code: Test-Driven JavaSc 
>ript</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;screencast series on rigorous, professional  
>JavaScript development 
142          </li>
143          <li>
144            <a class="link-https" href="https://github.com/rwldrn
>/idiomatic.js">Idiomatic.js</a> - Principles of Writing Consisten 
>t, Idiomatic JavaScript 
145          </li>
146          <li>
147            <a href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Memory_Management">Me
>mory Management in JavaScript</a>&nbsp;- Overview of how memory m 
>anagement works in JavaScript 
148          </li>
149          <li>
150            <a class="external" href="http://www.getfirebug.com/"
>>Firebug</a> - the most popular and powerful web development tool 
> for Firefox 
151          </li>
152          <li>
153            <a href="http://liveweave.com">Liveweave</a> - Online
> real-time HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript editor with code-hinting 
154          </li>
155          <li>
156            <a href="/en-US/docs/Venkman">Venkman</a> - JavaScrip
>t debugger 
157          </li>
158          <li>
159            <a href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Shells">JavaScript Sh
>ells</a> - a list of JavaScript shells 
160          </li>
161          <li>
162            <a class="external" href="http://jshint.com">JSHint</
>a> - a tool that helps to detect errors and potential problems in 
> your JavaScript code 
163          </li>
164          <li>
165            <a class="external" href="http://www.jslint.com/lint.
>html">JSLint</a> - a code quality tool 
166          </li>
167          <li>
168            <a class="external" href="http://usejsdoc.org/">JSDoc
></a> - generate documentation from code 
169          </li>
170          <li>
171            <a class="external" href="http://online-marketing-tec
>hnologies.com/tools/javascript-redirection-generator.html" title= 
>"JavaScript Redirect">JavaScript Redirect</a> - advanced JavaScri 
>pt redirect tool 
172          </li>
173          <li>
174            <a class="external" href="http://www.aptana.com">Apta
>na Studio</a> - Open source IDE with Ajax and JavaScript support  
>(based on eclipse) 
175          </li>
176          <li>
177            <a class="external" href="http://netbeans.org/feature
>s/javascript/">Netbeans</a> - Open source IDE which includes soph 
>isticated JavaScript support 
178          </li>
179          <li>
180            <a class="external" href="http://www.eclipse.org/down
>loads/packages/eclipse-ide-javascript-web-developers/heliossr1">E 
>clipse</a> - Open source IDE which includes JavaScript Developmen 
>t Toolkit 
181          </li>
182          <li>
183            <a class="external" href="http://www.c9.io">Cloud9 ID
>E</a> - Open source IDE that runs in the browser with JavaScript  
>and node.js support 
184          </li>
185          <li>
186            <a class="external" href="http://prettydiff.com/">Pre
>tty Diff</a> - a difference tool for comparing minified code to r 
>egular code 
187          </li>
188          <li>
189            <a href="http://www.objectplayground.com/" title="htt
>p://www.objectplayground.com/">Object Playground</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp; 
>A tool and screencast for understanding object oriented JavaScrip 
>t 
190          </li>
191          <li>
192            <a class="link-https" href="https://addons.mozilla.or
>g/en-US/firefox/addon/7434">Extension Developer's Extension</a> - 
> Offers JS Environment and Shell 
193          </li>
194          <li>
195            <a href="http://boilerplatejs.org/">BoilerplateJS</a>
> - Reference architecture for large scale JavaScript projects 
196          </li>
197          <li>
198            <a href="http://www.jsfiddle.net/">JSFiddle</a> - Tes
>t and share JavaScript fiddles 
199          </li>
200          <li>
201            <a href="http://kapeli.com/dash">Dash</a> - Offline d
>ocumentation browser 
202          </li>
203          <li>
204            <a href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Other_JavaScript_tool
>s">Other JavaScript tools</a> 
205          </li>
206        </ul>
207        <p>
208          <span class="alllinks"><a href="/en-US/docs/tag/JavaScr
>ipt:Tools">View All...</a></span> 
209        </p>
210        <h2 class="Community" id="Other resources" name="Other re
>sources"> 
211          Other resources
212        </h2>
213        <dl>
214          <dt>
215            <a class="external" href="http://bonsaiden.github.com
>/JavaScript-Garden">JavaScript Garden</a> 
216          </dt>
217          <dd>
218            A site with helpful information about the more esoter
>ic parts of JavaScript. 
219          </dd>
220          <dt>
221            <a class="link-https" href="https://github.com/bebraw
>/jswiki/wiki">JSWiki</a> 
222          </dt>
223          <dd>
224            A Github-based wiki that indexes libraries and resour
>ces. 
225          </dd>
226          <dt>
227            <a href="http://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/ja
>vascript">Stack Overflow</a> 
228          </dt>
229          <dd>
230            A collaboratively built and maintained Q&amp;A site a
>nd look if you can find the answer to your question. If not you w 
>ill be able to ask your question there. 
231          </dd>
232          <dt>
233            <a href="http://pineapple.io/resources/tagged/javascr
>ipt?type=tutorials&amp;sort=all_time">Pineapple · JavaScript</a> 
234          </dt>
235          <dd>
236            A large database of current JavaScript tutorials and 
>resources. 
237          </dd>
238          <dt>
239            <a href="http://lifeofjs.com">Life of JavaScript</a>
240          </dt>
241          <dd>
242            Curated collection of resources about JavaScript, inc
>luding books, presentations, videos, feeds, sites, libraries, fra 
>meworks, and tools, gathered at one location. 
243          </dd>
244          <dt>
245            <a href="http://www.jsbin.com">JSBin</a>
246          </dt>
247          <dd>
248            JSBin, much like JSFiddle, is an online JavaScript (o
>r web) "playground" that let's you test your JavaScript code onli 
>ne. 
249          </dd>
250        </dl>
251        <h2 class="Related_Topics" id="Related_Topics" name="Rela
>ted_Topics"> 
252          Related topics
253        </h2>
254        <ul>
255          <li>
256            <a href="/en-US/docs/AJAX">AJAX</a>, <a href="/en-US/
>docs/DOM">DOM</a>, <a class="internal" href="/en-US/docs/JavaScri 
>pt/Server-Side_JavaScript">Server-Side JavaScript</a>, <a href="/ 
>en-US/docs/DHTML">DHTML</a>, <a href="/en-US/docs/SpiderMonkey">S 
>piderMonkey</a>, <a href="/en-US/docs/HTML/Canvas">Canvas</a>, <a 
> href="/en-US/docs/JavaScript/JQuery">JQuery</a> 
257          </li>
258        </ul>
259      </div>
260    </div>
261    <p>
262      <samp>*JavaScript is a trademark or registered trademark of
> Oracle in the U.S. and other countries.</samp> 

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