The <translation-value> CSS data type is used in the arguments for certain transform functions, including translate(), translateX(), translateY(), and translate3d().


The <translation-value> data type can be either a <length> value or a <percentage> value.


Translation function comparison

The following example provides a 3D cube created from DOM elements and transforms, and a select menu allowing you to choose different translation-related transform functions to transform the cube with, so you can compare the effects of the different types.

Choose one, and the transform is applied to the cube; after 2 seconds, the cube reverts back to its starting state. The cube's starting state is slightly rotated using transform3d(), to allow you to see the effect of all the transforms.


  <section id="example-element">
      <div class="face front">1</div>
      <div class="face back">2</div>
      <div class="face right">3</div>
      <div class="face left">4</div>
      <div class="face top">5</div>
      <div class="face bottom">6</div>

  <div class="select-form">
    <label>Select a transform function</label>
      <option selected>Choose a function</option>
      <option>translate(100px, 100px)</option>
      <option>translate3d(50px, 50px, 50px)</option>


main {
  width: 400px;
  height: 200px;
  padding: 50px;
  background-image: linear-gradient(135deg, white, cyan, white);

#example-element {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transition: transform 1.5s;
  transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg);

.face {
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;
  backface-visibility: inherit;
  font-size: 60px;
  color: #fff;

.front {
    background: rgba(90,90,90,.7);
    transform: translateZ(50px);

.back {
    background: rgba(0,210,0,.7);
    transform: rotateY(180deg) translateZ(50px);

.right {
  background: rgba(210,0,0,.7);
  transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);

.left {
  background: rgba(0,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);

.top {
  background: rgba(210,210,0,.7);
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);

.bottom {
  background: rgba(210,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);

.select-form {
  margin-top: 50px;


const selectElem = document.querySelector('select');
const example = document.querySelector('#example-element');

selectElem.addEventListener('change', () => {
  if(selectElem.value === 'Choose a function') {
  } else {
    example.style.transform = `rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg) ${selectElem.value}`;
    setTimeout(function() {
      example.style.transform = 'rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg)';
    }, 2000)



Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 1
The definition of 'The Transform Functions' in that specification.
Working Draft

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also