XUL Migration Guide

Add-ons using the techniques described in this document are considered a legacy technology in Firefox. Don't use these techniques to develop new add-ons. Use WebExtensions instead. If you maintain an add-on which uses the techniques described here, consider migrating it to use WebExtensions.

From Firefox 53 onwards, no new legacy add-ons will be accepted on addons.mozilla.org (AMO).

From Firefox 57 onwards, WebExtensions will be the only supported extension type, and Firefox will not load other types.

Even before Firefox 57, changes coming up in the Firefox platform will break many legacy extensions. These changes include multiprocess Firefox (e10s), sandboxing, and multiple content processes. Legacy extensions that are affected by these changes should migrate to WebExtensions if they can. See the "Compatibility Milestones" document for more.

A wiki page containing resources, migration paths, office hours, and more, is available to help developers transition to the new technologies.

This guide aims to help you migrate a XUL-based add-on to the SDK.

First we'll outline how to decide whether your add-on is a good candidate for migration via a comparison of the benefits and limitations of the SDK versus XUL development.

Next, we'll look at some of the main tasks involved in migrating:

Finally, we'll walk through a simple example.

Should You Migrate?

See this comparison of the benefits and limitations of SDK development and XUL development.

Whether you should migrate a particular add-on is largely a matter of how well the SDK's supported APIs meet its needs.

  • If your add-on can accomplish everything it needs using only the supported APIs, it's a good candidate for migration.

  • If your add-on needs a lot of help from third party packages, low-level APIs, or XPCOM, then the cost of migrating is high, and may not be worth it at this point.

  • If your add-on only needs a little help from those techniques, and can accomplish most of what it needs using the supported APIs, then it might still be worth migrating: we'll add more supported APIs in future releases to meet important use cases.

User Interface Components

XUL-based add-ons typically implement a user interface using a combination of two techniques: XUL overlays and XUL windows.

XUL Overlays

XUL overlays are used to modify existing windows such as the main browser window. In this way an extension can integrate its user interface into the browser: for example, adding menu items, buttons, and toolbars.

Because SDK-based extensions are restartless, they can't use XUL overlays. To add user interface components to the browser, there are a few different options. In order of complexity, the main options are:

XUL Windows

XUL windows are used to define completely new windows to host user interface elements specific to the add-on.

The SDK generally expects you to specify your user interface using HTML, not XUL. However, you can include a chrome.manifest file in your add-on and it will be included in the generated XPI.

  • my-addon
    • chrome
      • content
      • locale
      • skin
    • chrome.manifest
    • data
    • lib
    • package.json

There are limitations on what you can do in this manifest file: for example, you can't register overlays, resource: URIs, or components. However, you can register a chrome: URI, with a skin and locale, and this means you can include XUL windows in an SDK-based add-on.

You can keep the "chrome.manifest" file in your add-on's root directory and create a directory there called "chrome". In that directory you can keep your "content", "locale", and "skin" subdirectories:

This allows you to refer to objects in these directories from "chrome.manifest" using a relative path, like "chrome/content".

This is provided only as a migration aid, and it's still a good idea to port XUL windows to HTML.


Content Scripts

In a XUL-based add-on, code that uses XPCOM objects, code that manipulates the browser chrome, and code that interacts with web pages all runs in the same context. But the SDK makes a distinction between:

  • add-on scripts, which can use the SDK APIs, but are not able to interact with web pages
  • content scripts, which can access web pages, but do not have access to the SDK's APIs

Content scripts and add-on scripts communicate by sending each other JSON messages: in fact, the ability to communicate with the add-on scripts is the only extra privilege a content script is granted over a normal remote web page script.

A XUL-based add-on will need to be reorganized to respect this distinction.

The main reason for this design is security: it reduces the risk that a malicious web page will be able to access privileged APIs.

There's much more information on content scripts in the Working With Content Scripts guide.

Using the Supported APIs

The SDK provides a set of high level APIs providing some basic user interface components and functionality commonly required by add-ons. Because we expect to keep these APIs compatible as new versions of Firefox are released, we call them the "supported" APIs.

See the tutorials and the High-Level API reference. If the supported APIs do what you need, they're the best option: you get the benefits of compatibility across Firefox releases and of the SDK's security model.

APIs like ui and panel are very generic and with the right content can be used to replace many specific XUL elements. But there are some notable limitations in the SDK APIs and even a fairly simple UI may need some degree of redesign to work with them.

Some limitations are the result of intentional design choices. For example, action buttons appear by default in the main Firefox toolbar (although users may relocate them by toolbar customization) because it makes for a better user experience for add-ons to expose their interfaces in a consistent way. In such cases it's worth considering changing your user interface to align with the SDK APIs.

Some limitations only exist because we haven't yet implemented the relevant APIs: for example, there's currently no way to add items to the browser's main menus using the SDK's supported APIs.

Many add-ons will need to make some changes to their user interfaces if they are to use only the SDK's supported APIs, and add-ons which make drastic changes to the browser chrome will very probably need more than the SDK's supported APIs can offer.

