Rhino overview


Most people who have used JavaScript before have done so by adding scripts to their HTML web pages. However, Rhino is an implementation of the core language only and doesn't contain objects or methods for manipulating HTML documents.

Rhino contains


The JavaScript language itself is standardized by Standard ECMA-262 ECMAScript: A general purpose, cross-platform programming language. Rhino 1.3 and greater conform to Edition 3 of the Standard.

Rhino 1.6 and greater implement ECMA-357 ECMAScript for XML (E4X). See the specification for more information on the standard, and Rhino version 1.6R1 release notes for details on the implementation in Rhino.

In addition, Rhino has implemented JavaAdapters, which allows JavaScript to implement any Java interface or extend any Java class with a JavaScript object. See the enum.js example for more information.

Numerous books and tutorials on JavaScript are available. JavaScript: The Definitive Guide is recommended, and contains a chapter on Rhino.

Deprecated Language Features

Several language features introduced in JavaScript 1.2 are now deprecated. These features allow "computational reflection": that is, the ability for a script to determine and influence aspects of the way it is evaluated. These features are generally not broadly useful, yet they impose significant constraints on implementations that hamper or prevent optimization. The deprecated features are the __proto__ and __parent__ properties, and the constructors With, Closure, and Call. Attempts to invoke these constructors with the language version 1.4 will result in an error. For other versions, a warning will be generated.


The messages reported by the JavaScript engine are by default retrieved from the property file org/mozilla/javascript/resources/Messages.properties. If other properties files with extensions corresponding to the current locale exist, they will be used instead.

JavaScript Language Versions

Some behavior in the JavaScript engine is dependent on the language version. In browser embeddings, this language version is selected using the LANGUAGE attribute of the SCRIPT tag with values such as "JavaScript1.2".

Version 1.3 and greater are ECMA conformant.

Operators == and !=

Version 1.2 only uses strict equality for the == and != operators. In version 1.3 and greater, == and != have the same meanings as ECMA. The operators === and !== use strict equality in all versions.


Boolean(new Boolean(false)) is false for all versions before 1.3. It is true (and thus ECMA conformant) for version 1.3 and greater.

Array.prototype.toString and Object.prototype.toString

Version 1.2 only returns array or object literal notation ("[1]" or "{a:1, b:2}" for example). In version 1.3 and greater these functions are ECMA conformant.

Array constructor

Array(i) for a number argument i constructs an array with a single element equal to i for version 1.2 only. Otherwise the ECMA conformant version is used (an array is constructed with no elements but with length property equal to i).


For version 1.2 only, the two arguments are not swapped if the first argument is less than the second one. All other versions are ECMA compliant.


For version 1.2 only, split performs the Perl4 special case when given a single space character as an argument (skips leading whitespace, and splits on whitespace). All other versions split on the space character proper as specified by ECMA.


The security features in Rhino provide the ability to track the origin of a piece of code (and any pieces of code that it may in turn generate). These features allow for the implementation of a traditional URL-based security policy for JavaScript as in Netscape Navigator. Embeddings that trust the JavaScript code they execute may ignore the security features.

Embeddings that run untrusted JavaScript code must do two things to enable the security features. First, every Context that is created must be supplied an instance of an object that implements the SecuritySupport interface. This will provide Rhino the support functionality it needs to perform security-related tasks.

Second, the value of the property security.requireSecurityDomain should be changed to true in the resource bundle org.mozilla.javascript.resources.Security. The value of this property can be determined at runtime by calling the isSecurityDomainRequired method of Context. Setting this property to true requires that any calls that compile or evaluate JavaScript must supply a security domain object of any object type that will be used to identify JavaScript code. In a typical client embedding, this object might be a string with the URL of the server that supplied the script, or an object that contains a representation of the signers of a piece of code for certificate-based security policies.

When JavaScript code attempts a restricted action, the security domain can be retrieved in the following manner. The class context should be obtained from the security manager (see java.lang.SecurityManager.getClassContext()). Then, the class of the code that called to request the restricted action can be obtained by looking an appropriate index into the class context array. If the caller is JavaScript the class obtained may be one of two types. First, it may be the class of the interpreter if interpretive mode is in effect. Second, it may be a generated class if classfile generation is supported. An embedding can distinguish the two cases by calling isInterpreterClass() in the Context class. If it is the interpreter class, call the getInterpreterSecurityDomain() method of Context to obtain the security domain of the currently executing interpreted script or function. Otherwise, it must be a generated class, and an embedding can call getSecurityDomain() in the class implementing SecuritySupport. When the class was defined and loaded, the appropriate security domain was associated with it, and can be retrieved by calling this method. Once the security domain has been determined, an embedding can perform whatever checks are appropriate to determine whether access should be allowed.

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 Contributors to this page: Sheppy, Sevenspade, Norrisboyd, kohei.yoshino, Mgjbot
 Last updated by: Sheppy,