translateZ()

The translateZ() CSS function repositions an element along the z-axis in 3D space, i.e., closer to or farther away from the viewer. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

This transformation is defined by a <length> which specifies how far inward or outward the element or elements move.

In the above interactive examples, perspective: 550px; (to create a 3D space) and transform-style: preserve-3d; (so the children, the 6 sides of the cube, are also positioned in the 3D space), have been set on the cube.

Note: translateZ(tz) is equivalent to translate3d(0, 0, tz).

Syntax

translateZ(tz)

Values

tz
A <length> representing the z-component of the translating vector. A positive value moves the element towards the viewer, and a negative value farther away.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3
This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane. A translation is not a linear transformation in ℝ3 and can't be represented using a Cartesian-coordinate matrix. 10000100001t0001

Examples

In this example, two boxes are created. One is positioned normally on the page, without being translated at all. The second is altered by applying perspective to create a 3D space, then moved towards the user.

HTML

<div>Static</div>
<div class="moved">Moved</div>

CSS

div {
  position: relative;
  width: 60px;
  height: 60px;
  left: 100px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.moved {
  transform: perspective(500px) translateZ(200px);
  background-color: pink;
}

What really matters here is the class "moved"; let's take a look at what it does. First, the perspective() function positions the viewer relative to the plane that lies where z=0 (in essence, the surface of the screen). A value of 500px means the user is 500 pixels "in front of" the imagery located at z=0.

Then, the translateZ() function moves the element 200 pixels "outward" from the screen, toward the user. This has the effect of making the element appear larger when viewed on a 2D display, or closer when viewed using a VR headset or other 3D display device.

Note if the perspective() value is less than the translateZ() value, such as transform: perspective(200px) translateZ(300px); the transformed element will not be visible as it is further than the user's viewport. The smaller the difference between the perspective and translateZ values, the closer the user is to the element and the larger the translated element will seem.

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'transform' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Adds 3D transform functions to the CSS Transforms standard.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
<transform-function>Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 3.5
Notes
Full support 3.5
Notes
Notes Firefox 14 removed experimental support for skew(), but it was reintroduced in Firefox 15.
Notes Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix() and matrix3d() could be <length>s, in addition to the standard <number>.
IE Full support 9
Notes
Full support 9
Notes
Notes Internet Explorer 9 supports 2D but not 3D transforms. In version 9, mixing 2D and 3D transform functions invalidates the entire property.
Opera Full support 10.5Safari Full support 3.1WebView Android Full support 2Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 11Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0
3D supportChrome Full support 12Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 10IE Full support 10Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 4WebView Android Full support 3Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 10Opera Android Full support 14Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also