Add-ons using the techniques described in this document are considered a legacy technology in Firefox. Don't use these techniques to develop new add-ons. Use WebExtensions instead. If you maintain an add-on which uses the techniques described here, consider migrating it to use WebExtensions.

From Firefox 53 onwards, no new legacy add-ons will be accepted on (AMO).

From Firefox 57 onwards, WebExtensions will be the only supported extension type, and Firefox will not load other types.

Even before Firefox 57, changes coming up in the Firefox platform will break many legacy extensions. These changes include multiprocess Firefox (e10s), sandboxing, and multiple content processes. Legacy extensions that are affected by these changes should migrate to WebExtensions if they can. See the "Compatibility Milestones" document for more.

A wiki page containing resources, migration paths, office hours, and more, is available to help developers transition to the new technologies.


Implementation of promises to make asynchronous programming easier.


Most of the JS APIs are asynchronous complementing its non-blocking nature. While this has a good reason and many advantages, it comes with a price. Instead of structuring our programs into logical black boxes:

function blackbox(a, b) {
  var c = assemble(a);
  return combine(b, c);

We're forced into continuation passing style, involving lots of machinery:

function sphagetti(a, b, callback) {
  assemble(a, function continueWith(error, c) {
    if (error) callback(error);
    else combine(b, c, callback);

This style also makes doing things in sequence hard:

widget.on('click', function onClick() {
  promptUserForTwitterHandle(function continueWith(error, handle) {
    if (error) return ui.displayError(error);
    twitter.getTweetsFor(handle, funtion continueWith(error, tweets) {
      if (error) return ui.displayError(error);

Doing things in parallel is even harder:

var tweets, answers, checkins;
twitter.getTweetsFor(user, function continueWith(result) {
  tweets = result;

stackOverflow.getAnswersFor(question, function continueWith(result) {
  answers = result;

fourSquare.getCheckinsBy(user, function continueWith(result) {

var finished = 0;
function somethingFinished() {
  if (++finished === 3), answers, checkins);

This also makes error handling quite an adventure.


Consider another approach, instead of continuation via callbacks, a function returns an object that represents a eventual result, either successful or failed. This object is a promise, both figuratively and by name, to eventually resolve. We can call a function on the promise to observe either its fulfillment or rejection. If the promise is rejected and the rejection is not explicitly observed, any derived promises will be implicitly rejected for the same reason.

In the Add-on SDK we follow CommonJS Promises/A specification and model a promise as an object with a then method, which can be used to get the eventual return (fulfillment) value or thrown exception (rejection):

foo().then(function success(value) {
  // ...
}, function failure(reason) {
  // ...

If foo returns a promise that gets fulfilled with the valuesuccess callback (the value handler) will be called with that value. However, if the returned promise gets rejected, the failure callback (the error handler) will be called with the reason of an error.


The then method of a promise returns a new promise that is resolved with the return value of either handler. Since a function can either return a value or throw an exception, only one handler will ever be called.

var bar = foo().then(function success(value) {
  // compute something from a value...
}, function failure(reason) {
  // handle an error...

In this example bar is a promise and it's fulfilled by one of two handlers that are responsible for:

  • If handler returns a value, bar will be resolved with it.
  • If handler throws an exception, bar will be rejected with it.
  • If handler returns a promise, bar will "become" that promise. To be more precise it will be resolved with a resolution value of the returned promise, which will appear and feel as if it was that returned promise.

If the foo() promise gets rejected and you omit the error handler, the error will propagate to bar (bar will be rejected with that error):

var bar = foo().then(function success(value) {
  // compute something out of the value...

If the foo() promise gets fulfilled and you omit the value handler, the value will propagate to bar (bar will be fulfilled with that value):

var bar = foo().then(null, function failure(error) {
  // handle error...


There are two ways to chain promise operations. You can chain them using either inside or outside handlers.

Flat chaining

You can use then for chaining intermediate operations on promises (var data = readAsync().then(parse).then(extract)). You can chain multiple then functions, because then returns a promise resolved to a return value of an operation and errors propagate through the promise chains. In general good rule of thumb is to prefer then based flat chaining. It makes code easier to read and make changes later:

var data = readAsync(url).    // read content of url asynchronously
  then(parse).                // parse content from the url
  then(extractQuery).         // extract SQL query
  then(readDBAsync);          // exectue extracted query against DB

Nested chaining

Flat chaining is not always an option though, as in some cases you may want to capture intermediate values of the chain:

var result = readAsync(url).then(function(source) {
  var json = parse(source);
  return readDBAsync(extractQuery(json)).then(function(data) {
    return writeAsync(json.url, data);

In general, nesting is useful for computing values from more than one promise:

function eventualAdd(a, b) {
  return a.then(function (a) {
    return b.then(function (b) {
      return a + b;

var c = eventualAdd(aAsync(), bAsync());

Error handling

One sometimes-unintuitive aspect of promises is that if you throw an exception in the value handler, it will not be be caught by the error handler.

readAsync(url).then(function (value) {
  throw new Error("Can't bar.");
}, function (error) {
  // We only get here if `readAsync` fails.

To see why this is, consider the parallel between promises and try/catch. We are try-ing to execute readAsync(): the error handler represents a catch for readAsync(), while the value handler represents code that happens after the try/catch block. That code then needs its own try/catch block to handle errors there.

In terms of promises, this means chaining your error handler:

  then(null, function handleParseError(error) {
    // handle here both `readAsync` and `parse` errors.

