Mork Structure


First let's introduce terms describing elements of Mork documents. Each term describes an entity used in Mork. Each type of entity has it's own style of markup in Mork.
Before we describe the markup, let's define each type of entity.
Each entry will include a short name initalic , a typical representative letter in bold, and a full name in blue . Sometimes we prefer short names, using (eg) lit in preference to literal.

  • val- (V) value : the value part of a cell; alit eral or aref erence
  • lit- (L) literal : a binary octet sequence; e.g., a text value; e.g., a cell value in a row.
  • tab- (T) table : a sparse matrix; a collection ofrow s; a garbage collection root.
  • row- (R) row : a sequence ofcell s; attributes of one object; a horizontaltab le slice.
  • col- (C) column : alit eral used to name an attribute; a verticaltab le slice.
  • cell- (.) cell : a pair (col val ) at the intersection ofcol androw in atab le.
  • id- (I) identity : a unique hex number in some namespacescope , naming a literal or object.
  • oid- (O) object identity : a scoped unique name orid of an object or entity, large or small.
  • ref- (^) reference : aval ue expressed using theid of an object orlit eral, instead of alit eral.
  • dict- (D) dictionary : amap oflit erals associated with assignedid s inside somescope .
  • atom- (A) atom : alit eral which is not used as acol umn name; e.g., a text value.
  • map- (M) hashmap : a hash table mapping keys to values (e.g. ids to objects).
  • scope- (S) scope : a (colon suffixed) namespace within whichid s are unique
  • group- (G) group : a set of related changes appliedatomically ; a markup transaction.


The basic Mork content model is atable (or synonymously, a sparsematrix ) composed ofrows containingcells , where each cell is a member of exactly onecolumn (col ). Each cell is one attribute in a row. The name of the attribute is alit eral designating thecol umn, and the content of the attribute is thevalue . The contentval ue of a cell is either a literal (lit ) or a reference (ref ). Each ref points to a lit or row or table, so a a cell can "contain" another shared object by reference.

Mork content exists as mentioned, without need of forward references or declarations. By default, new content is considered additive to old content if something already exists due to earlier mention. Mork markup is update oriented, with syntax to edit existing objects, or objects newly mentioned. Mork updates can be gathered intogroup s of related edits that must be applied atomically (all edits or none) as a transaction. A typical Mork file might contain a sequence of groups in a log structured format. Any group that starts but does not end correctly must be ignored by a reader.


When copying an old Mork store to a freshly written new file, unused content in the old copy can be omitted. But what definesunused ? Any or root or literal not reachable from at least one table is considered unused, and can be pruned or scavenged to reduce space consumption.

Any table is a garbage collection root making referenced content reachable for preservation. Tables are never collected. To reduce table space consumption, one can only remove all row members.

Naive Mork implementations must avoid a subtle refcounting bug that can arise due to content written in nearly random hash based order. Markup might say to remove a row from one table early on, then add this same row to another table later. In between, the refcount might be zero, but the row's content must not be destroyed eagerly. A zero refcount only means dead content after all markup has been applied.


You're expected to write a parser by hand. The grammar is only a clue, not a spec. The hard part is not the grammar, which is is simple and unambiguous. The hard part is the meaning of the Mork markup.


In version 1.4, a Mork file begins with this on the first line:

// <!-- <mdb:mork:z v="1.4"/> -->

You can ignore this magic header because it's meaningless. All it does is announce the file format. Presumably later versions of Mork will have different values where 1.4 appears.
Even if you did not ignore the first line, this is a C++ style comment which Mork takes as equivalent to whitespace, hence meaningless.

* start ::= magic (items | group)+


Your Mork tokenizer should treat a C++ style comment -- starting with // and ending at line's end -- as a single whitespace byte.
Mork considers any combination of CR or LF (#xD or #xA) to be a line ending, taken singly or in pairs.


Whitespace is optional in most places where Mork allows it to appear.
The grammar is apt to sprinkle space where it's likely to occur.

  • space ::= (white)*
  • white ::= ( #xA | #xD | #x9 | #x20 | comment | sp )
  • sp ::= /*other bytes you might wish to consider whitespace*/
  • comment ::= // not-endline endline

This entire section might be obsolete. The 1.4 source code doesn't seem to process the 1.1 grammar showing a file row. So perhaps this was dropped before version 1.4. The parser in morkParser.cpp appears to recognize @ only as part of group syntax.

