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NSS tools : signtool

Name

   signtool — Digitally sign objects and files.

Synopsis

   signtool [-k keyName] -h -H -l -L -M -v -w
   -G nickname -s size -b basename [[-c Compression
   Level] ] [[-d cert-dir] ] [[-i installer script] ] [[-m metafile] ] [[-x
   name] ] [[-f filename] ] [[-t|--token tokenname] ] [[-e extension] ] [[-o]
   ] [[-z] ] [[-X] ] [[--outfile] ] [[--verbose value] ] [[--norecurse] ]
   [[--leavearc] ] [[-j directory] ] [[-Z jarfile] ] [[-O] ] [[-p password] ]
   [directory-tree] [archive]

Description

   The Signing Tool, signtool, creates digital signatures and uses a Java
   Archive (JAR) file to associate the signatures with files in a directory.
   Electronic software distribution over any network involves potential
   security problems. To help address some of these problems, you can
   associate digital signatures with the files in a JAR archive. Digital
   signatures allow SSL-enabled clients to perform two important operations:

   * Confirm the identity of the individual, company, or other entity whose
   digital signature is associated with the files

   * Check whether the files have been tampered with since being signed

   If you have a signing certificate, you can use Netscape Signing Tool to
   digitally sign files and package them as a JAR file. An object-signing
   certificate is a special kind of certificate that allows you to associate
   your digital signature with one or more files.

   An individual file can potentially be signed with multiple digital
   signatures. For example, a commercial software developer might sign the
   files that constitute a software product to prove that the files are
   indeed from a particular company. A network administrator manager might
   sign the same files with an additional digital signature based on a
   company-generated certificate to indicate that the product is approved for
   use within the company.

   The significance of a digital signature is comparable to the significance
   of a handwritten signature. Once you have signed a file, it is difficult
   to claim later that you didn't sign it. In some situations, a digital
   signature may be considered as legally binding as a handwritten signature.
   Therefore, you should take great care to ensure that you can stand behind
   any file you sign and distribute.

   For example, if you are a software developer, you should test your code to
   make sure it is virus-free before signing it. Similarly, if you are a
   network administrator, you should make sure, before signing any code, that
   it comes from a reliable source and will run correctly with the software
   installed on the machines to which you are distributing it.

   Before you can use Netscape Signing Tool to sign files, you must have an
   object-signing certificate, which is a special certificate whose
   associated private key is used to create digital signatures. For testing
   purposes only, you can create an object-signing certificate with Netscape
   Signing Tool 1.3. When testing is finished and you are ready to
   disitribute your software, you should obtain an object-signing certificate
   from one of two kinds of sources:

   * An independent certificate authority (CA) that authenticates your
   identity and charges you a fee. You typically get a certificate from an
   independent CA if you want to sign software that will be distributed over
   the Internet.

   * CA server software running on your corporate intranet or extranet.
   Netscape Certificate Management System provides a complete management
   solution for creating, deploying, and managing certificates, including CAs
   that issue object-signing certificates.

   You must also have a certificate for the CA that issues your signing
   certificate before you can sign files. If the certificate authority's
   certificate isn't already installed in your copy of Communicator, you
   typically install it by clicking the appropriate link on the certificate
   authority's web site, for example on the page from which you initiated
   enrollment for your signing certificate. This is the case for some test
   certificates, as well as certificates issued by Netscape Certificate
   Management System: you must download the the CA certificate in addition to
   obtaining your own signing certificate. CA certificates for several
   certificate authorities are preinstalled in the Communicator certificate
   database.

   When you receive an object-signing certificate for your own use, it is
   automatically installed in your copy of the Communicator client software.
   Communicator supports the public-key cryptography standard known as PKCS
   #12, which governs key portability. You can, for example, move an
   object-signing certificate and its associated private key from one
   computer to another on a credit-card-sized device called a smart card.

Options

   -b basename

           Specifies the base filename for the .rsa and .sf files in the
           META-INF directory to conform with the JAR format. For example, -b
           signatures causes the files to be named signatures.rsa and
           signatures.sf. The default is signtool.

   -c#

           Specifies the compression level for the -J or -Z option. The
           symbol # represents a number from 0 to 9, where 0 means no
           compression and 9 means maximum compression. The higher the level
           of compression, the smaller the output but the longer the
           operation takes. If the -c# option is not used with either the -J
           or the -Z option, the default compression value used by both the
           -J and -Z options is 6.