Consuming promises

In general, the whole purpose of promises is to avoid the so-called callback spaghetti. As a matter of fact it would be great if we could convert any synchronous functions to asynchronous by making it aware of promises. Module exports promised function to do exactly that:

const { promised } = require('sdk/core/promise');
function sum(x, y) { return x + y };
var asyncSum = promised(sum);

var c = sum(a, b);
var cAsync = asyncSum(aAsync(), bAsync());

promised takes normal function and composes new promise-aware version of it. The composed function may take both normal values and promises as arguments and returns promise. The returned promise will resolve to value that would have been returned by an original function if it were called with fulfillment values of given arguments.

This technique is so powerful that it can replace most of the promise utility functions provided by other promise libraries. For example grouping promises to observe single resolution of all of them is as simple as this:

var group = promised(Array);
var abc = group(aAsync, bAsync, cAsync).then(function(items) {
  return items[0] + items[1] + items[2];


The all function is provided to consume an array of promises and return a promise that will be accepted upon the acceptance of all the promises in the initial array. This can be used to perform an action that requires values from several promises, like getting user information and server status, for example:

const { all } = require('sdk/core/promise');
all([getUser, getServerStatus]).then(function (result) {
  return result[0] + result[1]

If one of the promises in the array is rejected, the rejection handler handles the first failed promise and remaining promises remain unfulfilled.

const { all } = require('sdk/core/promise');
all([aAsync, failAsync, bAsync]).then(function (result) {
  // success function will not be called
  return result;
}, function (reason) {
  // rejection handler called because `failAsync` promise
  // was rejected with its reason propagated
  return reason;

Making promises

Everything above assumes you get a promise from somewhere else. This is the common case, but every once in a while, you will need to create a promise from scratch. Add-on SDK's promise module provides an API for doing that.


Module exports defer function, which is where all promises ultimately come from. Lets see the implementation of readAsync that we used in several of the examples above:

const { defer } = require('sdk/core/promise');
function readAsync(url) {
  var deferred = defer();

  let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();"GET", url, true);
  xhr.onload = function() {
  xhr.onerror = function(event) {

  return deferred.promise;

So defer returns an object that contains a promise and two resolve, reject functions that can be used to resolve / reject that promise. Note: A promise can be rejected or resolved only once. All subsequent attempts to either reject it or resolve it will be ignored.

Another simple example may be a delay function that returns a promise which is fulfilled with a given value after a given time ms -- kind of promise based alternative to setTimeout:

function delay(ms, value) {
  let { promise, resolve } = defer();
  setTimeout(resolve, ms, value);
  return promise;

delay(10, 'Hello world').then(console.log);
// After 10ms => 'Helo world'

Advanced usage

If general defer and promised should be enough to doing almost anything you may think of with promises, but once you start using promises extensively you may discover some missing pieces and this section of documentation may help you to discover them.

Doing things concurrently

So far we have being playing with promises that do things sequentially, but there are many cases where one would need to do things concurrently. In the following example we implement functions that take multiple promises and return one that resolves to first one being fulfilled:

function race() {
  let { promise, resolve } = defer();
  Array.slice(arguments).forEach(function(promise) {
  return promise;

var asyncAorB = race(readAsync(urlA), readAsync(urlB));

Note: that this implementation forgives failures and would fail if all promises fail to resolve.

There are cases when promise may or may not be fulfilled in a reasonable time. In such cases it's useful to put a timer on such tasks:

function timeout(promise, ms) {
  let deferred = defer();
  promise.then(deferred.resolve, deferred.reject);
  delay(ms, 'timeout').then(deferred.reject);
  return deferred.promise;

var tweets = readAsync(url);
timeout(tweets, 20).then(function(data) {
}, function() {
  alert('Network is being too slow, try again later');

Alternative promise APIs

There may be cases where you will want to provide more than just then method on your promises. In fact some other promise frameworks do that. Such use cases are also supported. Earlier described defer may be passed optional prototype argument, in order to make the returned promise and all the subsequent promises decendents of that prototype:

let { promise, resolve } = defer({
  get: function get(name) {
    return this.then(function(value) {
      return value[name];

resolve({ foo: { bar: 'taram !!' } });

// => 'taram !!'

Also promised function maybe be passed a second optional prototype argument to achieve the same effect.

Treat all values as promises

Module provides a simple function for wrapping values into promises:

const { resolve } = require('sdk/core/promise');

var a = resolve(5).then(function(value) {
  return value + 2;
a.then(console.log);  // => 7

Also resolve not only takes values, but also promises. If you pass it a promise it will return a new identical one:

const { resolve } = require('sdk/core/promise');

resolve(resolve(resolve(3))).then(console.log); // => 3

This construct may look strange at first, but it becomes quite handy when writing functions that deal with both promises and values. In such cases it's usually easier to wrap value into promise than branch on value type:

function or(a, b) {
  var second = resolve(b).then(function(bValue) { return !!bValue });
  return resolve(a).then(function(aValue) {
    return !!aValue || second;
  }, function() {
    return second;

Note: We could not use promised function here, as they reject returned promise if any of the given arguments is rejected.

If you need to customize your promises even further you may pass resolve a second optional prototype argument that will have same effect as with defer.

Treat errors as promises

Now that we can create all kinds of eventual values, it's useful to have a way to create eventual errors. Module exports reject to do exactly that. It takes anything as an argument and returns a promise that is rejected with it.

const { reject } = require('sdk/core/promise');

var boom = reject(Error('boom!'));

future(function() {
  return Math.random() < 0.5 ? boom : value

As with the rest of the APIs a reject may be given a second optional prototype argument to customize resulting promise to your needs.

Document Tags and Contributors

 Contributors to this page: wbamberg, bucaran, maybe, sshagarwal
 Last updated by: wbamberg,