After the first line, Mork typically begins with exactly one file row which is metainfo about the Mork file itself, expressed as a row. This special purpose row is its own gc root, so it doesn't need to be a member of a table to persist. It looks different from any other row because it surrounds the normal row syntax with @ bytes. Here's an example with a single cell inside:

@[ (author=rys)]@

Rows are enclosed in [] square brackets. This row contains a single cell in column author with literal value rys. This example is arbitrary. Presumably the file row metainfo is a good place for apps to embed their own magic head info, without disturbing the other content of the file. If a file has more than one file row, or perhaps none, you might tolerate this to be lenient and permissive since no harm is done.


After the magic first line and the distinguished file row, the rest of the content in a Mork file is a sequence of items: either objects (rows, dicts, tables) or updates.
Items are optionally collected into groups applied as atomic transactions.

  • items ::= (object | update)*
  • group ::= gather items (commit | abort)

The syntax for groups is most complex, so let's address this one first.


A Mork group is a related set of top level content applied all together in one atomic unit, either in its entirety or not at all, as a mechanism for handling transactions in a log structured format.
In version 1.4, @ is always followed by $$ as part of the group markup syntax.

  • group ::= gather items (commit | abort)
  • gather ::= space @$${ id {@
  • commit ::= space @$$} id }@
  • abort ::= space @$$}~abort~ id }@

In practice, a parser should expect to see $$ after @ is seen. Then { says a transaction group is starting, andid is the hex identity of this transaction. For example, supposeid is equal to FACE.
The same value for id must appear incommit orabort for an end-of-group to be recognized.
How should a parser go about ensuring that content through eithercommit orabort is applied atomically (all or none)?

Basically, a parser should remember the byte position immediately followinggather , so it can reseek this position after locating the group end. Then it should scan forward looking for @$$}FACE}@ or for @$$}~abort~FACE}@. If the first is found, then the parser should seek the saved position aftergather and parse all the content inside the group. Otherwise the group should be ignored.

If a parser sees a new group start before the old one ends, this should probably be seen as equivalent to an abort of the first group. This interpretation allows updates to be added on the end of stores that have previously aborted due to truncated file writes.

Note: the choice of group markup syntax seen here and literal escape metachar syntax shown later are related. Well-formed Mork documents should not be able to embed $$ inside a literal, because $ is a metachar whichonly escapes hex and not itself. This was done on purpose, so content inside a literal value would not accidentally terminate a transaction group, just because @$$ appears inside a literal. A well-formed literal would encode this sequence as @$\$ instead. This is the answer to jwz's question, about why there is more than one escape metachar: because it helps avoid corruption of user data.

As a result, a parser can generally get along with one non-space character lookahead. Seeing @ means group markup is expected. Then a parser looks for $$ which can't appear inside literals when Mork writers follow the rules. This isexactly why $$ was chosen here.


You were probably expecting to see material aboutitem s here, right aftergroup s. But here we switch tactics momentarily and take a bottom-up look at tokens and primitive data representation used to compose the higher level constructs used by items further below.

Your Mork tokenizer might want to see @[ and ]@ as special file row tokens. Most tokens are single bytes, or can be treated as if single bytes had been seen. Some complex multibyte tokens that are notlit erals have the same meaning as a single #x20 whitespace byte after having whatever parsing effect is needed.

For example, markup for indicating agroup is equivalent to whitespace once it serves the purpose of clustering other content inside a group.

Note that aline continuation , consisting of a backslash \ followed byline-end , is not a token at all when it appears inside alit eral. Instead, a tokenizer should ignore a line continuation as if it never appeared.

In addition, Mork uses the following set of single byte tokens:

  • < -open angle - begins a dict (inside a dict, begins metainfo row)
  • > -close angle - ends a dict
  • [ -open bracket - begins a row (inside a row, begins metainfo row)
  • ] -close bracket - ends a row
  • { -open brace - begins a table (inside a table, begins metainfo row)
  • } -close brace - ends a table
  • ( -open paren - begins a cell
  • ) -close paren - ends a cell
  • ^ -up arrow - dereference followingid forlit eral value
  • r -lower r - dereference followingoid forrow (byref ) value
  • t -lower t - dereference followingoid fortab le (byref ) value
  •  : -colon - next value isscope namespace for precedingid
  • = -equals - begin alit eral value inside a cell
  • + -plus - add update: insert content
  • - -minus - cut update: remove content
  •  ! -bang - put update: clear and set content


Under Mork, objectid entities are written in hex. So anid token is just a naked sequence of hex bytes, either upper or lowercase. Because the interpretation is an integer, case is not significant.

