Baseline Widely available

This feature is well established and works across many devices and browser versions. It’s been available across browsers since September 2015.

The transform CSS property lets you rotate, scale, skew, or translate an element. It modifies the coordinate space of the CSS visual formatting model.

Try it

If the property has a value different from none, a stacking context will be created. In that case, the element will act as a containing block for any position: fixed; or position: absolute; elements that it contains.

Warning: Only transformable elements can be transformed. That is, all elements whose layout is governed by the CSS box model except for: non-replaced inline boxes, table-column boxes, and table-column-group boxes.


/* Keyword values */
transform: none;

/* Function values */
transform: matrix(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6);
transform: matrix3d(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1);
transform: perspective(17px);
transform: rotate(0.5turn);
transform: rotate3d(1, 2, 3, 10deg);
transform: rotateX(10deg);
transform: rotateY(10deg);
transform: rotateZ(10deg);
transform: translate(12px, 50%);
transform: translate3d(12px, 50%, 3em);
transform: translateX(2em);
transform: translateY(3in);
transform: translateZ(2px);
transform: scale(2, 0.5);
transform: scale3d(2.5, 1.2, 0.3);
transform: scaleX(2);
transform: scaleY(0.5);
transform: scaleZ(0.3);
transform: skew(30deg, 20deg);
transform: skewX(30deg);
transform: skewY(1.07rad);

/* Multiple function values */
transform: translateX(10px) rotate(10deg) translateY(5px);
transform: perspective(500px) translate(10px, 0, 20px) rotateY(3deg);

/* Global values */
transform: inherit;
transform: initial;
transform: revert;
transform: revert-layer;
transform: unset;

The transform property may be specified as either the keyword value none or as one or more <transform-function> values.



One or more of the CSS transform functions to be applied. The transform functions are multiplied in order from left to right, meaning that composite transforms are effectively applied in order from right to left.


Specifies that no transform should be applied.

Accessibility concerns

Scaling/zooming animations are problematic for accessibility, as they are a common trigger for certain types of migraine. If you need to include such animations on your website, you should provide a control to allow users to turn off animations, preferably site-wide.

Also, consider making use of the prefers-reduced-motion media feature — use it to write a media query that will turn off animations if the user has reduced animation specified in their system preferences.

Find out more:

Formal definition

Initial valuenone
Applies totransformable elements
Percentagesrefer to the size of bounding box
Computed valueas specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengths
Animation typea transform
Creates stacking contextyes

Formal syntax

transform = 
none |

<transform-list> =


Translating and rotating an element


<div>Transformed element</div>


div {
  border: solid red;
  transform: translate(30px, 20px) rotate(20deg);
  width: 140px;
  height: 60px;


Transform order

The order of transform functions matters. In this example, two boxes are rotated and translated by the same values; only the transform function order is different.


<div class="original"></div>
<div class="one">1</div>
<div class="two">2</div>


.one {
  transform: translateX(200px) rotate(135deg);
.two {
  transform: rotate(135deg) translateX(200px);


When an element is rotated before being translated, the translate direction is on the rotated axis. The axis as indicated with the dotted lines.

More examples

Please see Using CSS transforms and <transform-function> for more examples.


CSS Transforms Module Level 2
# transform-functions
CSS Transforms Module Level 1
# transform-property

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also