In automated testing we often use
app objects to abstract code. This reduces duplication of code and locators. If we need to change a common section of code we can change it only in a single
app object, rather than having to change it in 10 or 20 test files. This article provides the basics of how to use
App objects: getting started
app object is a Python class containing methods and properties that represent actions on the page. Let's look at how we might use these in a theoretical example.
Here is a frame we might use for the Homepage app with some pseudo-code included.
class Homepage: __init__(self, marionette): # Marionette is passed in so that the object can use it self.marionette = marionette def switch_to_homepage_frame(self): # Code for switching to System then to Homepage frame def tap_contacts_icon(self): # Code to tap the icon # Switch to Contacts frame # Now we return the Contacts app object as it has focus from contacts import Contacts return Contacts(self.marionette)
And here's what we might use for the Contacts app, again with some pseudo-code.
class Contacts: _new_contact_button = (By.ID, ‘id’) def tap_new_contact(self): # Tap new contact icon # Wait for event def type_given_name(self, name_string): # element.send_keys(name_string)
To understand how this works in the context of a test, here is a quick sample that makes use of the
from homepage import Homepage def test_add_contact(self): homepage = Homepage(self.marionette) homepage.switch_to_homepage_frame() contacts = homepage.tap_contacts_icon() contacts.tap_new_contact()
Updating your tests
From here we'd like to challenge you to update all of your test files to use the new app objects system.
This is a difficult task and if you’re not familiar with Python class structures you may need to consult some books for references and code samples.
When you have finished ideally you will have a clear separation between test files:
TestBasewill contain the
appobjects will contain page interactions and locators
- Your test files will contain just the test steps.