Python is an interpreted scripting language available on a wide variety of platforms, including Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows.
Dive Into Python is the best introduction available. It provides good coverage on all the language basics, and common tasks such as web requests and file operations. For more advanced topics, Text Processing In Python is an excellent reference and tutorial.
Python in Mozilla
Python is also bound to the DOM (starting with Mozilla 1.9). Mozilla chrome (e.g., XUL or trusted HTML) can use Python. The PyDOM page has more information. More information is available on the Python XPCOM page.
Python Web Software
Pylons provides a very productive development environment, similar to Ruby On Rails, by providing its own HTTP server. This means all development dependencies can be downloaded with a few commands, pages are automatically reloaded after editing Python files or templates, and there's even an AJAX debugger on the 500 screens. When an error occurs, you see a traceback like this:
By expanding one of the '+' symbols, a text box appears that functions as a Python console.
This feature allows you to inspect each frame of the Python backtrace, and even modify your application's state.
Useful Web Libraries
AuthKit is a plugin useful for authentication.
SQLAlchemy is an excellent SQL/ORM library.
Genshi is a powerful templating language that provides an XML-based template syntax as well as one geared toward plain text. It can generate HTML4 from XML, resulting in maximum compatibility for clients, while maintaining a tight XML pipeline on the server.