Similarly, the supported APIs expose only a small fraction of the full range of XPCOM functionality.

Using Third Party Packages

The SDK is extensible by design: developers can create new modules filling gaps in the SDK, and package them for distribution and reuse. Add-on developers can install these packages and use the new modules.

If you can find a third party package that does what you want, this is a great way to use features not supported in the SDK without having to use the low-level APIs.

See the guide to adding Firefox menu items. Some useful third party packages are collected in the Jetpack Wiki.

Note, though, that by using third party packages you're likely to lose the security and compatibility benefits of using the SDK.

Using the Low-level APIs

In addition to the High-Level APIs, the SDK includes a number of Low-Level APIs some of which, such xhr and window/utils, expose powerful browser capabilities. But note that unlike the supported APIs, low-level APIs do not come with a compatibility guarantee, so we do not expect code using them will necessarily continue to work as new versions of Firefox are released.

In this section we'll use low-level modules how to:

  • modify the browser chrome using dynamic manipulation of the DOM
  • directly access the tabbrowser object

Modifying the Browser Chrome

This example uses the action button API, which is only available from Firefox 29 onwards.

The window/utils module gives you direct access to chrome windows, including the browser's chrome window. Here's a really simple example add-on that modifies the browser chrome using window/utils:

function removeForwardButton() {
  var window = require("sdk/window/utils").getMostRecentBrowserWindow();
  var forward = window.document.getElementById('forward-button');
  var parent = window.document.getElementById('urlbar-container');

  id: "remove-forward-button",
  label: "Remove Forward Button",
  icon: "./icon-16.png",
  onClick: removeForwardButton

There are more useful examples of this technique in the Jetpack Wiki's collection of third party modules.

Accessing tabbrowser

This example uses the action button API, which is only available from Firefox 29 onwards.

The tabs/utils module gives you direct access to the tabbrowser object and the XUL tab objects it contains. This simple example modifies the selected tab's CSS to enable the user to highlight the selected tab:

function highlightActiveTab() {
  var window = require("sdk/window/utils").getMostRecentBrowserWindow();
  var tab = require("sdk/tabs/utils").getActiveTab(window);
  if (tab.style.getPropertyValue('background-color')) {
  else {

  id: "highlight-active-tab",
  label: "Highlight Active Tab",
  icon: "./icon-16.png",
  onClick: highlightActiveTab

Security Implications

The SDK implements a security model in which an add-on only gets to access the APIs it explicitly imports via require(). This is useful, because it means that if a malicious web page is able to inject code into your add-on's context, it is only able to use the APIs you have imported. For example, if you have only imported the notifications module, then even if a malicious web page manages to inject code into your add-on, it can't use the SDK's file module to access the user's data.

But this means that the more powerful modules you require(), the greater is your exposure if your add-on is compromised. Low-level modules like xhr, tab-browser and window-utils are much more powerful than the modules in addon-kit, so your add-on needs correspondingly more rigorous security design and review.


This example uses the action button API, which is only available from Firefox 29 onwards.

Finally, if none of the above techniques work for you, you can use the require("chrome") statement to get direct access to the Components object, which you can then use to load and access any XPCOM object.

The following complete add-on uses nsIPromptService to display an alert dialog:

var {Cc, Ci} = require("chrome");

var promptSvc = Cc["@mozilla.org/embedcomp/prompt-service;1"].

  id: "xpcom-example",
  label: "Hello from XPCOM",
  icon: "./icon-16.png",
  onClick: function() {
    promptSvc.alert(null, "My Add-on", "Hello from XPCOM");

It's good practice to encapsulate code which uses XPCOM by packaging it in its own module. For example, we could package the alert feature implemented above using a script like:

var {Cc, Ci} = require("chrome");

var promptSvc = Cc["@mozilla.org/embedcomp/prompt-service;1"].

exports.alert = function(title, text) {
    promptSvc.alert(null, title, text);

If we save this as "alert.js" in our add-on's lib directory, we can rewrite main.js to use it as follows:

  id: "xpcom-example",
  label: "Hello from XPCOM",
  icon: "./icon-16.png",
  onClick: function() {
    require("./alert").alert("My Add-on", "Hello from XPCOM");

One of the benefits of this is that we can control which parts of the add-on are granted chrome privileges, making it easier to review and secure the code.

Security Implications

We saw above that using powerful low-level modules like tab-browser increases the damage that a malicious web page could do if it were able to inject code into your add-ons context. This applies with even greater force to require("chrome"), since this gives full access to the browser's capabilities.

Example: Porting the Library Detector

Porting the Library Detector walks through the process of porting a XUL-based add-on to the SDK. It's a very simple add-on and a good candidate for porting because there are suitable SDK APIs for all its features.

Even so, we have to change its user interface slightly if we are to use only the supported APIs.

Document Tags and Contributors

 Contributors to this page: wbamberg, evold
 Last updated by: wbamberg,