   -d certdir

           Specifies your certificate database directory; that is, the
           directory in which you placed your key3.db and cert7.db files. To
           specify the current directory, use "-d." (including the period).
           The Unix version of signtool assumes ~/.netscape unless told
           otherwise. The NT version of signtool always requires the use of
           the -d option to specify where the database files are located.

   -e extension

           Tells signtool to sign only files with the given extension; for
           example, use -e".class" to sign only Java class files. Note that
           with Netscape Signing Tool version 1.1 and later this option can
           appear multiple times on one command line, making it possible to
           specify multiple file types or classes to include.

   -f commandfile

           Specifies a text file containing Netscape Signing Tool options and
           arguments in keyword=value format. All options and arguments can
           be expressed through this file. For more information about the
           syntax used with this file, see "Tips and Techniques".

   -i scriptname

           Specifies the name of an installer script for SmartUpdate. This
           script installs files from the JAR archive in the local system
           after SmartUpdate has validated the digital signature. For more
           details, see the description of -m that follows. The -i option
           provides a straightforward way to provide this information if you
           don't need to specify any metadata other than an installer script.

   -j directory

           Specifies a special JavaScript directory. This option causes the
           specified directory to be signed and tags its entries as inline
           JavaScript. This special type of entry does not have to appear in
           the JAR file itself. Instead, it is located in the HTML page
           containing the inline scripts. When you use signtool -v, these
           entries are displayed with the string NOT PRESENT.

   -k key ... directory

           Specifies the nickname (key) of the certificate you want to sign
           with and signs the files in the specified directory. The directory
           to sign is always specified as the last command-line argument.
           Thus, it is possible to write signtool -k MyCert -d . signdir You
           may have trouble if the nickname contains a single quotation mark.
           To avoid problems, escape the quotation mark using the escape
           conventions for your platform. It's also possible to use the -k
           option without signing any files or specifying a directory. For
           example, you can use it with the -l option to get detailed
           information about a particular signing certificate.

   -G nickname

           Generates a new private-public key pair and corresponding
           object-signing certificate with the given nickname. The newly
           generated keys and certificate are installed into the key and
           certificate databases in the directory specified by the -d option.
           With the NT version of Netscape Signing Tool, you must use the -d
           option with the -G option. With the Unix version of Netscape
           Signing Tool, omitting the -d option causes the tool to install
           the keys and certificate in the Communicator key and certificate
           databases. If you are installing the keys and certificate in the
           Communicator databases, you must exit Communicator before using
           this option; otherwise, you risk corrupting the databases. In all
           cases, the certificate is also output to a file named x509.cacert,
           which has the MIME-type application/x-x509-ca-cert. Unlike
           certificates normally used to sign finished code to be distributed
           over a network, a test certificate created with -G is not signed
           by a recognized certificate authority. Instead, it is self-signed.
           In addition, a single test signing certificate functions as both
           an object-signing certificate and a CA. When you are using it to
           sign objects, it behaves like an object-signing certificate. When
           it is imported into browser software such as Communicator, it
           behaves like an object-signing CA and cannot be used to sign
           objects. The -G option is available in Netscape Signing Tool 1.0
           and later versions only. By default, it produces only RSA
           certificates with 1024-byte keys in the internal token. However,
           you can use the -s option specify the required key size and the -t
           option to specify the token. For more information about the use of
           the -G option, see "Generating Test Object-Signing
           Certificates""Generating Test Object-Signing Certificates" on page
           1241.

   -l

           Lists signing certificates, including issuing CAs. If any of your
           certificates are expired or invalid, the list will so specify.
           This option can be used with the -k option to list detailed
           information about a particular signing certificate. The -l option
           is available in Netscape Signing Tool 1.0 and later versions only.

   -J

           Signs a directory of HTML files containing JavaScript and creates
           as many archive files as are specified in the HTML tags. Even if
           signtool creates more than one archive file, you need to supply
           the key database password only once. The -J option is available
           only in Netscape Signing Tool 1.0 and later versions. The -J
           option cannot be used at the same time as the -Z option. If the
           -c# option is not used with the -J option, the default compression
           value is 6. Note that versions 1.1 and later of Netscape Signing
           Tool correctly recognizes the CODEBASE attribute, allows paths to
           be expressed for the CLASS and SRC attributes instead of filenames
           only, processes LINK tags and parses HTML correctly, and offers
           clearer error messages.

   -L

           Lists the certificates in your database. An asterisk appears to
           the left of the nickname for any certificate that can be used to
           sign objects with signtool.

   --leavearc

           Retains the temporary .arc (archive) directories that the -J
           option creates. These directories are automatically erased by
           default. Retaining the temporary directories can be an aid to
           debugging.

