text-transform

  • Revision slug: CSS/text-transform
  • Revision title: text-transform
  • Revision id: 25187
  • Created:
  • Creator: FreakCERS
  • Is current revision? No
  • Comment 1 words added, 1 words removed

Revision Content

{{ CSSRef() }}

Summary

The text-transform CSS property specifies how to capitalize an element's text. It can be used to make text appear in all-uppercase or all-lowercase, or with each word capitalized.

  • {{ Xref_cssinitial() }}: {{ Cssxref("none") }}
  • Applies to: all elements
  • {{ Xref_cssinherited() }}: yes
  • Media: {{ Xref_cssvisual() }}
  • {{ Xref_csscomputed() }}: as specified

Syntax

text-transform:  none | [ [capitalize | uppercase | lowercase ] || full-width || full-size-kana ] 

Values

capitalize

Is a keyword forcing the first letter of each word to be converted to uppercase. Other characters are unchanged; that is, they retain their original case as written in the element's text. A letter is any Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general categories {{ experimental_inline() }} : it excludes any punctuation marks or symbols at the beginning of the word.

Authors should not expect capitalize to follow language-specific titlecasing conventions (such as skipping articles in English).
uppercase
Is a keyword forcing all characters to be converted to uppercase.
lowercase
Is a keyword forcing all characters to be converted to lowercase.
none
Is a keyword preventing the case of all characters to be changed.
full-width {{ experimental_inline() }}
Is a keyword forcing the writing of a character, mainly ideograms and latin scripts inside a square, allowing them to be aligned in the usual Oriental scripts (like Chinese or Japanese).
full-size-kana {{ experimental_inline() }}
Is a keyword forcing small kanas (like ッ or っ) to be written at the regular size (ツ or つ). This is useful when writing furigana as the small kanas wouldn't be legible.

Examples

p { text-transform: none; }
Initial string Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Live example Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Reference result Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...

 

p { text-transform: capitalize; }
Initial string Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Live example Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Reference result Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet, Consectetur Adipisicing Elit, ...

 

p { text-transform: capitalize; }
Initial punctuations of a word are ignored. The keyword target the first letter, that is the first Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general category.
Initial string (this) “is” [a] –short– -test- «for» *the* _css_ ¿capitalize? ?¡transform!
Live example (this) “is” [a] –short– -test- «for» *the* _css_ ¿capitalize? ?¡transform!
Reference result (This) “Is” [A] –Short– -Test- «For» *The* _Css_ ¿Capitalize? ?¡Transform!

 

p { text-transform: capitalize; }
Initial symbole of a word are ignored. The keyword target the first letter, that is the first Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general category.
Initial string ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙkl
Live example ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙkl
Reference result ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙKl

 

p { text-transform: uppercase; }
Initial string Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Live example Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Reference result LOREM IPSUM DOLOR SIT AMET, CONSECTETUR ADIPISICING ELIT, ...

 

p { text-transform: lowercase; }
Initial string Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Live example Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...
Reference result lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Text Level 3 {{ Spec2('CSS3 Text') }} Extends letters to any Unicode character in the Number or Letter general category. Adds the full-width and full-size-kana keyword. Modifies the behavior of capitalize to apply to the first letter of the word, ignoring initial punctuations or symbols.
CSS 2.1 {{ Spec2('CSS2.1') }} Extends letters to non-latin bi-cameral scripts
CSS 1 {{ Spec2('CSS1') }}  

Browser compatibility

{{ CompatibilityTable() }}

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 1.0 {{ CompatGeckoDesktop("1") }} 4.0 7.0 1.0
capitalize (CSS3 version) see note {{ CompatGeckoDesktop("14") }} (see note) see note {{ CompatUnknown() }} see note
full-size-kana {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }}
full-width {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }}
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 1.0 {{ CompatGeckoMobile("1") }} 6.0 6.0 1.0
capitalize (CSS3 version see note {{ CompatGeckoMobile("14") }} see note see note {{ CompatUnknown() }} see note
full-size-kana {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }}
full-width {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }} {{ CompatNo() }}

Browser notes

The capitalize keyword was under-specified in CSS 1 and CSS 2.1. There were differences between browsers in the way the first letter was calculated (Firefox considered - and _ as letters, but not the others. Both Webkit and Gecko incorrectly considered letter-based symbols like to be real letters. Internet Explorer 9 was the closest to the CSS 2 definition, but with some weird cases). By precisely defining the correct behavior, CSS Text Level 3 cleans this mess up. The capitalize line in the browser compatibility table contains the version the different engines started to support this now precisely defined behavior.