Some namespace is always understood as thescope for everyid , but this does not appear in theid token itself. Whenever ascope is explicitly given, it appears after a colon following theid , as described next foroid s.

  • id ::= hex+.
  • hex ::= [0-9a-fA-F]


A Morkoid is an objectid , and includes both the hexid and the namespacescope . When not explicitly stated, the scope is implicitly understood as some default for each context.

  • oid ::= id | id:scope
  • scope ::= literal | ^id | ^oid

Note the third option forscope might not be supported or used in practice, since it would makeoid andscope recursive. You might expect to see ^id:literal and ^id:^id, but probably not ^id:^id:literal.

According to the Mork parser source code the actual syntax for the Oid is as follows:

  • oid ::= id | id:scope
  • scope ::= name | ^id
  • name ::= [A-Za-z_:]+


A Morklit eral is a binary octet sequence encoded as plain text. Every byte becomes literally the next byte of the value, unless certain bytes are seen which have metacharacter status. (Why is there more than one metachar? Because it might shrink markup. Complexity here is worth some compression.)

  • ) -close paren - end of literal
  • $ -dollar - escape the next two hex bytes which encode a single octet
  • \ -backslash - if the next byte is either #xA or #xD, omit linebreak from literal; otherwise escape next byte. For example, \ removes metachar status from an immediately following \, $, or ).

The first metachar isclose paren . Alit eral always appears at the tail end of acell which is always terminated by aclose paren ), so in practice everylit eral is terminated by ). The only way to get ) inside a literal is by escaping the ) byte one way or other.

The second metachar isdollar $, which allows you to encode any octet as two digits of hex. Some writers might encode all non-ascii octets this way, and the year 2000 version of Mozilla did this, but it's not required. You are never required to use $ to escape bytes when writing, but readers must escape hex following $ when $ itself is not escaped, say using \. (Why did I choose $ for this metachar? Because I thought URLs might be common Mork content, and I wanted to use a byte that might appear less often in URLs.)

The third metachar isbackslash \, which was added to allow escaping metachars using C like syntax, and to allow line continuation in a C like manner so very long lines need not be generated unless a writer insists.

(If I was going to extend Mork for base 64, I'd probably extend the meaning of the $ metachar to understand a following non-hex byte was the start of a base 64 sequence. For example, ${ABC} might mean ABC was base 64 content. I've seen folks online bitch about Mozilla's verbose encoding of unicode under Mork using $ to encode every null byte. Why didn't you speak up during the year I discussed it online? In five years, why did no one tweak Mork so version 1.5 would do better? Why not just write unicode as raw binary, since Mork supports that? Why does Mork suck because no one spends an hour making changes? Whatever.)


Okay, now we'll finally coveritems , which is where all interesting Mork content is actually found.

  • items ::= (object | update)*
  • object ::= (dict | row | table)
  • edit ::= (+ | - | !)
  • update ::= edit (row | table)

(Notedict does not appear inupdate only because dicts have no identity, and thus can't be updated.)

When a parser does not see @ for a group at top level, it expects to see one of these first:

  • + : the next objectadds orinserts content listed to existing content.
  • - : the next objectcuts orremoves content listed from existing content.
  •  ! : the next objectadds content listed, afterclearing ordeleting old existing content.
  • < : begin adict .
  • [ : begin arow .
  • { : begin atable .

Because following sections describedict s,row s, andtable s, this rest of this section says more about those threeedit bytes. The + foradd is really Mork's default state because it is implied when missing before a row or table. If a row or table already exists, then new content listed is simply added to whatever already exists. (Of course, adding a cell with the same column as an existing column will replace the old value.)

When a writer can see that rewriting an object from scratch is more space efficient that incremental adds or cuts, it can use ! to clear all old content and start afresh.

When a writer sees an incremental cut is cheaper than rebuilding a large object from scratch, it can use - before an object to indicate contentremoval instead of contentinsertion .


The purpose of adict is to enumerate instances of literals with associated ids. A parser is expected to populate amap (hashmap) associating eachid key with eachlit value, so later references to any givenid inside cells is understood as a reference to thelit value.

A Mork implementation should have more than onemap -- one for eachscope is needed. But version 1.4 of Mork only uses two scopes: a foratom literals and c forcol umn literals. The former, a, is the defaultscope forids s in adict , unless explicitly changed to the latter by ametadict containing a (atomScope=c) cell.

(Note: to simplify this grammar, optionalspace has been omitted before each literal token, except those insidevalue . We don't want optional space beforevalue because it encourages space inefficienty, but you might choose to be tolerant here.)