   -m metafile

           Specifies the name of a metadata control file. Metadata is signed
           information attached either to the JAR archive itself or to files
           within the archive. This metadata can be any ASCII string, but is
           used mainly for specifying an installer script. The metadata file
           contains one entry per line, each with three fields: field #1:
           file specification, or + if you want to specify global metadata
           (that is, metadata about the JAR archive itself or all entries in
           the archive) field #2: the name of the data you are specifying;
           for example: Install-Script field #3: data corresponding to the
           name in field #2 For example, the -i option uses the equivalent of
           this line: + Install-Script: script.js This example associates a
           MIME type with a file: movie.qt MIME-Type: video/quicktime For
           information about the way installer script information appears in
           the manifest file for a JAR archive, see The JAR Format on
           Netscape DevEdge.

   -M

           Lists the PKCS #11 modules available to signtool, including smart
           cards. The -M option is available in Netscape Signing Tool 1.0 and
           later versions only. For information on using Netscape Signing
           Tool with smart cards, see "Using Netscape Signing Tool with Smart
           Cards". For information on using the -M option to verify
           FIPS-140-1 validated mode, see "Netscape Signing Tool and
           FIPS-140-1".

   --norecurse

           Blocks recursion into subdirectories when signing a directory's
           contents or when parsing HTML.

   -o

           Optimizes the archive for size. Use this only if you are signing
           very large archives containing hundreds of files. This option
           makes the manifest files (required by the JAR format) considerably
           smaller, but they contain slightly less information.

   --outfile outputfile

           Specifies a file to receive redirected output from Netscape
           Signing Tool.

   -p password

           Specifies a password for the private-key database. Note that the
           password entered on the command line is displayed as plain text.

   -s keysize

           Specifies the size of the key for generated certificate. Use the
           -M option to find out what tokens are available. The -s option can
           be used with the -G option only.

   -t token

           Specifies which available token should generate the key and
           receive the certificate. Use the -M option to find out what tokens
           are available. The -t option can be used with the -G option only.

   -v archive

           Displays the contents of an archive and verifies the cryptographic
           integrity of the digital signatures it contains and the files with
           which they are associated. This includes checking that the
           certificate for the issuer of the object-signing certificate is
           listed in the certificate database, that the CA's digital
           signature on the object-signing certificate is valid, that the
           relevant certificates have not expired, and so on.

   --verbosity value

           Sets the quantity of information Netscape Signing Tool generates
           in operation. A value of 0 (zero) is the default and gives full
           information. A value of -1 suppresses most messages, but not error
           messages.

   -w archive

           Displays the names of signers of any files in the archive.

   -x directory

           Excludes the specified directory from signing. Note that with
           Netscape Signing Tool version 1.1 and later this option can appear
           multiple times on one command line, making it possible to specify
           several particular directories to exclude.

   -z

           Tells signtool not to store the signing time in the digital
           signature. This option is useful if you want the expiration date
           of the signature checked against the current date and time rather
           than the time the files were signed.

   -Z jarfile

           Creates a JAR file with the specified name. You must specify this
           option if you want signtool to create the JAR file; it does not do
           so automatically. If you don't specify -Z, you must use an
           external ZIP tool to create the JAR file. The -Z option cannot be
           used at the same time as the -J option. If the -c# option is not
           used with the -Z option, the default compression value is 6.

The Command File Format

   Entries in a Netscape Signing Tool command file have this general format:
   keyword=value Everything before the = sign on a single line is a keyword,
   and everything from the = sign to the end of line is a value. The value
   may include = signs; only the first = sign on a line is interpreted. Blank
   lines are ignored, but white space on a line with keywords and values is
   assumed to be part of the keyword (if it comes before the equal sign) or
   part of the value (if it comes after the first equal sign). Keywords are
   case insensitive, values are generally case sensitive. Since the = sign
   and newline delimit the value, it should not be quoted.

   Subsection

   basename

           Same as -b option.

   compression

           Same as -c option.

   certdir

           Same as -d option.

   extension

           Same as -e option.

   generate

           Same as -G option.

   installscript

           Same as -i option.

   javascriptdir

           Same as -j option.

   htmldir

           Same as -J option.

   certname

           Nickname of certificate, as with -k and -l -k options.

   signdir

           The directory to be signed, as with -k option.

   list

           Same as -l option. Value is ignored, but = sign must be present.

   listall

           Same as -L option. Value is ignored, but = sign must be present.

   metafile

           Same as -m option.

   modules

           Same as -M option. Value is ignored, but = sign must be present.

   optimize

           Same as -o option. Value is ignored, but = sign must be present.

   password

           Same as -p option.

   keysize

           Same as -s option.

   token

           Same as -t option.

   verify

           Same as -v option.

   who

           Same as -w option.

   exclude

           Same as -x option.

   notime

           Same as -z option. value is ignored, but = sign must be present.

   jarfile

           Same as -Z option.

   outfile

           Name of a file to which output and error messages will be
           redirected. This option has no command-line equivalent.

