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    Color

    This is the 8th section of the CSS Getting Started tutorial; it explains how you can specify color in CSS. In your sample stylesheet, you introduce background colors.

    Information: Color

    In this tutorial so far, you have used a limited number of named colors. CSS 2 supports 17 named colors in all. Some of the names might not be what you expect:

      black   gray   silver   white  
    primaries red   lime   blue  
    secondaries yellow   aqua   fuchsia  
      maroon   orange   olive   purple   green   navy   teal  

     

    Details

    Your browser might support many more named colors, like:

    dodgerblue   peachpuff   tan   firebrick   aquamarine  

    For details of this extended list, see: SVG color keywords in the CSS 3 Color Module. Beware of using color names that your reader's browsers might not support.

    For a larger palette, specify the red, green and blue components of the color you want by using a number sign (hash) and three hexadecimal digits in the range 0 – 9, a – f. The letters a – f represent the values 10 – 15:

    black   #000
    pure red   #f00
    pure green   #0f0
    pure blue   #00f
    white   #fff


    For the full palette, specify two hexadecimal digits for each component:

    black   #000000
    pure red   #ff0000
    pure green   #00ff00
    pure blue   #0000ff
    white   #ffffff

    You can usually get these six-digit hexadecimal codes from your graphics program or some other tool.

    Example

    With a little practice, you can adjust the three-digit colors manually for most purposes:

    Start with pure red:   #f00
    To make it paler, add some green and blue:   #f77
    To make it more orange, add a little extra green:   #fa7
    To darken it, reduce all its components:   #c74
    To reduce its saturation, make its components more equal:   #c98
    If you make them exactly equal, you get gray:   #ccc

    For a pastel shade like pale blue:

    Start with pure white:   #fff
    Reduce the other components a little:   #eef
    More details

    You can also specify a color using decimal RGB values in the range 0 – 255, or percentages.

    For example, this is maroon (dark red):

    rgb(128, 0, 0)
    

    For full details of how to specify colors, see: Colors in the CSS Specification.

    For information on matching system colors like Menu and ThreeDFace, see: CSS2 System Colors in the CSS Specification.

    Color properties

    You have already used the color property on text.

    You can also use the background-color property to change elements' backgrounds.

    Backgrounds can be set to transparent to explicitly remove any color, revealing the parent element's background.

    Example

    The Example boxes in this tutorial use this pale yellow background:

    background-color: #fffff4;
    

    The More details boxes use this pale gray:

    background-color: #f4f4f4;
    

     

    Action: Using color codes

    1. Edit your CSS file.
    2. Make the change shown here in bold, to give the initial letters a pale blue background. (The layout and comments in your file probably differ from the file shown here. Keep the layout and comments the way you prefer them.)
      /*** CSS Tutorial: Color page ***/
      
      /* page font */
      body {font: 16px "Comic Sans MS", cursive;}
      
      /* paragraphs */
      p {color: blue;}
      #first {font-style: italic;}
      
      /* initial letters */
      strong {
        color: red;
        background-color: #ddf;
        font: 200% serif;
        }
      
      .carrot {color: red;}
      .spinach {color: green;}
      
    3. Save the file and refresh your browser to see the result.
    Cascading Style Sheets
    Cascading Style Sheets
    Challenge

    In your CSS file, change all the color names to 3-digit color codes without affecting the result.

    (This cannot be done exactly, but you can get close. To do it exactly you need 6-digit codes, and you need to look up the CSS Specification or use a graphics tool to match the colors.)

    Possible solution

    The following values are reasonable approximations of the named colors:

    strong {
      color: #f00; /* red */
      background-color: #ddf; /* pale blue */
      font: 200% serif;
    }
    
    .carrot {
      color: #fa0; /* orange */
    }
    
    .spinach {
      color: #080; /* dark green */
    }
    
    p {
      color: #00f; /* blue */
    }
    

     

    Hide solution
    See a solution for the challenge.

    What next?

    Your sample document and your sample stylesheet strictly separate content from style. The next section explains how you can make exceptions to this strict separation.