  • dict ::= < (metadict | alias)* >
  • metadict ::= < (cell)* >
  • alias ::= ( id value )
  • value ::= ^oid | =literal
  • oid ::= id | id:scope

This grammar does not show a constraint onid , which should be a hex value not less than 80. Allid s less than 80 have reserved definitions: any single ascii bytelit eral with ascii value 0xNN is defined to haveid NN. Mork implementations which assignid s dynamically should use ascending values from 80 (or from the greatestid already assigned).

In principle,metadict might contain cells of any type. But in Mork version 1.4, only cells equal to (atomScope=a) and (atomScope=c) have any meaning. These change the defaultscope for theid found in subsequentalias definitions. But instead of using (atomScope=a) in a metadict to return the default scope to a, you can simply use >< to close and reopen a new dict with fewer bytes, which also returns the default scope to a.

< <(atomScope=c)> (80=cards)(81=dn)(82=modifytimestamp)(83=cn)

<(90=cn=John Hackworth,
(92=John Hackworth)(93=John)(

After the examples above have been parsed, theoid 85:c has value mail, and theoid 96:a has value Hackworth. Using ^ syntax to indicate an oid, these are usually written ^85 when column scope c is the default, and ^96 when atom scope a is the default.


Eachalias inside adict has syntax almost identical to that ofcell s; they both use parens to delimit a pair. But the first element of the pair in analias is anid , where acell has acol in the first position. Additionally, acell allows more variation in the second element of the pair, where analias is constrained to alit eral or anoid that references alit eral.

  • alias ::= ( id value )
  • value ::= ^oid | =literal

Optionalspace here is a bad idea for writers, because it decreases space efficiency. But readers might want to tolerate unexpectedspace .

Should you allow forward references toid s that have not yet been defined by analias ? Maybe, since it does little harm. It would be consistent with the system of making things exist as soon as they are mentioned. So anoid with no definition might refer to an empty value in general. This is what happens withrow s andtable s, and you might do this withlit eraloid s as well.


Arow is a logically unordered sequence ofcell s. Any physical ordering is not considered semantically meaningful. All that matters is whichcol umns appear in thecell s, and whatlit erals are referenced by values.

(To simplify the grammar, optionalspace before tokens is not shown.)

  • row ::= [ roid (metarow | cell)* ]
  • roid ::= oid /*default scope is rowScope from table*/
  • metarow ::= [ (cell)* ]
  • cell ::= ( col slot )
  • col ::= ^oid /*default scope is c*/ | name
  • slot ::= ^oid /*default scope is a*/ | =literal

In thecol position, thescope of allid s defaults to c, and in theslot position, thescope defaults to a. The defaultscope forroid depends on context -- a containingtable will supply the default. If the scope is itself anoid for alit eral, the default scope is c; so whenroid is 1:^80 this means 1:^80:c.

< <(atomScope=c)> (80=cards)(81=dn)(82=modifytimestamp)(83=cn)

<(90=cn=John Hackworth,
(92=John Hackworth)(93=John)(

[1:^80 (^81^90)(^82^91)(^83^92)(^84^93)(^85^94)(^86^95)(^87^96)]

This row example was written entirely withoid s, which is not very human readable. So let's rewrite this row using alllit erals with identical resulting content. Note that allcol s default toscope c and allslot s default toscope a.

[ 1:cards (dn=cn=John Hackworth,
(modifytimestamp=19981001014531Z)(cn=John Hackworth)(givenname=John)

This version of the row has identical content, but is much more readable, at the expense of duplicating strings in places when other rows have the same values, which is often the case.


Acell is basically a named value, where the name is acol umnlit eral constant. If you line up cells with the samecol inside a table, the cells will form a column in the sparse table matrix.

  • cell ::= ( col slot )
  • col ::= ^oid /*default scope is c*/ | name
  • name ::= [a-zA-Z:_] [a-zA-Z:_+-?!]*
  • slot ::= ^oid /*default scope is a*/ | =literal
  • oid ::= id | id:scope

Note cells can also refer to a row or a table byoid , even if this feature is not actually used by specific Mork applications.

In practice, a reader might allowcol umnname s to include any byte except ^, =, or ). Notice that an empty literal value in column sn will be written like this: (sn=).


Atable is a collection ofrow s. I can't recall whether they are ordered; my guess is no, since otherwise you'd plausibly be able to add atwice twice in different positions. I think eachtable is amap (hashmap) ofrow s, mappingroid s torow s, in which case memberrow s might appear in any order.