Extended Examples

   The following example will do this and that

   Listing Available Signing Certificates

   You use the -L option to list the nicknames for all available certificates
   and check which ones are signing certificates.

 signtool -L

 using certificate directory: /u/jsmith/.netscape
 S Certificates
 - ------------
   BBN Certificate Services CA Root 1
   IBM World Registry CA
   VeriSign Class 1 CA - Individual Subscriber - VeriSign, Inc.
   GTE CyberTrust Root CA
   Uptime Group Plc. Class 4 CA
 * Verisign Object Signing Cert
   Integrion CA
   GTE CyberTrust Secure Server CA
   AT&T Directory Services
 * test object signing cert
   Uptime Group Plc. Class 1 CA
   VeriSign Class 1 Primary CA
 - ------------

 Certificates that can be used to sign objects have *'s to their left.

   Two signing certificates are displayed: Verisign Object Signing Cert and
   test object signing cert.

   You use the -l option to get a list of signing certificates only,
   including the signing CA for each.

 signtool -l

 using certificate directory: /u/jsmith/.netscape
 Object signing certificates
 ---------------------------------------

 Verisign Object Signing Cert
     Issued by: VeriSign, Inc. - Verisign, Inc.
     Expires: Tue May 19, 1998
 test object signing cert
     Issued by: test object signing cert (Signtool 1.0 Testing
 Certificate (960187691))
     Expires: Sun May 17, 1998
 ---------------------------------------

   For a list including CAs, use the -L option.

   Signing a File

   1. Create an empty directory.

 mkdir signdir

   2. Put some file into it.

 echo boo > signdir/test.f

   3. Specify the name of your object-signing certificate and sign the
   directory.

 signtool -k MySignCert -Z testjar.jar signdir

 using key "MySignCert"
 using certificate directory: /u/jsmith/.netscape
 Generating signdir/META-INF/manifest.mf file..
 --> test.f
 adding signdir/test.f to testjar.jar
 Generating signtool.sf file..
 Enter Password or Pin for "Communicator Certificate DB":

 adding signdir/META-INF/manifest.mf to testjar.jar
 adding signdir/META-INF/signtool.sf to testjar.jar
 adding signdir/META-INF/signtool.rsa to testjar.jar

 tree "signdir" signed successfully

   4. Test the archive you just created.

 signtool -v testjar.jar

 using certificate directory: /u/jsmith/.netscape
 archive "testjar.jar" has passed crypto verification.
            status   path
      ------------   -------------------
          verified   test.f

   Using Netscape Signing Tool with a ZIP Utility

   To use Netscape Signing Tool with a ZIP utility, you must have the utility
   in your path environment variable. You should use the zip.exe utility
   rather than pkzip.exe, which cannot handle long filenames. You can use a
   ZIP utility instead of the -Z option to package a signed archive into a
   JAR file after you have signed it:

 cd signdir

   zip -r ../myjar.jar *
   adding: META-INF/ (stored 0%)
   adding: META-INF/manifest.mf (deflated 15%)
   adding: META-INF/signtool.sf (deflated 28%)
   adding: META-INF/signtool.rsa (stored 0%)
   adding: text.txt (stored 0%)

   Generating the Keys and Certificate

   The signtool option -G generates a new public-private key pair and
   certificate. It takes the nickname of the new certificate as an argument.
   The newly generated keys and certificate are installed into the key and
   certificate databases in the directory specified by the -d option. With
   the NT version of Netscape Signing Tool, you must use the -d option with
   the -G option. With the Unix version of Netscape Signing Tool, omitting
   the -d option causes the tool to install the keys and certificate in the
   Communicator key and certificate databases. In all cases, the certificate
   is also output to a file named x509.cacert, which has the MIME-type
   application/x-x509-ca-cert.