See also

  • {{ cssxref("font-variant") }}
  • {{ CSS_Reference:Text() }}

{{ languages( {"fr": "fr/CSS/text-transform" } ) }}

Revision Source

<p>{{ CSSRef() }}</p>
<h2>Summary</h2>
<p>The <code>text-transform</code> CSS property specifies how to capitalize an element's text. It can be used to make text appear in all-uppercase or all-lowercase, or with each word capitalized.</p>
<ul class="cssprop" style="display:table;padding: 0.4em;border-left:0.15em solid;background-color:#eeeeff"> <li style="display:table-row;padding: 3px;margin:0;"><dfn style="display:table-cell;padding: 0 5px;border-bottom: none;cursor:inherit;">{{ Xref_cssinitial() }}:</dfn> {{ Cssxref("none") }}</li> <li style="display:table-row;padding: 3px;margin:0;"><dfn style="display:table-cell;padding: 0 5px;border-bottom: none;cursor:inherit;">Applies to:</dfn> all elements</li> <li style="display:table-row;padding: 3px;margin:0;"><dfn style="display:table-cell;padding: 0 5px;border-bottom: none;cursor:inherit;">{{ Xref_cssinherited() }}:</dfn> yes</li> <li style="display:table-row;padding: 3px;margin:0;"><dfn style="display:table-cell;padding: 0 5px;border-bottom: none;cursor:inherit;">Media:</dfn> {{ Xref_cssvisual() }}</li> <li style="display:table-row;padding: 3px;margin:0;"><dfn style="display:table-cell;padding: 0 5px;border-bottom: none;cursor:inherit;">{{ Xref_csscomputed() }}:</dfn> as specified</li>
</ul>
<h2>Syntax</h2>
<pre class="eval syntaxbox" style="border:1px solid #cccccc;background-color:#ffe;border-radius:1em">text-transform:  none | [ [capitalize | uppercase | lowercase ] || full-width || full-size-kana ] 
</pre>
<h3>Values</h3>
<dl> <dt><code>capitalize</code></dt> <dd> <p>Is a keyword forcing the first <em>letter</em> of each word to be converted to uppercase. Other characters are unchanged; that is, they retain their original case as written in the element's text. A letter is any Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general categories {{ experimental_inline() }} : it excludes any punctuation marks or symbols at the beginning of the word.</p> <div class="note">Authors should not expect <code class="css">capitalize</code> to follow language-specific titlecasing conventions (such as skipping articles in English).</div> </dd> <dt><code>uppercase</code></dt> <dd>Is a keyword forcing all characters to be converted to uppercase.</dd> <dt><code>lowercase</code></dt> <dd>Is a keyword forcing all characters to be converted to lowercase.</dd> <dt><code>none</code></dt> <dd>Is a keyword preventing the case of all characters to be changed.</dd> <dt><code>full-width</code> {{ experimental_inline() }}</dt> <dd>Is a keyword forcing the writing of a character, mainly ideograms and latin scripts inside a square, allowing them to be aligned in the usual Oriental scripts (like Chinese or Japanese).</dd> <dt><code>full-size-kana</code> {{ experimental_inline() }}</dt> <dd>Is a keyword forcing small kanas (like ッ or っ) to be written at the regular size (ツ or つ). This is useful when writing furigana as the small kanas wouldn't be legible.</dd>
</dl>
<h2>Examples</h2>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: none; }</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td><code style="text-transform:none">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<p> </p>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: capitalize; }</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td><code style="text-transform:capitalize">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet, Consectetur Adipisicing Elit, ...</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<p> </p>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: capitalize; }</code><br> Initial punctuations of a word are ignored. The keyword target the first letter, that is the first Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general category.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>(this) “is” [a] –short– -test- «for» *the* _css_ ¿capitalize? ?¡transform!</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td><code style="text-transform:capitalize">(this) “is” [a] –short– -test- «for» *the* _css_ ¿capitalize? ?¡transform!</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>(This) “Is” [A] –Short– -Test- «For» *The* _Css_ ¿Capitalize? ?¡Transform!</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<p> </p>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: capitalize; }</code><br> Initial symbole of a word are ignored. The keyword target the first letter, that is the first Unicode character part of the Letter or Number general category.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙkl</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td style="text-transform:capitalize"><code>ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙkl</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>ⓐⓑⓒ (ⓓⓔⓕ) —ⓖⓗⓘ— ⓙKl</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<p> </p>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: uppercase; }</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td><code style="text-transform:uppercase">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>LOREM IPSUM DOLOR SIT AMET, CONSECTETUR ADIPISICING ELIT, ...</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<p> </p>