But I seem to recall the idea of using tables to represent the sorted ordering of other tables. So maybe tables are ordered, in which case an array representation is also a good idea. In any case, the Mork syntax for serialization is immune to such concerns.

  • table ::= { toid (metatable | row | roid )* }
  • toid ::= oid /*default scope is c*/
  • metatable ::= { (cell)* }
{ 1:cards {(rowScope=cards)(tableKind=Johns)} 1 2 }

Themetatable containscell s of metainfo, but Mork only considers a few possiblecol umns interesting. Here we see the defaultscope forroid rowid s has been set to cards using (rowScope=cards). This means the rowid s 1 and 2 are understood the same as if they had been written 1:cards and 2:cards, or alternatively as 1:^80 and 2:^80 (assuming ^80 resolves to cards).

The role (or purpose or type) of the table is specified by (tableKind=Johns). This supports an examination of tables at runtime bykind instead of merely bytoid tableoid .

{ 1:^80 {(rowScope^80:c)(tableKind=Johns)} 1:^80 2:^80 } // with oids

Here the table has been rewritten usinglit eraloid s instead of stringlit erals. But this table is considered identity to the last, ifoid 80:c has been defined as cards in somedict .

{ 1:^80 {(rowScope^80:c)(tableKind=Johns)} // with explicit row cells
  [ 1:^80 (^81^90)(^82^91)(^83^92)(^84^93)(^85^94)(^86^95)(^87^96)]
  [ 2 ( Galt)]

This last version of the same table actually defines contents of the memberrow s using explicit [] notation. You need only define a row in one place, and any other use of that same row can include the row as a member by reference, using only the row'soid . The Mork writer for Mozilla in 2000 made an effort to write the actual contents of any entity one time only, by keeping track of whether it was "clean" in the sense of having been written once already in the current printing task.


Each object has a unique identity called anoid (foro bjectid entity), composed of two parts:id andscope .

Notescope is a short synonym fornamespace . Please avoid confusing this use of the word namespace with any other. (There isno relation to the meaning of namespace under XML, except in similar function.)

Mork reverses conventional namespace order, with namespace coming last instead of first. Mork usesid :scope instead ofnamespace :name . But it's all the same.

The purpose ofscope namespaces is to allow content from multiple apps to mix in a single Mork store without possibility of identity collision, as long as apps use different namespaces. Very long scope names to ensure uniqueness has no penalty because scopes can appear by id instead of by name.


Mork is grounded in primitive interned-string octet sequence values, usually calledatom s. (David Bienvenu prefersatomized strings tointerned strings.) This terminology makes an assumption about Mork implementations: each value namespace scope should have a map hashing string keys toatom values, so every instance of the same string can be shared as the sameatom instance. You needn't do this, but it's less confusing if you do. You also want a map from id to atom, to resolveval hex oid references.


Mork doesn't know or care about unicode or wide characters. All Mork content is uninterpreted octet sequences, containing whatever an app likes. All content that looks like binary is escaped, so it won't interfere with Mork's markup, which is basically ascii (or the moral equivalent). Mork's simple syntax for framing embedded content does not constrain the type of content put inside. Mork does not escape binary content very efficiently, typically using three bytes to represent each awkward byte: zero appears in hex as $00. (The choice of $ as metacharacter was arbitrary, and picked to be less common within Mozilla embedded content. Space efficiency for binary was never high priority in whimsical demands from managment.)


Why is there more than one namespace for octet string vals? Column names have their own namespace so the ids of columns will usually be no more than two hex digits in length, assuming an app does not have a huge number of distinct attribute names.

If cols and vals were in the same namespace, Mork files would likely be larger if common column names had ids that were longer. So this is a compression strategy, making the format more complex.


Parts of Mork are self describing, making it reflective. This causes a bootstrap problem where metainfo would describe itself, and well known constants would be desired for scope names. For this reason, Mork defines the ids of single byte scope names specially: the integer value of a single octet name is defined to be the id of that name. This means all scope name ids less than 0x80 are already assigned. A Mork implementation must dynamically assign ids increasing from 0x80.

Default scope names forcol 's and ordinary atomval' s are defined as follows:

  • col - c (for col) with id 0x63 (equal to 'c')
  • val - a (for atom) with id 0x61 (equal to 'a')


Mork models an app object with arow , where each object attribute is a separate cell in the row. The attribute name is the column. A collection of objects is a sparse matrix in the form of a table enumerating rows.

Mork also represents the attributes as metainfo as a row, so the anotation of a table or row with metainfo appears as another row, distinguished by privileged syntax. Primary parts of metainfo include object identity, kind or type, and default scope for contained objects.

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