   Certificates contain standard information about the entity they identify,
   such as the common name and organization name. Netscape Signing Tool
   prompts you for this information when you run the command with the -G
   option. However, all of the requested fields are optional for test
   certificates. If you do not enter a common name, the tool provides a
   default name. In the following example, the user input is in boldface:

 signtool -G MyTestCert

 using certificate directory: /u/someuser/.netscape
 Enter certificate information. All fields are optional. Acceptable
 characters are numbers, letters, spaces, and apostrophes.
 certificate common name: Test Object Signing Certificate
 organization: Netscape Communications Corp.
 organization unit: Server Products Division
 state or province: California
 country (must be exactly 2 characters): US
 username: someuser
 email address: someuser@netscape.com
 Enter Password or Pin for "Communicator Certificate DB": [Password will not echo]
 generated public/private key pair
 certificate request generated
 certificate has been signed
 certificate "MyTestCert" added to database
 Exported certificate to x509.raw and x509.cacert.

   The certificate information is read from standard input. Therefore, the
   information can be read from a file using the redirection operator (<) in
   some operating systems. To create a file for this purpose, enter each of
   the seven input fields, in order, on a separate line. Make sure there is a
   newline character at the end of the last line. Then run signtool with
   standard input redirected from your file as follows:

 signtool -G MyTestCert inputfile

   The prompts show up on the screen, but the responses will be automatically
   read from the file. The password will still be read from the console
   unless you use the -p option to give the password on the command line.

   Using the -M Option to List Smart Cards

   You can use the -M option to list the PKCS #11 modules, including smart
   cards, that are available to signtool:

 signtool -d "c:\netscape\users\jsmith" -M

 using certificate directory: c:\netscape\users\username
 Listing of PKCS11 modules
 -----------------------------------------------
         1. Netscape Internal PKCS #11 Module
                           (this module is internally loaded)
                           slots: 2 slots attached
                           status: loaded
           slot: Communicator Internal Cryptographic Services Version 4.0
          token: Communicator Generic Crypto Svcs
           slot: Communicator User Private Key and Certificate Services
          token: Communicator Certificate DB
         2. CryptOS
                           (this is an external module)
  DLL name: core32
          slots: 1 slots attached
         status: loaded
           slot: Litronic 210
          token:
         -----------------------------------------------

   Using Netscape Signing Tool and a Smart Card to Sign Files

   The signtool command normally takes an argument of the -k option to
   specify a signing certificate. To sign with a smart card, you supply only
   the fully qualified name of the certificate.

   To see fully qualified certificate names when you run Communicator, click
   the Security button in Navigator, then click Yours under Certificates in
   the left frame. Fully qualified names are of the format smart
   card:certificate, for example "MyCard:My Signing Cert". You use this name
   with the -k argument as follows:

 signtool -k "MyCard:My Signing Cert" directory

   Verifying FIPS Mode

   Use the -M option to verify that you are using the FIPS-140-1 module.

 signtool -d "c:\netscape\users\jsmith" -M

 using certificate directory: c:\netscape\users\jsmith
 Listing of PKCS11 modules
 -----------------------------------------------
   1. Netscape Internal PKCS #11 Module
           (this module is internally loaded)
           slots: 2 slots attached
           status: loaded
     slot: Communicator Internal Cryptographic Services Version 4.0
    token: Communicator Generic Crypto Svcs
     slot: Communicator User Private Key and Certificate Services
    token: Communicator Certificate DB
 -----------------------------------------------

   This Unix example shows that Netscape Signing Tool is using a FIPS-140-1
   module:

 signtool -d "c:\netscape\users\jsmith" -M
 using certificate directory: c:\netscape\users\jsmith
 Enter Password or Pin for "Communicator Certificate DB": [password will not echo]
 Listing of PKCS11 modules
 -----------------------------------------------
 1. Netscape Internal FIPS PKCS #11 Module
 (this module is internally loaded)
 slots: 1 slots attached
 status: loaded
 slot: Netscape Internal FIPS-140-1 Cryptographic Services
 token: Communicator Certificate DB
 -----------------------------------------------

See Also

   signver (1)

   The NSS wiki has information on the new database design and how to
   configure applications to use it.

     o https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

     o https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

Additional Resources

   For information about NSS and other tools related to NSS (like JSS), check
   out the NSS project wiki at
   [1]http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/. The NSS site relates
   directly to NSS code changes and releases.

   Mailing lists: https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-tech-crypto

   IRC: Freenode at #dogtag-pki

Authors

   The NSS tools were written and maintained by developers with Netscape, Red
   Hat, and Sun.

   Authors: Elio Maldonado <emaldona@redhat.com>, Deon Lackey
   <dlackey@redhat.com>.

Copyright

   (c) 2010, Red Hat, Inc. Licensed under the GNU Public License version 2.

References

   Visible links
   1. http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/

Document Tags and Contributors

 Contributors to this page: fscholz, emaldona@redhat.com
 Last updated by: fscholz,