<table class="standard-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"><code>p { text-transform: lowercase; }</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Initial string</td> <td><code>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Live example</td> <td><code style="text-transform:lowercase">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reference result</td> <td><code>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, ...</code></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<h2>Specifications</h2>
<table class="standard-table"> <thead> <tr style="background-color: rgb(255, 204, 255);"> <th scope="col">Specification</th> <th scope="col">Status</th> <th scope="col">Comment</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><a class="external" href="http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css3-text/#text-transform" title="http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css3-text/#text-transform">CSS Text Level 3</a></td> <td>{{ Spec2('CSS3 Text') }}</td> <td>Extends letters to any Unicode character in the Number or Letter general category. Adds the <code>full-width</code> and <code>full-size-kana</code> keyword. Modifies the behavior of <code>capitalize</code> to apply to the <em>first</em> letter of the word, ignoring initial punctuations or symbols.</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/text.html#caps-prop" title="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/text.html#caps-prop">CSS 2.1</a></td> <td>{{ Spec2('CSS2.1') }}</td> <td>Extends letters to non-latin bi-cameral scripts</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a class="external" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1/#text-transform" title="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1/#text-transform">CSS 1</a></td> <td>{{ Spec2('CSS1') }}</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table>
<h2>Browser compatibility</h2>
<p>{{ CompatibilityTable() }}</p>
<div id="compat-desktop"> <table class="compat-table"> <tbody> <tr> <th>Feature</th> <th>Chrome</th> <th>Firefox (Gecko)</th> <th>Internet Explorer</th> <th>Opera</th> <th>Safari</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Basic support</td> <td>1.0</td> <td>{{ CompatGeckoDesktop("1") }}</td> <td>4.0</td> <td>7.0</td> <td>1.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>capitalize</code> (CSS3 version)</td> <td>see note</td> <td>{{ CompatGeckoDesktop("14") }} (see note)</td> <td>see note</td> <td>{{ CompatUnknown() }}</td> <td>see note</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>full-size-kana</code></td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>full-width</code></td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div>
<div id="compat-mobile"> <table class="compat-table"> <tbody> <tr> <th>Feature</th> <th>Android</th> <th>Firefox Mobile (Gecko)</th> <th>IE Phone</th> <th>Opera Mobile</th> <th>Safari Mobile</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Basic support</td> <td>1.0</td> <td>{{ CompatGeckoMobile("1") }}</td> <td>6.0</td> <td>6.0</td> <td>1.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>capitalize</code> (CSS3 version</td> <td>see note</td> <td>{{ CompatGeckoMobile("14") }} see note</td> <td>see note</td> <td>{{ CompatUnknown() }}</td> <td>see note</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>full-size-kana</code></td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> </tr> <tr> <td><code>full-width</code></td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> <td>{{ CompatNo() }}</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div>
<h3>Browser notes</h3>
<p>The <code>capitalize</code> keyword was under-specified in CSS 1 and CSS 2.1. There were differences between browsers in the way the first letter was calculated (Firefox considered - and _ as letters, but not the others. Both Webkit and Gecko incorrectly considered letter-based symbols like <code>ⓐ</code> to be real letters. Internet Explorer 9 was the closest to the CSS 2 definition, but with some weird cases). By precisely defining the correct behavior, CSS Text Level 3 cleans this mess up. The <code>capitalize</code> line in the browser compatibility table contains the version the different engines started to support this now precisely defined behavior.</p>
<h2>See also</h2>
<ul> <li>{{ cssxref("font-variant") }}</li> <li>{{ CSS_Reference:Text() }}</li>
</ul>
<p>{{ languages( {"fr": "fr/CSS/text-transform" } ) }}</p>
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